In organic chemistry the phenomenon of antiaromaticity has the same cause and also often sees molecules distorting; as in the ... Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-979-0.. *^ Frank, Patrick; Benfatto, Maurizio; Szilagyi, Robert K.; D'Angelo, ... Transition metal chemistry[edit]. The Jahn-Teller effect is responsible for the tetragonal distortion of the hexaaquacopper(II ... Coordination chemistry[edit]. The JTE is usually stronger where the electron density associated with the degenerate orbitals is ...
The same laws that govern non-living chemistry govern the chemical processes of life. It is generally the phenomena of entire ... especially the chemistry of large organic molecules. Organisms are complex systems of chemical compounds that, through ... Chemistry[edit]. Organisms are complex chemical systems, organized in ways that promote reproduction and some measure of ... The functioning of a cell depends upon its ability to extract and use chemical energy stored in organic molecules. This energy ...
In organic chemistry the phenomenon of antiaromaticity has the same cause and also often sees molecules distorting; as in the ... and is responsible for a variety of phenomena in spectroscopy, stereochemistry, crystal chemistry, molecular and solid-state ... The phenomenon is very common in six-coordinate copper(II) complexes. The d9 electronic configuration of this ion gives three ... Examples for these phenomena will be covered in Section . As already stated above, the distinction of low and high energy ...
His research focuses on solid state organic chemistry, photochemistry and spectroscopy, artificial molecular machines, and ... mesoscale phenomena. García-Garibay received his B.S. from the University of Michoacán, Mexico, in 1982. After completing a ... Miguel A. García-Garibay is a professor of chemistry and biochemistry and the dean of physical sciences at University of ... combined degree in Chemistry, Biology, and Pharmacy, García-Garibay went on to get a Ph.D. degree in Chemistry at the ...
... since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena (organic chemistry, for example). History of physics - ... Medicinal chemistry - discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and ... Environmental chemistry - Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur ... History of bioorganic chemistry - history of the rapidly growing scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and ...
... since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena (organic chemistry, for example). The four main ... Nuclear reactions Organic chemistry Organic compounds Organic reaction Functional groups Organic synthesis Inorganic chemistry ... History of bioorganic chemistry - history of the rapidly growing scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and ... History of medicinal chemistry - history of the discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic ...
... since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena (organic chemistry, for example). ... History of bioorganic chemistry - history of the rapidly growing scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and ... History of medicinal chemistry - history of the discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic ... "What is Chemistry?". Chemweb.ucc.ie. Retrieved 2011-06-12.. *^ a b Chemistry. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. ...
... he established a research school applying to phenomena in physics and organic chemistry new concepts of quantum mechanics and ... The school of chemistry/medicinal chemistry and physics at Keele university is named after him. Mott, N. F. (1955). "John ... 1932-53 John Humphrey Plummer Professor of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Cambridge. Founded the theoretical chemistry ... He may be regarded as the initiator of modern computational chemistry. Lennard-Jones was born on 27 October 1894 at Leigh, ...
These two phenomena were later used to determine the stereochemistries of chiral molecules in organic chemistry and in ... He also discovered the related phenomenon of circular dichroism, or unequal absorption of left and right circularly polarized ...
As an example, it was still taught as a useful analytic procedure in Cohen's Practical Organic Chemistry of 1910, in which the ... This phenomenon is applicable in preparing a freezing mixture to make ice cream. For this purpose, NaCl or another salt is used ... Cohen, Julius B. (1910). Practical Organic Chemistry. London: MacMillan and Co. "Freezing Point Depression of Milk". Dairy UK. ... Melting point determinations are commonly exploited in organic chemistry to aid in identifying substances and to ascertain ...
... converging efforts in organic synthesis and physico-chemistry in order to understand the thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena ... precision macromolecular chemistry. They are due to molecular organization phenomena which result from the association and the ... L. Tauk, A. Schröder, G., N. Giuseppone, Nature Chemistry (2009), vol.1, pp 649-656. D. Mertz, C. Vogt, J. Hemmerle, J. ... Research teams: Supramolecular chemistry and self-assemblies, membranes and microforces, fluorinated self-assemblies for ...
Wöhler is regarded as a pioneer in organic chemistry. Heinrich Wöhlk: Contact lenses in PMMA Theodor Wulf: Cosmic ray (together ... Walter H. Schottky: Played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the ... Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910. Hellmuth Walter: Engineer who pioneered research into rocket engines and gas turbines. August ... Karl Ziegler:He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963, with Giulio Natta, for work on polymers. Konrad Zuse: Inventor of the ...
... enzyme chemistry, organic and physical chemistry, but also to interpret all the fundamental biological phenomena from a dynamic ... Studies of the Enzymes of Purine Metabolism". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 167: 461-475. Singleton 2007b National Academy ... Determination of Adenine Compounds". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 167: 445-459. Kalckar, H.M.; Shafran, Manya (1947c). " ... Kalckar's breakthrough work was the demonstration that organic compounds, which were phosphorylated during metabolic processes ...
A molecular orbital analysis of this phenomenon suggest that this conformation provides the best overlap between the electrons ... Physical organic chemistry, a term coined by Louis Hammett in 1940, refers to a discipline of organic chemistry that focuses on ... It can be thought of as a subfield that bridges organic chemistry with physical chemistry. Physical organic chemists use both ... physical organic chemistry applies the experimental tools of physical chemistry to the study of the structure of organic ...
In acid-base chemistry, homoconjugation is an alternate name for the phenomenon of homoassociation. In organic chemistry, ... In chemistry, homoconjugation has two unrelated meanings: ...
IUPAC Commission on Physical Organic Chemistry (1994). "Glossary of Terms used in Physical Organic Chemistry." Pure Appl. Chem ... Other way of expressing the same phenomenon is to say that SbF5·FSO3H is a much stronger proton donor than H3O+. ... Hammett, Louis Plack (1940). Physical Organic Chemistry: Reaction Rates, Equilibria, and Mechanisms. McGraw-Hill Book Company, ... Cox, Robin A.; Yates, Keith (2011-02-05). "Acidity functions: an update". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. doi:10.1139/v83-388. ...
Organic Chemistry, 3rd ed., M. A. Fox & J. K. Whitesell, Jones & Bartlett, 2004 ISBN 0-7637-2197-2 A Guidebook to Mechanism in ... This was interpreted as a case in the field of anionotropy of the phenomenon, familiar in prototropy, of the distinction ... Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition, Peter Sykes, Pearson Prentice Hall, 1986. ISBN 0-582-44695-3 Introduction to Organic Chemistry ... 2000 ISBN 0-632-04417-9 Advanced Organic Chemistry Part A: Structure and Mechanisms, 5th ed., Francis A. Carey, Richard J. ...
Van 't Hoff earned his earliest reputation in the field of organic chemistry. In 1874, he accounted for the phenomenon of ... Van 't Hoff became a lecturer in chemistry and physics at the Veterinary College in Utrecht. He then worked as a professor of ... A highly influential theoretical chemist of his time, Van 't Hoff was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His ... He is also widely considered one of the founders of physical chemistry as the discipline is known today. The third of seven ...
Organic chemistry is often discussed in terms of localized molecular orbitals in a qualitative and informal sense. Historically ... To account for phenomena like aromaticity, this simple model of bonding is supplemented by semi-quantitative results from ... much of classical organic chemistry was built on the older valence bond / orbital hybridization models of bonding. ... Introduction to Computational Chemistry by Frank Jensen 1999, page 228 equation 9.27 Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Jansik, Branislav; ...
"Book Review of Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, 4th ed. Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, ... He was the world's first Professor of Sustainable Chemistry. His research group also works on applications for these phenomena ... Reichardt, Christian; Welton, Thomas (2011). Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry (4th, updated and enl. ed.). ... Welton has said that his interest in chemistry originated with his A-level chemistry class. As a child he wanted to fly for the ...
Research in the Department of Chemical Biology concentrates on the interface between organic chemistry and biology. By using ... researchers identify and develop new tools for the investigation of biologically relevant processes and phenomena. Rabinbach, ... Official site European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences Official site European Federation for Medicinal Chemistry ...
In organic chemistry, negative hyperconjugation is the donation of electron density from a filled π- or p-orbital to a ... This phenomenon, a type of resonance, can stabilize the molecule or transition state. It also causes an elongation of the σ- ... The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 73 (8): 2980-2994. doi:10.1021/jo7017476. PMID 18376875.. ... "Negative hyperconjugation of some fluorine containing groups - New Journal of Chemistry (RSC Publishing)". Pubs.rsc.org. ...
In the early 1960s the site researched colloid chemistry, surface active phenomena, rheology of dispersions, surface chemistry ... Organic chemists, physical chemists and physicists worked there. In the 1960s the site was run by Unilever Research. In 1964, ... View from above in July 1998 Blue plaque erected by the Royal Society of Chemistry The nearby Lever House Liverpool Echo ... In 1976, Dr Gordon Tiddy of Unilever studied lyotropic liquid crystals with the University of Leeds Chemistry department. In ...
... physical organic chemistry) Kirkendall effect (chemistry) (metallurgy) Klein-Nishina effect (quantum field theory) Knife-edge ... social phenomena) Bystander effect (radiobiology) (radiobiology) Cage effect (chemistry) Calendar effect (behavioral finance) ( ... inorganic chemistry) (organometallic chemistry) (quantum chemistry) January effect (behavioral finance) (economics and finance ... physical organic chemistry) Polar effect (genetics) (genetics) Portevin-Le Chatelier effect (engineering) (materials science) ...
Mathematical Concepts in Organic Chemistry, by I. Gutman, O. E. Polansky, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986. Chemical Applications ... The Principles of Mathematical Chemistry: The Energetics of Chemical Phenomena. translated by J. Livingston R. Morgan. New York ... 1] A review of the book by Ivan Gutman, Oskar E. Polansky, "Mathematical Concepts in Organic Chemistry" in SIAM Review Vol. 30 ... Georg Helm published a treatise titled "The Principles of Mathematical Chemistry: The Energetics of Chemical Phenomena" in 1894 ...
... which is a common phenomenon encountered in coordination chemistry. This reduces the symmetry of the molecule from Oh to D4h ... One can see that octahedral coordination allows much greater complexity than the tetrahedron that dominates organic chemistry. ... Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6. Chem, Chemistry, Structures, and 3D Molecules[ ... In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands ...
"Microwaves in Organic Synthesis". Organic Chemistry Portal. Retrieved 23 October 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... has not been explored intensively due to presence of metals in supported catalysts and possibility of arcing phenomena in the ... energy usage different reaction selectivities Microwave chemistry is applied to organic chemistry and to inorganic chemistry. A ... A review has proposed this definition and examples of microwave effects in organic chemistry have been summarized. Specific ...
The term is usually used to describe the degradation of organic compounds in air at ambient temperatures. Many common phenomena ... It is also an important concept in both industrial chemistry and biology. Autoxidation is therefore a fairly broad term and can ... This phenomenon has been known since antiquity and forms the basis of drying oils, which were traditionally used to make many ... Bolland, J. L.; Gee, Geoffrey (1946). "Kinetic studies in the chemistry of rubber and related materials. II. The kinetics of ...
In organic chemistry, Carnelley's rule, established in 1882 by Thomas Carnelley, states that high molecular symmetry is ... This phenomenon is used in technical applications to avoid freezing, for instance by adding salt or ethylene glycol to water. ... 2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1439855119. Melting and boiling point tables vol. ... Gilman, H.; Smith, C. L. (1967). "Tetrakis(trimethylsilyl)silane". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 8 (2): 245-253. doi: ...
for his novel and convincing work on prebiotic chemistry, in particular his solution to the central problem of nucleoside ... For his important contribution to the theory of organic evolution by his researches on variation and heredity. ... and extensive contributions in the field of invertebrate zoology and to our understanding of general biological phenomena. ...
Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical ... chemistry, physics, and engineering. The rise in technology has led to skyscrapers and broad urban areas whose inhabitants rely ... "the reorganization of the organic." Stiegler, Bernard (2008). L'avenir du passé: Modernité de l'archéologie. La Découverte. p. ...
Due to the older timeframe and the soil chemistry on the continent, very little subfossil preservation evidence exists relative ... the term has gained broader usage in conservation biology as a global phenomenon.[5][126] ... organic pollutants and mercury, and ecosystem disturbances of terrestrial and marine environments. Approximately 17,000 ...
"Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications with Student Access Kit for Mastering General Chemistry (1st ed.). Prentice ... For example, lithium iodide (Li I) will dissolve in organic solvents, a property of most covalent compounds.[72] Lithium ... and electron correlative contributing phenomena.[161] While analogous lithium bonds are also known, they are mostly ... Royal Society of Chemistry. "Visual Elements: Group 1 - The Alkali Metals". Visual Elements. Royal Society of Chemistry. ...
"Chemistry LibreTexts. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2020.. *^ Nave, Carl L. "Magnetic Properties of Solids". Hyper ... On a suggestion by William Whewell, Faraday first referred to the phenomenon as diamagnetic (the prefix dia- meaning through or ... Diamagnetic materials are those that some people generally think of as non-magnetic, and include water, wood, most organic ... A simple rule of thumb is used in chemistry to determine whether a particle (atom, ion, or molecule) is paramagnetic or ...
Gulisija D, Crow JF (May 2007). "Inferring purging from pedigree data". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. ... Ramel, C (1998). "Biodiversity and intraspecific genetic variation". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 70 (11): 2079-2084. CiteSeerX ... However, inbreeding depression is not a temporary phenomenon because this elimination of deleterious recessive alleles will ... International Journal of Organic Evolution. 59 (2): 317-23. doi:10.1554/04-128. PMID 15807418. S2CID 198156378.. ...
ed.). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 1-19. ISBN 9780854042319. .. *^ Parsons, Ian (October 2006). "International ... To this end, in their focus on the connection between atomic-scale phenomena and macroscopic properties, the mineral sciences ( ... of minerals in the origin of life and processes as mineral-catalyzed organic synthesis and the selective adsorption of organic ... Mineralogy[n 1] is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical ...
Marine chemistry. *Deep scattering layer. *Diel vertical migration. *Ecosystems *large marine. *marine) ...
The field of nanomaterials is loosely organized, like the traditional field of chemistry, into organic (carbon-based) ... When discovering new materials, one encounters new phenomena that may not have been observed before. Hence, there is a lot of ... This involves the study and use of quantum chemistry or quantum physics. Solid-state physics, solid-state chemistry and ... Eddy, Matthew Daniel (2008). The Language of Mineralogy: John Walker, Chemistry and the Edinburgh Medical School 1750-1800. ...
for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic ... "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[۸۳] ... for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of ترکیب‌های آلیفاتیک حلقویs" ... "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena ...
A platinum plate must stripped of any organics with a solvent or heated by a flame. The Wilhelmy plate is then mounted on the ... Ji, X., Wang, C., Xu, J., Zheng, J., Gattas-Asfura, K. M., & Leblanc, R. M. (2005). Surface chemistry studies of (cdse)zns ... Langmuir, I. (1920). The mechanism of the surface phenomena of flotation. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 15(June), 62-74. ... If an aqueous subphase is used, the water must be purified to remove organics and deionized to a resistivity not less than 1.8 ...
One group of scholars say that organic solvents introduce compounds that may affect the liver into the standardized product; ... "UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics: The narcotic pepper - The chemistry and pharmacology of Piper methysticum and related species". ... "on-off phenomenon" of motor fluctuations where there will be periods of oscillations between "on" where the patient experiences ... It is compositionally different from kava products prepared by extraction using organic solvents. While excessive consumption ...
These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic (carbon-based) matter ... electron and soon after the French scientist Becquerel as well as the couple Pierre and Marie Curie investigated the phenomenon ... flavor chemistry, flow chemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, history of chemistry, hydrogenation chemistry ... physical organic chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, radiochemistry, solid-state chemistry, sonochemistry, ...
In 1902, Marcellin P. Berthelot, often called the founder of modern organic chemistry, was one of France's most celebrated ... Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon ... He synthesized many organic compounds from inorganic substances and disproved the theory of vitalism.[29][30] ... She along with her husband, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1935.[173][174] ...
Changes in atmospheric chemistry. Cosmic rays ionize the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere, which leads to a ... detected the same phenomenon and investigated it in some detail. He concluded that high-energy primary cosmic-ray particles ... Organic compound. *Outer space. *PAH world hypothesis. *Panspermia. *Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ...
Lide, David (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85 ed.). CRC Press. pp. 15-25. ISBN 0-8493-0485-7.. ... Isaac Newton discovered this phenomenon and wrote about it in his book Opticks.[30] ... "Everything You Need to Know About Combustion Chemistry & Analysis - Industrial Controls".. *^ http://www.scienceofcooking.com/ ...
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 16 (8): 1263-1271. doi:10.1039/c7ob03017g. PMID 29308815.. ... This phenomenon is known as "multiplicity reactivation". Multiplicity reactivation has been reported to occur in influenza ... "Nature Chemistry. 7 (4): 301-7. Bibcode:2015NatCh...7..301P. doi:10.1038/nchem.2202. PMC 4568310. PMID 25803468.. CS1 maint: ... "Nature Chemistry. 7 (4): 301-7. Bibcode:2015NatCh...7..301P. doi:10.1038/nchem.2202. PMC 4568310. PMID 25803468.. ...
... is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', ... International Journal of Organic Evolution. 59 (6): 1165-74. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb01768.x. JSTOR 3448895. PMID ... key amino acids into precise geometries to form an active site to perform chemistry.[29] Since these active site networks ... International Journal of Organic Evolution. 60 (4): 643-59. doi:10.1554/05-019.1. PMID 16739448.. ...
... concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, ... Fullerene chemistry. *Medicinal chemistry. *Molecular biology. *Neurochemistry. *Physical organic chemistry. *Polymer chemistry ... "Food Chemistry" redirects here. For the journal, see Food Chemistry (journal).. Food chemistry is the study of chemical ... Physical Chemistry Of Foods. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, 873 pages *^ Physical Chemistry Of Food Processes: Fundamental ...
One of a class of organic pigments produced by algae and plants, as well as certain bacteria and fungi.. catalase. An enzyme ... The phenomenon occurs naturally but is also frequently mimicked in industry and engineering.. crista. A fold in the inner ... chemistry. A branch of the physical sciences that studies the composition, structure, properties, and change of matter. ... An organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.. urine. A liquid byproduct of metabolism in humans and in many animals.. ...
"Sb2S3-Based Mesoscopic Solar Cell using an Organic Hole Conductor". The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 1 (10): 1524. ... which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.[1] It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical ... Main articles: Organic solar cell and Polymer solar cell. Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films ... However, Konarka Power Plastic reached efficiency of 8.3%[93] and organic tandem cells in 2012 reached 11.1%.[citation needed] ...
In addition paleontology often uses techniques derived from other sciences, including biology, osteology, ecology, chemistry, ... However, when confronted with totally unexpected phenomena, such as the first evidence for invisible radiation, experimental ... and what they can tell us about the Earth's organic and inorganic past".[3] ... This means that it aims to describe phenomena of the past and reconstruct their causes.[5] Hence it has three main elements: ...
Royal Society of Chemistry. 138 (4): 1020. Bibcode:2013Ana...138.1020Y. doi:10.1039/c2an36116g.. ... The light incident on the surface can excite a variety of phenomena in the surface, yet the complexity of this situation can be ... "Mixture analysis and quantitative determination of nitrogen-containing organic molecules by surface-enhanced Raman ... Lombardi, J.R.; Birke, R.L. (2008). "A Unified Approach to Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy". Journal of Physical Chemistry ...
"Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 392 (3): 333-40. doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2313-4. PMC 2556401. PMID 18704376.. ... Heirloom tomatoes are becoming[when?] increasingly popular, particularly among home gardeners and organic producers[where?], ... For instance, linkage drag is a phenomenon that has been responsible for alterations in the metabolism of the tomato fruit. ...
Bibliophobia - fear or hatred of books, as a cultural phenomenon[16]. *Lipophobia - avoidance of fats in food[17][18][19] (see ... Biology, chemistry. Biologists use a number of -phobia/-phobic terms to describe predispositions by plants and animals against ... in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain ...
... of measuring the heritability of traits in the false expectation that somehow the genetic nature of psychological phenomena ... Organic chemistry. *Paleontology. *Parasitology. *Pathology. *Pharmacology. *Phycology. *Physiology. *Psychology. *Quantum ...
It has been proposed, in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, that evaporation rates from forested areas may exceed ...
Bronn did not propose a mechanism responsible for such phenomena, precursor concept.[19] ... Timeline of biology and organic chemistry. *. Evolutionary biology portal. Authority control General. *Integrated Authority ...
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Françoise Brochard-Wyart, David Quéré, Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, ... Wenzel, Robert N. (1936-08-01). "RESISTANCE OF SOLID SURFACES TO WETTING BY WATER". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 28 (8 ... Control of the wetting contact angle can often be achieved through the deposition or incorporation of various organic and ... However, in practice a dynamic phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis is often observed, ranging from the advancing (maximal) ...
Humphry Davy (1808), The Bakerian Lecture on some new phenomena of chemical changes produced by electricity, particularly the ... Potassium Hydride in Paraffin: A Useful Base for Organic Synthesis Douglass F. Taber and Christopher G. Nelson J. Org. Chem.; ... In The Development of Chemistry, 1789-1914: Selected essays, edited by D. Knight, pp. 17-47. ... Robert E. Gawley, Xiaojie Zhang, Qunzhao Wang, "Potassium Hydride" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2007 John ...