... (INN, also known as mithramycin; trade name Mithracin) is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces plicatus. It is an RNA synthesis inhibitor. The manufacturer discontinued production in 2000. Several different structures are currently reported in different places all with the same chromomycin core, but with different stereochemistry in the glycoside chain, a 1999 study has re-investigated the compound and proposed a revised structure. Plicamycin has been used in the treatment of testicular cancer, Paget's disease of bone, and, rarely, the management of hypercalcemia. Plicamycin has been tested in chronic myeloid leukemia. Plicamycin is currently used in multiple areas of research, including cancer cell apoptosis and as a metastasis inhibitor. One elucidated pathway shows it interacts by cross-binding chromatin GC-rich promoter motifs, thereby inhibiting gene transcription. "Mithramycin A". Fermentek. Wohlert, S. E.; Künzel, E.; Machinek, R.; Méndez, C.; Salas, J. A.; ...
The grant and enforcement of patents are governed by national laws, and also by international treaties, where those treaties have been given effect in national laws. Patents are granted by national or regional patent offices.[29] A given patent is therefore only useful for protecting an invention in the country in which that patent is granted. In other words, patent law is territorial in nature. When a patent application is published, the invention disclosed in the application becomes prior art and enters the public domain (if not protected by other patents) in countries where a patent applicant does not seek protection, the application thus generally becoming prior art against anyone (including the applicant) who might seek patent protection for the invention in those countries. Commonly, a nation or a group of nations forms a patent office with responsibility for operating that nation's patent system, within the relevant patent laws. The patent office generally has responsibility for the grant ...
Coordinates: 35°40′15.56″N 139°44′45.15″E / 35.6709889°N 139.7458750°E / 35.6709889; 139.7458750 The Japan Patent Office (特許庁, Tokkyochō, JPO) is a Japanese governmental agency in charge of industrial property right affairs, under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The Japan Patent Office is located in Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo and is one of the world's largest patent offices. The Japan Patent Office's mission is to promote the growth of the Japanese economy and industry by administering the laws relating to patents, utility models, designs, and trademarks. (Copyright affairs are administered by the Agency for Cultural Affairs.) The Japan Patent Office is headed by a commissioner and consists of seven departments: General Affairs Department Trademark, Design, and Administrative Affairs Department, in charge of examining trademark right applications, design right applications and formalities check of all applications including patent applications First ...
Patent examiners make up the bulk of the employees at USPTO. They are generally newly graduated scientists and engineers, recruited from various universities around the nation.[citation needed] They hold degrees in various scientific disciplines, but who do not necessarily hold law degrees. Unlike patent examiners, trademark examiners must be licensed attorneys.[citation needed] All examiners work under a strict, "count"-based production system.[18] For every application, "counts" are earned by composing, filing, and mailing a first office action on the merits, and upon disposal of an application. The Commissioner for Patents oversees three main bodies, headed by former Deputy Commissioner for Patent Operations, currently[19] Peggy Focarino, the Deputy Commissioner for Patent Examination Policy, currently[when?] Andrew Hirshfeld as Acting Deputy, and finally the Commissioner for Patent Resources and Planning, which is currently[when?] vacant.[20] The Patent Operations of the office is divided ...
Singulair was covered by U.S. Patent No. 5,565,473[17] which expired on August 3, 2012.[18] The same day, the FDA approved several generic versions of montelukast.[19] The United States Patent and Trademark Office launched a reexamination of the patent covering Singulair on May 28, 2009. The decision was driven by the discovery of references that were not included in the original patent application process. The references were submitted through Article One Partners, an online research community focused on finding literature relating to existing patents. The references included a scientific article produced by a Merck employee on the active ingredient in Singulair. A previously filed patent had been submitted in the same technology area.[20] Seven months later the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office determined that the patent in question was valid based on the initial reexamination and new information provided, submitting their decision on December 17, 2009.[21] ...
UGG is a registered trademark in the US, Europe and many other countries. There have been various disputes within Australia, Europe, and the United States about the validity of Ugh/Ugg trademark. Deckers trades as Ugg Holdings, Inc. in Australia,[17] where it is known for a trademark dispute over the use of the widely used term "ugg boots"(sometimes called uggs).[18] In 1971, Australian surfer Shane Steadman began selling ugg boots and registered the name Ugh-boots as a trademark in Australia.[19] In 1979 Brian Smith, another Australian surfer, brought several pairs of Australian-made sheepskin boots to the US and began selling them in New York and California.[20] He set up Ugg Holdings Inc. and in 1985 registered a US trademark on a rams head logo with the words "Original UGG Boot UGG Australia. He later acquired the Australian mark from Steadman. In 1995, he sold his interest to Deckers Outdoor Corporation.[19] In 1996 Deckers registered a trademark for "UGG" in the US. In 1999, Deckers began ...
The following is a list and timeline of innovations as well as inventions and discoveries that involved British people or the United Kingdom including predecessor states in the history of the formation of the United Kingdom. This list covers innovation and invention in the mechanical, electronic, and industrial fields, as well as medicine, military devices and theory, artistic and scientific discovery and innovation, and ideas in religion and ethics. The scientific revolution in 17th century Europe stimulated innovation and discovery in Britain.[1] Experimentation was considered central to innovation by groups such as the Royal Society, which was founded in 1660. The English patent system evolved from its medieval origins into a system that recognised intellectual property; this encouraged invention and spurred on the Industrial Revolution from the late 18th century.[2] During the 19th century, innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory ...
... (also known as fuckingmachines.com and fuckingmachines) is a pornographic website founded in 2000 that features video and photographs of women engaged in autoerotic sexual stimulation with penetrative sex-machines and sex toys. Based in San Francisco, California, the site is operated by Kink.com. Web entrepreneur Peter Acworth launched Fucking Machines on September 25, 2000, as his company's second website after Kink.com. Devices shown on the site were created with the intent to bring women authentic orgasms. Performers were instructed to allow themselves to be recorded experiencing pleasure. After the site applied in 2005 to trademark the phrase "fuckingmachines", the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) denied the application and ruled that the mark was obscene. Free speech lawyer Marc Randazza represented the site and appealed the decision. Orlando Weekly called his legal brief "one of the most entertaining legal documents you're likely to come across." The ...
Kankanala started his writing career with his first book on Genetic Patent Law and Strategy, and later wrote Indian Patent Law and Practice, published by the Oxford University Press.[3] Subsequently, he ventured into legal fiction. His first fiction novel, Road Humps and Sidewalks,[4] was a legal thriller about pharmaceutical drugs, patents and healthcare, all highly debated topics in the Indian context. Kalyan's second legal thriller, Pirates of Bollywood, premised on film production, piracy and organized crime, released on January 1, 2015. He releases audio versions of his literary works for the benefit of the visually challenged.[5] Kankanala is currently the Senior Partner, Chief IP Attorney of an intellectual property firm that he founded,[6] BananaIP Counsels,[7][8] Headquartered in Bangalore, India. He consults for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO),[9] and also teaches IP courses at the National Law School of India University, Bangalore, as well as the Indian ...
A naming firm is a type of marketing service that specializes in the linguistic art and science of product and company onomastics.[1][2][3] Naming firms develop brand names and product names that are typically categorized as evocative, descriptive, invented or experiential.[4] They often suggest taglines or positioning statements, and might also consult on logo design and corporate identity.[5] Some agencies also include market research and consumer focus group testing.[6][7][8] Most naming professionals provide trademark services as part of their process, vetting names through a global trademark screening.[9] Legal counsel is generally secured for trademark registration and application activities.[2][10] ...
... is a modern dance movement style and pedagogy created by American dancer and choreographer Martha Graham (1894-1991). Graham technique has been called the "cornerstone" of American modern dance, and has been taught worldwide. It is widely regarded as the first codified modern dance technique, and strongly influenced the later techniques of Merce Cunningham, Lester Horton, and Paul Taylor. Graham technique is based on the opposition between contraction and release, a concept based on the breathing cycle which has become a "trademark" of modern dance forms. Its other dominant principle is the "spiraling" of the torso around the axis of the spine. Graham technique is known for its unique dramatic and expressive qualities and distinctive floorwork; dance critic Anna Kisselgoff described it as "powerful, dynamic, jagged and filled with tension." The phrase "Graham technique" was registered as a trademark before Graham's death, and was the subject of a trademark dispute in the early ...
Work on NiMH batteries began at the Battelle-Geneva Research Center following the technology's invention in 1967. It was based on sintered Ti2Ni+TiNi+x alloys and NiOOH electrodes.[clarification needed] Development was sponsored over nearly two decades by Daimler-Benz and by Volkswagen AG within Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, now a subsidiary of Daimler AG. The batteries' specific energy reached 50 W·h/kg (180 kJ/kg), power density up to 1000 W/kg and a life of 500 charge cycles (at 100% depth of discharge). Patent applications were filed in European countries (priority: Switzerland), the United States, and Japan. The patents transferred to Daimler-Benz.[6]. Interest grew in the 1970s with the commercialisation of the nickel-hydrogen battery for satellite applications. Hydride technology promised an alternative, less bulky way to store the hydrogen. Research carried out by Philips Laboratories and France's CNRS developed new high-energy hybrid alloys incorporating rare-earth metals for the ...
Work on NiMH batteries began at the Battelle-Geneva Research Center following the technology's invention in 1967. It was based on sintered Ti2Ni+TiNi+x alloys and NiOOH electrodes.[clarification needed] Development was sponsored over nearly two decades by Daimler-Benz and by Volkswagen AG within Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, now a subsidiary of Daimler AG. The batteries' specific energy reached 50 W·h/kg (180 kJ/kg), power density up to 1000 W/kg and a life of 500 charge cycles (at 100% depth of discharge). Patent applications were filed in European countries (priority: Switzerland), the United States, and Japan. The patents transferred to Daimler-Benz.[5] Interest grew in the 1970s with the commercialisation of the nickel-hydrogen battery for satellite applications. Hydride technology promised an alternative, less bulky way to store the hydrogen. Research carried out by Philips Laboratories and France's CNRS developed new high-energy hybrid alloys incorporating rare-earth metals for the ...