###### **Number** **needed** to **treat**

The signs of the

**numbers****needed**to**treat**and the**numbers****needed**to hurt are reversed: NNT is 3.33 and NNH is −10.)**Number**... Hutton JL (2010). "Misleading Statistics: The Problems Surrounding**Number****Needed**to**Treat**and**Number****Needed**to Harm". Pharm Med ... The NNT is the average**number**of patients who**need**to be**treated**to prevent one additional bad outcome (e.g. the**number**of ... "**Number****Needed**to**Treat**". Bandolier. Retrieved 2017-04-21. Nuovo, J.; Melnikow J.; Chang D. (2002-06-05). "Reporting**number**...###### Absolute risk reduction

Natural

**numbers**, which are used in the**number****needed**to**treat**approach, are easily understood by non-experts. Absolute measures ... It is the inverse of the**number****needed**to**treat**. In general, absolute risk reduction is the difference between one treatment ...**Number****needed**to harm "An overview of measurements in epidemiology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-23. ... The rate of colon cancer for a five-year treatment with the drug is therefore 1/6,000, as by**treating**6,000 people with the ...###### Relative risk reduction

... absolute risk reduction and

**number****needed**to**treat**". CMAJ. 171 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1021197. PMC 509050 . PMID 15313996 ... although the signs may**need**to be adjusted, depending upon how the data was collected.) Barratt A, Wyer P, Hatala R, McGinn T, ...###### Light therapy

Newman TB, Kuzniewicz MW, Liljestrand P, Wi S, McCulloch C, Escobar GJ (May 2009). "

**Numbers****needed**to**treat**with phototherapy ... He developed the first artificial light source for this purpose.[citation**needed**] Finsen used short wavelength light to**treat**... medical citation**needed**] Light therapy which strikes the retina of the eyes is used to**treat**diabetic retinopathy and also ... citation**needed**] skin treatments,[which?] and accelerated wound healing.[citation**needed**] Blood irradiation therapy Free- ...###### **Number** **needed** to harm

Glossary of Terms Hutton JL (2010). "Misleading Statistics: The Problems Surrounding

**Number****Needed**to**Treat**and**Number****Needed**... NNH is similar to**Number****needed**to**treat**(NNT), where NNT usually refers to a therapeutic intervention and NNH to a detrimental ... The**number****needed**to harm (NNH) is an epidemiological measure that indicates how many patients on average**need**to be exposed to ... year In the context of the example the**number****needed**to harm can be introduced as the estimate of the**number**of patients**needed**...###### David Sackett

The

**number****needed**to**treat**: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ. 1995 February 18;310(6977):452-4. PMID ...###### Effect Model law

The

**Number****Needed**to**Treat**(NNT) is often used to benchmark medicines. The drug with the lowest NNT is said to be more ... Cook, R. J.; Sackett, D. L. The**number****needed**to**treat**: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ British Medical ... Kassai, B.; Gueyffier, F.; Boissel, J. P.; Boutitie, F.; Cucherat, M. Absolute benefit,**number****needed**to**treat**and gain in life ... Kristiansen, I. S.; Gyrd-Hansen, D. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on the**number**-**needed**-to-**treat**: common sense or non-sense ...###### Human leg

A

**Numbers**-**Needed**-to-**Treat**and Cost-Benefit Analysis". Journal of Athletic Training. 39 (1): 95-100. PMC 385268 . "Easing the ... There are a**number**of exercises that can be done to strengthen the lower leg. For example, in order to activate plantar flexors ... The lower leg and ankle**need**to keep exercised and moving well as they are the base of the whole body. The lower extremities ... To relieve heel pain, simple therapies may be all you**need**". Harvard Women's Health Watch. 14 (12): 4-5. 2007. PMID 17722355. ...###### Postherpetic neuralgia

**number**

**needed**to

**treat**=11). Due to the

**need**for topical anesthesia before application of the high-dose capsaicin patch, ...

**number**

**needed**to

**treat**(NNT)=2). Low-dose capsaicin may be useful for reducing PHN-associated pain but is limited by side ...

**number**

**needed**to

**treat**=3.3). A single topical application of a high-dose capsaicin patch over the affected area after numbing ...

**number**

**needed**to harm=16). The anticonvulsant medications pregabalin and gabapentin also effectively relieve postherpetic ...

###### Cervical screening

3.8 patients must be

**treated**for one to benefit (**number****needed**to**treat**= 3.8). Click here to adjust these results for patients ... HPV testing appears as sensitive as immediate colposcopy while reducing the**number**of colposcopies**needed**. randomized ... There are a**number**of different types of screening method available. In the USA, cervical screening is usually performed using ... This helps ensure that follow-up care can be provided on the spot and reduces the**number**of women who may miss out on treatment ...###### Preotact

For patients who were already fractured, the

**number****needed**to**treat**(NNT) was 21. In the same study mentioned above, Preotact ... To prevent one or more new vertebral fractures, 48 women had to be**treated**for a median of 18 months for the total population. ... Following treatment with Preotact, patients can be**treated**with a bisphosphonate to further increase bone mineral densisty ...###### **Number** **needed** to vaccinate

**Number**

**needed**to

**treat**Kelly H, Attia J, Andrews R, Heller RF (June 2004). "The

**number**

**needed**to vaccinate (NNV) and population ... It is a specific application of the

**number**

**needed**to

**treat**metric (NNT) that incorporates the implications of herd immunity. ...

**Number**

**needed**to vaccinate (NNV) is a metric used in the evaluation of vaccines, and in the determination of vaccination policy ... For example, one study reported a

**number**

**needed**to vaccinate of 5206 for invasive pneumococcal disease. In order to determine a ...

###### Evidence-based pharmacy in developing countries

Application of NNTs (

**numbers****needed**to**treat**) to the underpinning evidence should further strengthen the lists. At present, ... The model list is perceived by the WHO to be an indication of a common core of medicines to cover most common**needs**. There is a ... Often, poor patients**need**help from pharmacists to understand which are the most important medicines and to identify the items ... In addition, a**number**of guiding principles for essential drug programs have emerged. The initial essential drugs list should ...###### Varicocele

... this has a

**number****needed**to**treat**of 7 for varicocelectomy and 17 for embolization. There are also studies showing that the ... A 2012 Cochrane review found tentative but unclear evidence of improved fertility among males**treated**for varicocele. Around 15 ...###### Belimumab

Based on the

**number****needed**to**treat**, approximately eleven patients must be**treated**for one to benefit. It was not tested in ... A greater**number**of serious infections and deaths were reported in patients**treated**with belimumab than in those**treated**with ... Belimumab reduces the**number**of circulating B cells, but anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies reduce the**number**even more. It is ... Benlysta was the first new drug to**treat**lupus after 56 years. Sales rose to $31.2 million in the first quarter of 2012. It is ...###### Clonazepam

2006). "Comparison of various treatments for sleep bruxism using determinants of

**number****needed**to**treat**and effect size". Int J ... citation**needed**] Clonazepam is also effective in the management of acute mania. Restless legs syndrome can be**treated**using ... The study examined the**number**of times the non-medical use of certain drugs was implicated in an ED visit. The criteria for non ... Many individuals**treated**on a long-term basis develop a dependence. Physiological dependence was demonstrated by flumazenil- ...###### Population Impact Measures

Note:

**Number****Needed**to**Treat**(NNT): 1/(Baseline risk x Relative Risk Reduction)] The formula is: PIN-ER-t = N*Ip*PAR Where: N ... called the**Number****needed**to**treat**. Population Impact Measures are an extension of these statistics, as they are measures of ... NEPP extends the well-known measure**Number****needed**to**treat**(NNT) beyond the individual patient to the population. To describe ... Heller, R. F; Dobson, AJ (2000). "Disease impact**number**and population impact**number**: population perspectives to measures of ...###### Experimental event rate

... relative risk reduction and

**number****needed**to**treat**. The control event rate (CER) is identical to the experimental event rate ... Absolute risk reduction Relative risk reduction**Number****needed**to**treat**http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/booth/glossary/ ... in comparison to patients in placebo or traditionally**treated**control groups. Three statistical terms rely on EER for their ...###### Percentage point

... also known as the

**number****needed**to**treat**(NNT). In this case, the reciprocal transform of the percentage-point difference would ... be 1/(20%) = 1/0.20 = 5. Thus if 5 patients are**treated**with the drug, one could expect to heal one more case of the disease ...###### Selegiline

...

**number****needed**to**treat**,**number****needed**to harm, and likelihood to be helped or harmed". J Affect Disord. 151 (2): 409-17. doi: ... the**number****needed**to**treat**(a sign of effect size, so a low**number**is better) for the patch for symptom reduction was 11, and ... The**number****needed**to harm (inverse of the NNT, a high**number**here is better) ranged from 387 for sexual side effects to 7 for ... In its pill form, selegiline is used to**treat**symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It can be used on its own or in a combination ...###### Health in North Korea

Soil-transmitted helminthiases: estimates of the

**number**of children**needing**preventive chemotherapy and**number****treated**, 2009. ... The**number**of doctors remains high, though there is a shortage of nurses, meaning that doctors often have to perform routine ... Beginning in the 1950s, the DPRK put great emphasis on healthcare, and between 1955 and 1986, the**number**of hospitals grew from ... These food shortages cause a**number**of malnutrition diseases. For example, a 2009 UNICEF report found that North Korea was "one ...###### Anton Chekhov

It is not only the immense

**number**of stories he wrote-for few, if any, writers have ever done more-it is the awesome frequency ... we**need**a very daring and alert sense of literature to make us hear the tune, and in particular those last notes which complete ... which he considered his principal profession though he made little money from it and**treated**the poor free of charge. In 1884 ...