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*  Oligonucleotide synthesis
... synthesis and thermal stability of heteroduplexes". Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (11): 4831-4839. doi:10.1093/nar/16.11.4831. Dagle, J ... Nucleic acids Nucleic acid analogues Peptide nucleic acid Bridged Nucleic Acids Beaucage, S. L.; Iyer, R. P. (1992). "Advances ... The DMT group is removed with a solution of an acid, such as 2% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or 3% dichloroacetic acid (DCA), in ... Nucleic Acid Chem. 46 (16): 4.1.1-4.1.22. doi:10.1002/0471142700.nc0401s46. Pease A. C.; Solas D.; Sullivan E. J.; Cronin M. T ...
*  Heteroduplex
Another is the heteroduplexes formed when non-natural analogs of nucleic acids are used to bind with nucleic acids; these ... A heteroduplex is a double-stranded (duplex) molecule of nucleic acid originated through the genetic recombination of single ... heteroduplexes result from performing antisense techniques using single-stranded peptide nucleic acid, 2'-O-methyl ... Heteroduplex DNA is also a source of small RNAs (smRNAs), causing post-transcriptional gene silencing.. ...
*  MRNA display
2006). "In vitro evolution of single-chain antibodies using mRNA display". Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (19): e127. doi:10.1093/ ... After translation, the single-stranded mRNA portions of the fusions will be converted to heteroduplex of RNA/DNA by reverse ... It has been shown that some unnatural amino acids, such as N-methyl-amino acid accylated tRNA can be incorporated into peptides ... Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (18): e83. doi:10.1093/nar/28.18.e83. Mattheakis LC, Bhatt RR, Dower WJ (1994). "An in vitro ...
*  MSH3
2002). "hMutSalpha forms an ATP-dependent complex with hMutLalpha and hMutLbeta on DNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (3): 711-8. doi: ... 1996). "Mutation of MSH3 in endometrial cancer and evidence for its functional role in heteroduplex repair". Nat. Genet. 14 (1 ... Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (11): 2143-9. doi:10.1093/nar/22.11.2143. PMC 308133 . PMID 8029024. Risinger JI, Umar A, Boyd J, et al ... Nucleic Acids Res. 28 (13): 2577-84. doi:10.1093/nar/28.13.2577. PMC 102707 . PMID 10871409. Orimo H, Nakajima E, Yamamoto M, ...
*  MicroRNA and microRNA target database
Zhang Z, Yu J, Li D, Zhang Z, Liu F, Zhou X, Wang T, Ling Y, Su Z (2010). "PMRD: plant microRNA database". Nucleic Acids Res. ... "A pattern-based method for the identification of MicroRNA binding sites and their corresponding heteroduplexes". Cell. 126 (6 ... Betel D, Wilson M, Gabow A, Marks DS, Sander C (2007). "The microRNA.org resource: targets and expression". Nucleic Acids Res. ... Griffiths-Jones S, Saini HK, van Dongen S, Enright AJ (2008). "miRBase: tools for microRNA genomics". Nucleic Acids Res. 36: ...
*  Papillomaviridae
Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (11): 2889. doi:10.1093/nar/20.11.2889. PMC 336941 . PMID 1319576. Varsani A1, Kraberger S, Jennings S, ... "Sequence homologies between bovine papillomavirus genomes mapped by a novel low-stringency heteroduplex method". Virology. 143 ... E6 is a 151 amino-acid peptide that incorporates a type 1 motif with a consensus sequence -(T/S)-(X)-(V/I)-COOH. It also has ... Compared to other papillomavirus genes, the amino acid sequences of most portions of L1 are well-conserved between types. ...
*  Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis
To separate nucleic acids by TGGE, the following steps must be performed: preparing and pouring the gels, electrophoresis, ... are difficult to establish and often do not completely resolve heteroduplexes" (Westburg, 2001). These problems are addressed ... TGGE and DGGE can be applied to nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA, and (less commonly) proteins. TGGE relies on temperature ... Similar looking patterns are produced by proteins and nucleic acids, but the fundamental principles are quite different. TGGE ...
*  List of RNA structure prediction software
"Sfold web server for statistical folding and rational design of nucleic acids". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (Web Server issue): W135- ... "A pattern-based method for the identification of MicroRNA binding sites and their corresponding heteroduplexes". Cell. 126 (6 ... software to identify motifs and short-range interactions in trajectories of nucleic acids". Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (17): ... Wilm A, Higgins DG, Notredame C (May 2008). "R-Coffee: a method for multiple alignment of non-coding RNA". Nucleic Acids Res. ...
*  Gene silencing
Oligonucleotides, which are short nucleic acid fragments, bind to complementary target mRNA molecules when added to the cell. ... in which RNase H hydrolyzes the RNA strand of the DNA/RNA heteroduplex. This mechanism is thought to be more efficient, ...
*  Antithrombin
Lane DA, Olds RJ, Thein SL (1994). "Antithrombin III: summary of first database update". Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (17): 3556-3559 ... identified by DNA heteroduplex detection". Genomics. 16 (1): 298-299. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1184. PMID 8486379. Olds RJ, Lane ... which is one amino acid longer than human antithrombin. The extra amino acid is thought to occur at amino acid position 6. Cow ... These occur at asparagine (Asn) amino acid numbers 96, 135, 155, and 192 in humans and at similar amino acid numbers in other ...
*  No-SCAR (Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering) Genome Editing
The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)". Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 2503-2516. doi:10.1093/nar/17.7.2503. PMC 317639 ... "Single-stranded heteroduplex intermediates in lambda Red homologous recombination". BMC Molecular Biology. 11: 54. doi:10.1186/ ... Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (22): e204. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1075. ISSN 1362-4962. PMC 3905872 . PMID 24203710. Sharan, Shyam K.; ... Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (Database issue): D605-612. doi:10.1093/nar/gks1027. ISSN 1362-4962. PMC 3531154 . PMID 23143106. ...
*  PMS1
... hMLH1 interacts with 36 homologous amino acid residues within hMLH3, hPMS1 and hPMS2". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (8): 1695-702. doi ... "Identification of mismatch repair protein complexes in HeLa nuclear extracts and their interaction with heteroduplex DNA". J. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (12): 3217-26. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg420. PMC 162253 . PMID 12799449. Luo Y, Lin FT, Lin WC (2004). "ATM- ... Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (3): 711-8. doi:10.1093/nar/30.3.711. PMC 100294 . PMID 11809883. Kotoula V, Hytiroglou P, Kaloutsi V, ...
*  Morpholino
Oligonucleotide synthesis Nucleic acid analogue Summerton, J (1999). "Morpholino Antisense Oligomers: The Case for an RNase-H ... used a Morpholino-DNA heteroduplex and an ethoxylated polyethylenimine delivery reagent), electroporation, or scrape loading. ... Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-24662-6. ... Usually 25 bases in length, they bind to complementary sequences of RNA or single-stranded DNA by standard nucleic acid base- ...
*  Holliday junction
Coaxial stacking is the tendency of nucleic acid blunt ends to bind to each other, by interactions between the exposed bases. ... This causes the Holliday junction to migrate, creating the heteroduplex segments. Depending on which strand was used as a ... A Holliday junction is a branched nucleic acid structure that contains four double-stranded arms joined together. These arms ... In the 1990s, crystallography and nucleic acid NMR methods became available, as well as computational molecular modelling tools ...
*  AP endonuclease
Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (9): 2508-15. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl259. PMC 1459411 . PMID 16687656. George W. Teebor; Dina R. Marensein; ... terminus or a single nucleotide gap containing heteroduplex DNA. The APE2 3'-phosphodiesterase activity can remove modified 3'- ... Nucleic Acids Research. 18 (17): 5069. doi:10.1093/nar/18.17.5069. PMID 1698278. Gary M. Myles; Aziz Sancar (1989). "DNA Repair ... APE1 contains several amino acid residues that enable it to react selectively with AP sites. Three APE1 residues (Arg73, Ala74 ...
*  MicroRNA sequencing
Kozomara, A.; Griffiths-Jones, S. (2010). "miRBase: integrating microRNA annotation and deep-sequencing data". Nucleic Acids ... "A pattern-based method for the identification of MicroRNA binding sites and their corresponding heteroduplexes". Cell. 126 (6 ... are a family of small ribonucleic acids, 21-25 nucleotides in length, that modulate protein expression through transcript ...
*  B. J. Rao
Nucleic Acids Research2016 Jun 30. pii: gkw573. Himanshu Singh, Manish R Shukla, Basuthkar J Rao, Kandala V R Chary, Regulation ... J. Rao, ATP-hydrolysis induces expansion of MutS contacts on heteroduplex via a mechanism that may not require DNA spooling: a ... of starch, lipids and amino acids upon nitrogen sensing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a 13C NMR study, Algal Research 18, 33-44 ...
*  Surveyor nuclease assay
Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (20): 4597-4602. doi:10.1093/nar/26.20.4597. PMC 147896 . PMID 9753726. Kulinski, J.; Besack, D.; ... It can detect a ratio of 1:32 heteroduplex to homoduplex for smaller PCR products (~0.6 bp), and 1:16 heteroduplex to ... The detection of cleaved products indicates the presence of a heteroduplex formed by a mismatch. The location of the mutation/ ... In this case, the Surveyor nuclease assay will actually use this effect to create the required heteroduplexes for detection by ...
*  SNP genotyping
The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)". Nucleic Acids Research 17 (7): 2503-2516. doi:10.1093/nar/17.7.2503. PMC ... The mismatched heteroduplexes will have a different melting temperature than the homoduplexes and will not be retained in the ... If the target DNA contains a different SNP allele than the normal DNA fragment, heteroduplexes of the target DNA and normal DNA ... Heterozygotes are even easier to differentiate because they have heteroduplexes generated (refer to the gel-based explanations ...
*  Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
... phosphoester bond with the next nucleic acid, blocks further extension of the DNA by RT, and they act as chain terminators. In ... The other role of the RT is its ribonuclease H activity that degrades RNA only when it is in a heteroduplex with DNA. HIV-1 RT ... The smaller subunit, called p51, is 440 amino acid long and it is considered to stabilize the heterodimer but also it may take ... The larger subunit, p66, is 560 amino acid long and it exhibits all the enzymatic activities of the RT. ...
*  Transcription activator-like effector nuclease
Nucleic Acids. 1 (3): e3. doi:10.1038/mtna.2011.5. PMC 3381595 . PMID 23344620. Ramalingam S, Annaluru N, Kandavelou K, ... A simple heteroduplex cleavage assay can be run which detects any difference between two alleles amplified by PCR. Cleavage ... The DNA binding domain contains a repeated highly conserved 33-34 amino acid sequence with divergent 12th and 13th amino acids ... Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (12): e82. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr218. PMC 3130291 . PMID 21493687. Miller JC, Tan S, Qiao G, Barlow KA ...
*  MSH6
Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (13): 2577-84. doi:10.1093/nar/28.13.2577. PMC 102707 . PMID 10871409. Christmann M, Kaina B (Nov ... "Mutation of MSH3 in endometrial cancer and evidence for its functional role in heteroduplex repair". Nature Genetics. 14 (1): ... The identification of the human GTBP gene and subsequent amino acid sequence availability showed that yeast MSH6 and human GTBP ... were more related to each other than any other MutS homolog, with a 26.6% amino acid identity. Thus, GTBP took on the name ...
*  Quantitative PCR instrument
Nucleic Acids Res., 33 (21): e182, doi:10.1093/nar/gni181, PMC 1297710 , PMID 16314296 Herrmann, M.; Durtschi, J.; Wittwer, C ... In addition, when performing high resolution melting analyses, one factor that affects the sensitivity of heteroduplex ...
*  Sanger sequencing
Nucleic Acids Res. 13 (7): 2399-412. doi:10.1093/nar/13.7.2399. PMC 341163 . PMID 4000959. "Phred - Quality Base Calling". ... heteroduplex analysis, and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Resolving DNA fragments according to differences in size and/or ...
*  Index of genetics articles
Norm of reaction Normal distribution Northern analysis Northern blot NPD Nu body Nuclear transfer Nuclease Nucleic acid ... cancer Hereditary mutation Heredity Heritability Hermaphrodite Heterochromatin Heteroduplex Heteroduplex DNA Heteroduplex ... Alternative splicing Altruism Alu family Alzheimer's disease Amber codon Ames test Amino acid Amino acid sequence Amino acids ... Genophore Genotype Germ cell Germ line Germ-line theory Germinal mutation Germline mutation Giemsa stain Gln Glutamic acid Gly ...
*  High Resolution Melt
Nucleic Acids Res. 35 (6): e41. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm013. PMC 1874596 . PMID 17289753. Switzeny, Olivier J.; Christmann, Markus; ... This is due to base-pair mismatching generated as a result of destabilised heteroduplex annealing between wild-type and variant ... Sequencing is time consuming and labour-intensive and is often preceded by techniques used to identify heteroduplex DNA, which ...