Loading...
*  Nitrosamine
Most nitrosamines are carcinogenic. Nitrosamines are used in the manufacture of some cosmetics, pesticides, and in most rubber ... Endogenous nitrosamine formation can be inhibited by ascorbic acid. In the case of formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in ... Nitrosamines from condoms are not thought to be of toxicological significance. In foods, nitrosamines are produced from ... High temperatures, as in frying, can also enhance the formation of nitrosamines. The presence of nitrosamines may be identified ...
*  Nitroso
No nitrosamine is formed in stools, even after addition of a secondary amine or nitrite. Neutral pH favors NO− release from S- ... It is these N-nitrosamines that are carcinogens in rodents. In foodstuffs and in the gastro-intestinal tract, nitrosation and ... Lee, L; Archer, MC; Bruce, WR (October 1981). "Absence of volatile nitrosamines in human feces". Cancer Res. 41 (10): 3992-4. ... nitrosamines, R1N(−R2)−N=O), and O-nitroso compounds (alkyl nitrites; RO−N=O). Nitrosyls are non-organic compounds containing ...
*  Tobacco-specific nitrosamines
Among the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are the most ... The tobacco-specific nitrosamines are present in cigarette smoke and to a lesser degree in "smokeless" tobacco products such as ... These nitrosamine carcinogens are formed from nicotine and related compounds by a nitrosation reaction that occurs during the ... Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) comprise one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products, ...
*  Soybean oil
"N-Nitrosamines: 15 Listings." NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2016. Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition.; Research ...
*  Snus
Opponents of snus sales maintain, nevertheless, that even the low nitrosamine levels in snus cannot be completely risk-free, ... "Tobacco habits other than smoking; betel-quid and areca-nut chewing; and some related nitrosamines. IARC Working Group. Lyon, ... Gregory N. Connolly; Howard Saxner (August 21, 2001). "Informational Update Research on Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines (TSNAs) ... and possible risk of pancreatic cancer due to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). TSNAs are the only component of tobacco ...
*  Smokeless tobacco
The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine ... Approximately 28 chemical constituents present in smokeless tobacco are carcinogenic in nature, among which nitrosamine is the ... and volatile N-nitrosamines. Among these carcinogens, researchers identify TSNAs as the most abundant in smokeless tobacco and ... in particular tobacco-specific nitrosamines, which account for 76 to 91% of the total N-nitroso compound (NOC) burden. Herbal ...
*  Paan
"Betel-quid and areca-nut chewing and some areca-nut-derived Nitrosamines" (PDF). The World Health Organization. Price, Blair ( ... Betel-quid and Areca-nut Chewing and Some Areca-Nut Derived Nitrosamines. 85. World Health Organization. 2004. p. 68. ISBN 978- ... Nutritional composition of paan Betel-quid and Areca-nut Chewing and Some Areca-nut-derived Nitrosamines, from IARC Monographs ... 37, Tobacco Habits Other than Smoking; Betel-Quid and Areca-nut Chewing; and Some Related Nitrosamines, Lyon" (PDF). IARCPress ...
*  O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase
Bartsch H, Montesano R (1984). "Relevance of nitrosamines to human cancer". Carcinogenesis. 5 (11): 1381-93. doi:10.1093/carcin ...
*  Tire manufacturing
Several carcinogenic substances are formed during the manufacturing of rubber tyres, including nitrosamines and dibenzopyrenes ... Spiegelhalder, B. (September 1983). "Occupational nitrosamine exposure. 1. Rubber and tyre industry". Carcinogenesis. 4: 1147- ...
*  Toxication
Conversion of secondary amines in the stomach into carcinogenic nitrosamines via NO pathway. Nicotine into the nitrosated ... "Formation and Analysis of Tobacco-SpecificN-Nitrosamines". Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 26 (2): 121-137. doi:10.3109/ ...
*  William D. Emmons
I. The Oxidation of Nitrosamines to Nitramines". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76 (13): 3468-3470. doi:10.1021/ja01642a029. Emmons, William ... oxidation of nitrosamines to nitramines; the Baeyer-Villiger oxidations of ketones to esters; and the conversion of alkenes to ...
*  Trifluoroperacetic acid
I. The Oxidation of Nitrosamines to Nitramines". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76 (13): 3468-3470. doi:10.1021/ja01642a029. Emmons, William ... nitrosamines to nitramines, formation of aromatic N-oxides and aromatic azine N-oxides, and conversion of nitroso compounds to ...
*  Sodium nitrite
R2N-N=O (nitrosamine) + (acid or heat) → R-N+ 2 (diazonium ion) Certain nitrosamines such as N-nitrosodimethylamine and N- ... Nitrosamines and Cancer by Richard A. Scanlan, Ph.D. Scanlan, R. A. (May 1983). "Formation and occurrence of nitrosamines in ... Dietary sources of nitrosamines include US cured meats preserved with sodium nitrite as well as the dried salted fish eaten in ... Carcinogenic nitrosamines are formed when amines that occur naturally in food react with sodium nitrite found in cured meat ...
*  Carcinogen
They are not carcinogenic themselves, but turn into nitrosamines in the body, which can be carcinogenic. Occupational ... 1983). "Formation and occurrence of nitrosamines in food". Cancer Res. 43 (5 Suppl): 2435s-2440s. PMID 6831466. Wei Zheng, ... tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine, and reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde, which is also a hazard ... and Nitrosamine. Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or ...
*  Cooking
Nitrosamines are found in some food, and may be produced by some cooking processes from proteins or from nitrites used as food ... Ascorbate, which is added to cured meat, however, reduces nitrosamine formation. Research has shown that grilling, barbecuing ... 1983). "Formation and occurrence of nitrosamines in food". Cancer Res. 43 (5 Suppl): 2435s-2440s. PMID 6831466. Scientific ...
*  Health effects of tobacco
Nitrosamines are a group of carcinogenic compounds found in cigarette smoke but not in uncured tobacco leaves. Nitrosamines ... Switching to Indirect fire curing has been shown to reduce nitrosamine levels to less than 0.1 parts per million. Sidestream ... "Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines" (PDF). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to ...
*  Chewing tobacco
"Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-specific N-Nitrosamines" (PDF). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to ...
*  Hookah
These chemicals include tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g., benzo[a]pyrene and ... and lower levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Because of inhaling these chemicals, hookah smokers are at increased risk of ...
*  Nicogel
According to the manufacturer, Nicogel does not contain (N)-Nitrosamines.[citation needed]. However, that has not been ...
*  Third-hand smoke
The carcinogens found in THS are known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines. A study was done in 2016 to look at how long third- ... Carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) can be formed when the common indoor pollutant, nitrous acid, comes into ... as well as interior car or room surfaces can react with nitrous acid present in the air to create tobacco-specific nitrosamines ...
*  Effects of cannabis
These include nitrosamines, reactive aldehydes, and polycylic hydrocarbons, including benz[a]pyrene. Marijuana smoke was listed ... and tobacco-specific nitrosamines) are either lower or non-existent in cannabis smoke. Cannabis smoke contains thousands of ...
*  N-Nitrosonornicotine
... (NNN) is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine produced during the curing and processing of tobacco. It has been ... Hecht, Stephen S. (2017-05-05). "It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco". ... The FDA has put limits of nitrosamines in other consumable products (such as cured meats) at levels below 10 parts per billion ...
*  Safety of electronic cigarettes
The majority of e-cigarettes evaluated included carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs); heavy metals such as ...
*  NNK
Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), also known as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, is one of the key ... Chung, F.-L.; Morse, M. A.; Eklind, K. I.; Xu, Y. (1993). "Inhibition of the Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine-Induced Lung ... Kim, Hyun-Ji; Shin, Ho-Sang (2013). "Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic ... Jin, Z.; Gao, F.; Flagg, T.; Deng, X. (2004). "Tobacco-specific Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone ...
*  Baby bottle
In 1985 it tightened allowable levels of nitrosamines released from bottle teats. A 1999 Consumer Reports study suggested that ...