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*  Cutaneous receptor
... s are at the ends of afferent neurons. They are usually encapsulated in elaborate cellular corpuscles. ... In sensory transduction, the afferent nerves transmit through a series of synapses in the central nervous system, first in the ...
*  Sensory nervous system
These impulses are transmitted to the brain through afferent neurons. While debate exists among neurologists as to the specific ... This action potential then travels along afferent neurons to specific brain regions where it is processed and interpreted. ... which is carried along one or more afferent neurons towards a specific area of the brain. While the term sensory cortex is ... A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain ...
*  Interoception
Afferent signals enter the spinal cord at the superficial layer of the dorsal horn[disambiguation needed] Second order neurons ... Jänig, W. (1996-01-05). "Neurobiology of visceral afferent neurons: neuroanatomy, functions, organ regulations and sensations ... Afferent signals from the vagus nerve enter the spinal cord in layers IV, V, and VI of the dorsal horn[disambiguation needed] ... Afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors enter the spinal cord at the dorsal root ganglia Second order ...
*  Sensorineural hearing loss
The main function of the IHCs is to transmit sound information via afferent neurons. They do this by transducing mechanical ... This electric current creates action potentials within the connected afferent neurons. OHCs are different in that they actually ... Whereby, neurons which would normally be stimulated by the dead region, have been reassigned to respond to functioning areas ... Thus, an increase in firing rate of the auditory neurons connected to the hair cell occurs. On the other hand, the bending of ...
*  Magnocellular neurosecretory cell
The dendrites receive most of the synaptic inputs from afferent neurons that regulate the magnocellular neurons; typically a ... These cells are neuroendocrine neurons, are electrically excitable, and generate action potentials in response to afferent ... magnocellular neuron receives about 10,000 synapses from afferent neurons. Parvocellular neurosecretory cell Leng, G; Brown, CH ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in rats (where these neurons have been most extensively studied) in general have a single ...
*  Dorsal root ganglion
... afferent). The axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons are known as afferents. In the peripheral nervous system, afferents refer ... In a neuron, the dendrite receives information from another neuron's axon at the synapse, and the axon sends information to the ... Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system, an action potential in posterior root ganglion neuron may ... Note: the neuron can consist of three parts: Dendrite that receives the information and relays it to the Soma, or cell body. ...
*  Myenteric plexus
The ENS contains sensory receptors, primary afferent neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. The events that are controlled, ... According to preclinical studies, 30% of myenteric plexus' neurons are enteric sensory neurons, thus Auerbach's plexus has also ... The myenteric plexus originates in the medulla oblongata as a collection of neurons from the ventral part of the brain stem. ... Since many of the same neurotransmitters are found in the ENS as the brain, it follows that myenteric neurons can express ...
*  Polyphagia
"Deletion of leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons results in hyperphagia and obesity". MOLECULAR METABOLISM. 3 (6): 595- ...
*  Itch
The primary afferent neurons responsible for histamine-induced itch are unmyelinated C-fibres. Two major classes of human C- ... A similar phenomenon in which mirror neurons are used to explain the cause is contagious yawning. The sensation of itch can be ... Neuropathic itch can originate at any point along the afferent pathway as a result of damage of the nervous system. They could ... There is little detailed data on central activation for contagious itching, but it is hypothesized that a human mirror neuron ...
*  Vagus nerve
de Lartigue G, Ronveaux CC, Raybould HE (2014). "Deletion of leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons results in hyperphagia ... which receives afferent taste information and primary afferents from visceral organs The spinal trigeminal nucleus - which ... A non-invasive VNS device that stimulates an afferent branch of the vagus nerve is also being developed and will soon[when?] ... The cell bodies of visceral afferent fibers of the vagus nerve are located bilaterally in the inferior ganglion of the vagus ...
*  HSD2 neurons
Regarding the afferent (input) connections to HSD2 neurons, available information is less complete. Experiments with ... To date, HSD2 neurons have been identified and studied only in rats and mice. The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific ... HSD2 neurons do not produce a wide array of other proteins that typify most other subtypes of NTS neurons, including tyrosine ... HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone ...
*  Bone pain
Often tumor cells secrete growth factors which activate receptors close to primary afferent neurons. Activation of these neural ... For many years it has been known that bones are innervated with sensory neurons. Yet their exact anatomy remained obscure due ... Bone tissue is innervated by both myelinated (A beta and A delta fiber) and unmyelinated (C fiber) sensory neurons. In ... Mouse and other animal models are being heavily used to determine the neuron tissue densities in bone and mechanisms for ...
*  Mechanosensation
C fibers account for 60-70% of primary afferent neurons that innervate the skin. C fibers are activated by both mechanical and ... Neuron 37:731-4 Petersen, E. Nicholas (2016). "Kinetic disruption of lipid rafts is a mechanosensor for phospholipase D". Nat ... It is argued that MIAs, or C-MiHi primary afferents, are crucial to the initiation of primary hyperalgesia because they have a ... The existence of a distinct transduction process for all sensory neurons is highly unlikely. It has been hypothesized that the ...
*  Passive electrolocation in fish
Tricas TC, New JG (1998). "Sensitivity and response dynamics of elasmobranch electrosensory primary afferent neurons to near ...
*  Perception
Willis, William D.; Coggeshall, Richard E. (31 January 2004). Sensory Mechanisms of the Spinal Cord: Primary afferent neurons ... Neuron. 52: 1073-1083. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.11.012. PMID 17178409. Sumner, Meghan. The Effect of Experience on the ... Neuron. 65 (2): 150-164. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.009. "Frequency Range of Human Hearing". The Physics Factbook. Archived ... Some processing of texture and movement occurs within the neurons on the retina before the information is sent to the brain. In ...
*  Mast cell
... on visceral afferent neurons via their receptors (respectively, HRH1, HRH2, HRH3, PAR2, 5-HT3); in turn, neurogenic ... These granules have been found to be transferred to adjacent cells of the immune system and neurons in a process of ... "Central nervous system neurons acquire mast cell products via transgranulation". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 22 (9): ...
*  Merkel nerve ending
Active Touch and Self-Motion Encoding by Merkel Cell-Associated Afferents.Neuron. 2017 May 3;94(3):666-676.e9. doi: 10.1016/j. ... A single afferent nerve fibre branches to innervate up to 90 such endings. In mammals, Merkel nerve endings have a wide ... Type I afferent fibres have smaller receptive fields than type II fibres. Several studies indicate that type I fibres mediate ... In mammals, electrical recordings from single afferent nerve fibres have shown that the responses of Merkel nerve endings are ...
*  Pallesthesia
... and third order neurons. The first order neuron is the afferent neuron. The first order neuron enters the spinal cord through ... sensory neurons) found within the various layer of the skin and body. The afferent neuron travels to the spinal column, then up ... In most cases, the nerve damage occurs in afferent neurons in the foot and lower limbs. Nerve damage can be assessed with ... If the neurons are coming from the lower limbs are carried by the fasciculus gracilis into the medulla. If the neurons are ...
*  Endomorphin-2
Volume 1 Primary Afferent Neurons and the Spinal Dorsal Horn. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 343-. ISBN 978-0-306-48033 ...
*  Axon reflex
In the spinal cord reflex pathway the afferent neuron transmits information to spinal cord interneurons. These interneurons act ... The effector neurons leaving the integration center transmit a response to the original tissue the reflex arose resulting in a ... Neurons are the excitable cells that process and transmit these reflex signals through their axons, dendrites, and cell bodies ... The impulse is limited to a single bifurcated axon, or a neuron whose axon branches into two divisions and does not cause a ...
*  Urination
... these afferent neurons fire at low frequencies. Low-frequency afferent signals cause relaxation of the bladder by inhibiting ... sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons and exciting lumbar sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Conversely, afferent input ... causing excitation of sacral preganglionic neurons. The firing of these neurons causes the wall of the bladder to contract; as ... When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum terminale, the ...
*  Allan Basbaum
... pathways arise from subpopulations of primary afferent nociceptor". Neuron. 47: 787-93. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.015. PMID ... "VGLUT2 expression in primary afferent neurons is essential for normal acute pain and injury-induced heat hypersensitivity". ... Cao, Y.Q.; Mantyh, P.W.; Carlson, E.J.; Gillespie, A.-M.; Epstein, C.J.; Basbaum, A.I. (1998). "Primary afferent tachykinins ... Liu, H.; Mantyh, P.W.; Basbaum, A.I. (1997). "NMDA-receptor regulation of substance P release from primary afferent nociceptors ...
*  Grey column
The first order afferent neuron carries sensory information to the second order neuron in the dorsal horn. The axon of the ... large alpha motor neurons, medium gamma motor neurons, and small neurons thought to be interneurons. These neurons differ in ... A large loss of large alpha motor neurons, medium gamma motor neurons, and small neurons was recorded in cases of muscular ... The number of large alpha motor neurons and medium gamma motor neurons was greatly reduced and the number of small neurons was ...
*  Neuronal encoding of sound
There are two types of afferent neurons found in the cochlear nerve: Type I and Type II. Each type of neuron has specific cell ... Both types of neuron participate in the encoding of sound for transmission to the brain. Type I neurons innervate inner hair ... A 1:30-60 ratio of innervation is seen between Type II neurons and outer hair cells which in turn make these neurons ideal for ... Type II neurons on the other hand innervate outer hair cells. However, there is significantly greater convergence of this type ...
*  Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
CART is also found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the primary afferent neurons in the retina. Specifically, it ... stimulation of expression in rat vagal afferent neurons by cholecystokinin and suppression by ghrelin". Journal of Neuroscience ... CART is released in response to repeated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, and may regulate the activity of neurons in ...
*  Cranial nerve nucleus
A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial ... Back at the dorsal surface of the brainstem, and more lateral are the special somatic afferents, this handles sensation such as ... In general, motor nuclei are closer to the front (ventral), and sensory nuclei and neurons are closer to the back (dorsal). ... Near the sulcus limitans are the visceral afferent nuclei, namely the solitary tract nucleus. More lateral, but also less ...