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*  Reflex
A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the ...
*  Menace reflex
The neural pathway of the menace reflex comprises the optic (II) and facial (VII) nerves. It is mediated by tectobulbar fibres ... The facial nerve is mediated through a corticotectopontocerebellar pathway. Francis Heed Adler (1953). Physiology of the eye: ...
*  Neural pathway
These are archetypal examples of neural pathways.[citation needed] Neural pathways in the basal ganglia in the cortico-basal ... neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms Biological neural network Direct pathway of movement Indirect pathway of ... Therefore, most neural pathways are made up of axons.[citation needed] If the axons have myelin sheaths, then the pathway ... It has been proposed that the dopamine system of pathways is the overall organiser of the neural pathways that are seen to be ...
*  Lip reading
link) Bernstein, LE; Liebenthal, E (2014). "Neural pathways for visual speech perception". Front Neurosci. 8: 386. doi:10.3389/ ... link) Van Wassenhove, V; Grant, KW; Poeppel, D (Jan 2005). "Visual speech speeds up the neural processing of auditory speech". ... Machine-based speechreading is now making succesful use of neural-net based algorithms which use large databases of speakers ... Following the discovery that auditory brain regions, including Heschl's gyrus, were activated by seen speech, the neural ...
*  Cough reflex
The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the ... This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no ...
*  Vocal learning
Wild, JM (1997). "Neural pathways for the control of birdsong production". Journal of Neurobiology. 33: 653-670. doi:10.1002/( ... Humans also have a vocal pathway that is analogous to the avian anterior pathway. This pathway is a cortico-basal ganglia- ... Parallel to the avian posterior vocal pathway mentioned above is the motor cortico-brainstem pathway. Within this pathway, the ... the posterior pathway communicates with the anterior pathway via projections from the HVC to Area X; the anterior pathway sends ...
*  Neuroscience of sex differences
October 2009). "Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors". Cell. 139 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Experts note that neural sexual dimorphisms in humans exist only as averages, with overlapping variabilities, and that it is ... Neural masculinization is a developmental process where different sex hormones assist in the expression of male behavior. ... The detected differences in neural connectivity were negligible up to the age of 13, but became much more prominent in the 14 ...
*  Estrogen
Kow LM, Pfaff DW (May 1998). "Mapping of neural and signal transduction pathways for lordosis in the search for estrogen ... "Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors". Cell. 139 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.036. PMC ... Nadkarni S, Cooper D, Brancaleone V, Bena S, Perretti M (November 2011). "Activation of the annexin A1 pathway underlies the ... Häggström, Mikael; Richfield, David (2014). "Diagram of the pathways of human steroidogenesis". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1 ...
*  Transformers: Robot Masters
His weapon is the Shaftbreaker, which disrupts neural pathways. May or may not be the same character as Sideways from ...
*  Interoception
Multiple neural pathways relay information integral to interoceptive processing from the body to the brain. these include the ... lamina I spinothalamic pathway, the visceroceptive pathway, and the somatosensory pathway. The lamina I spinothalamic pathway ... Interoceptive signals are projected to the brain via a diversity of neural pathways that allow for the sensory processing and ... "Cortical and subcortical central neural pathways in respiratory sensations". Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 167 (1): 72 ...
*  Efference copy
Poulet, JFA; Hedwig B (2006). "New insights into corollary discharges mediated by identified neural pathways". Trends in ... The inhibitory commands originate at the same time as the motor command and target the sensory pathway that would report any ... This is unique from the efference copy, since the corollary discharge is actually fed into the sensory pathway to cancel out ... However, these fish display corollary discharges that inhibit the ascending sensory pathway at the first CNS relay point. These ...
*  Coincidence detection in neurobiology
The neural pathways to these neurons are called delay lines. Jeffress claimed that the neurons that the delay lines link act as ... and forming associations between separate neural events. This concept has led to a greater understanding of neural processes ... Consider a basic neural circuit with two input neurons, A and B, that have excitatory synaptic terminals converging on a single ... Coincidence detection in the context of neurobiology is a process by which a neuron or a neural circuit can encode information ...
*  Social support
Eisenberger, N.I.; Taylor, S.E.; Gable, S.L.; Hilmert, C.J.; Lieberman, M.D. (2007). "Neural pathways link social support to ... Many studies have tried to identify biopsychosocial pathways for the link between social support and health. Social support has ... Inagaki, T.K.; Eisenberger, N.I. (2011). "Neural correlates of giving support to a loved one". Psychosomatic Medicine. epub ...
*  Shelley E. Taylor
"Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses". NeuroImage. 35 (4): 1601-1612. doi:10.1016/ ... Taylor, S. E.; Eisenberger, N. I.; Saxbe, D.; Lehman, B. J.; Lieberman, M. D. (2006). "Neural responses to emotional stimuli ... "Neural bases of moderation of cortisol stress responses by psychosocial resources". Journal of Personality and Social ... and environments have deficits in emotion regulation in response to stressful circumstance that can be seen at the neural level ...
*  Hypokinesia
Two possible neural pathways enable the basal ganglia to produce movement. When activated, the direct pathway sends sensory and ... including in the motor pathways that involve hypokinesia. In one pathway, glutamate in the substantia nigra excites the release ... In the indirect pathway, the basal ganglia send GABA to the globus pallidus which then sends it to the subthalamic nucleus, ... The dopamine pathway in the substantia nigra is essential to motor function, and commonly a lesion in this area correlates with ...
*  Pioneer axon
The growth cone is necessary for the construction of neural pathways. Although pioneer axons and follower axons both possess ... An investigation was conducted looking into the role of pioneer axons in the formation of both CNS and PNS axon pathways in a ... have shown that certain cells that interact with pioneer axons are also crucial in the eventual development of neural pathways ... Ultimately, like in the PNS, the longitudinal pathways formed in about 80% of observed segments. Thus, it was shown that the ...
*  Poliovirus
Ren R, Racaniello V (1992). "Poliovirus spreads from muscle to the central nervous system by neural pathways". J Infect Dis. ... ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. Hogle J (2002). "Poliovirus cell entry: common structural themes in viral cell entry pathways". Annu Rev ... TgPVR1 mice are susceptible to poliovirus through the intraspinal, intracerebral, intramuscular, and intravenous pathways, but ... to the spinal cord through nerve pathways via retrograde axonal transport. A third hypothesis is that the virus is imported ...
*  Myelinogenesis
Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. Science, 283(5409), 1908-1911. Watkins, T ... This enables better connectivity within specific brain regions and also improves broader neuronal pathways connecting spatially ...
*  Attention span
The professor found that veteran web users had developed "distinctive neural pathways." Attention Attention deficit ...
*  Reflex arc
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the ... A reflex arc, then, is the pathway followed by nerves which (a.) carry sensory information from the receptor to the spinal cord ... During a somatic reflex, nerve signals travel along the following pathway: Somatic receptors in the skin, muscles and tendons ... By contrast, in polysynaptic reflex pathways, one or more interneurons connect afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) signals ...
*  Cerebellopontine angle syndrome
Each waveform represents specific anatomical points along the auditory neural pathway. Delays of one side relative to the other ... The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test gives information about the inner ear (cochlea) and nerve pathways for hearing via ... Stapedius reflex (SR) and caloric vestibular response (CVR) are non-invasive otologic tests for auditory neural function. These ... and differential diagnosis of retrocochlear or neural etiologies, radiological assessment of the CPA is performed to assess the ...
*  Brainbow
The study of neural pathways is also known as hodology by earlier neuroanatomists. The technique was originally developed in ... This process has been a major contribution to the field of connectomics, or the study of neural connections in the brain. ... With the recent advent of Brainbow in neuroscience, researchers are now able to construct specific maps of neural circuits and ... Superimposition of differentially colored neurons allows visual disentanglement of complicated neural circuits. Brainbow has ...
*  Foot drop
This disorder causes loss of function of the motor and sensory neural pathways. In this case, foot drop could be the result of ...
*  Pain in amphibians
Furthermore, frogs possess neural pathways that support processing and perception of noxious stimuli. Although organization is ... These chemicals act on the nociceptive pathways, blocking signals to the brain where emotional responses to the signals are ... wrote that the identification of pain pathways shared between amphibians and other amniotes suggests an ability to experience ... thereby indicating evidence for the interaction of fNRP and opioid steps in the analgesia pathways of newts. Naloxone and ...
*  Stephen Jepson
Neural pathways open and increase throughout our lives as we learn new activities." http://americanart.si.edu/collections/ ...
*  TENM3
Ten-m3 molecule is the first to be reported to regulate connectivity in the thalamostriatal pathway. Ten-m3 guides some of the ... At day 7.5 in mouse embryonic development (E7.5), in situ hybridisation shows Ten-m3 mRNA expression at the neural plate, ... They are expressed in distinct, but often interconnected, areas of the developing nervous system and in some non-neural tissues ... Similarly, there is a graded expression of Ten-m3 in the visual pathway, especially during embryonic and early postnatal ...
*  State-dependent memory
This creates a connection between the two neurons called a neural pathway. Memory relies on the strengthening of these neural ... A neural synapse is the space between brain cells, or neurons, that allows chemical signals to be passed from one neuron to ... The paper suggests that this phenomenon allows for quick decisions to be made when an organism does not have the time or neural ... At its most basic, state-dependent memory is the product of the strengthening of a particular synaptic pathway in the brain. ...