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*  Antennal lobe
The projection neurons project to higher brain centers such as the mushroom body and the lateral horn. The local neurons, which ... Gronenberg, W.; López-Riquelme, G.O. (February 2014). "Multisensory convergence in the mushroom bodies of ants and bees". Acta ... "Odotopic afferent representation of the glomerular antennal lobe organization in the mushroom bodies of ants (Hymenoptera: ... though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory neurons in other parts of the body) from where the sensory ...
*  Phellinus linteus
... "black hoof mushroom") is a medicinal mushroom used in Japan, Korea and China for centuries to prevent ailments as diverse as ... Extracts from fruit-bodies or mycelium of Phellinus linteus stimulate the hormonal and cell-mediated immune function; quench ... In Korean traditional medicine, the mushroom is consumed in the form of hot tea. Early research has suggested that Phellinus ... Nine compounds were isolated from the active ethylacetate fraction of the fruiting body and identified as protocatechuic acid, ...
*  Olfaction
... and next by the mushroom bodies and lateral horn. Many animals, including most mammals and reptiles, but not humans, have two ... Mothers can identify by body odor their biological children but not their stepchildren. Pre-adolescent children can olfactorily ... but also on other parts of the insect body. Odorants penetrate into the cuticle pores of chemosensory sensilla and get in ... psychological disorder that causes the patient to imagine he or she has strong body odor Parosmia - things smell worse than ...
*  Deformed wing virus
It is found only in the mushroom bodies of aggressive, guard honeybees. Bees that are significantly affected by DWV also have ...
*  Mushroom bodies
Studies of fruit fly mushroom bodies have been particularly important for understanding the genetic basis of mushroom body ... the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies. These cells have been found in the mushroom bodies of all species that have been ... establishing a coarse odotopic map of the antennal lobe in the region of the lip of the mushroom bodies. Mushroom bodies are ... results in a synergistic increase in cAMP in the mushroom body lobes. These results suggest that the mushroom body lobes are a ...
*  Neuroanatomy
At the organ level, the nervous system is composed of brain regions, such as the hippocampus in mammals or the mushroom bodies ... doi:10.1007/s10912-009-9085-5. Mushroom Bodies of the Fruit Fly Ginger, M.; Haberl, M.; Conzelmann, K.-K.; Schwarz, M.; Frick, ... Rostral and caudal: rostral refers to the front of the body (towards the nose, or rostrum in Latin), and caudal to the tail end ... A mid-sagittal plane divides the body and brain into left and right halves; sagittal sections in general are parallel to this ...
*  Brain
Heisenberg, M (2003). "Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 4 (4): 266-275. doi:10.1038/ ... Chiel, HJ; Beer, RD (1997). "The brain has a body: adaptive behavior emerges from interactions of nervous system, body, and ... of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would ... The fundamental bilateral body form is a tube with a hollow gut cavity running from the mouth to the anus, and a nerve cord ...
*  Lateral horn of insect brain
They project to the mushroom body is a random fashion but are very stereotyped in their projections to the lateral horn, making ... The projection neurons can excite or inhibit action potentials in the mushroom body or lateral horn to which they project. ... Cross-talk between the lateral lobe and the mushroom bodies adds flexibility to learned and innate behavioral responses. An ... So the learned behavioral signal from the mushroom bodies can overrule the innate behavior signal emanating from the lateral ...
*  Kenyon cell
The mushroom bodies - with a description of the Kenyon cells. Neurons and glial cells of the mushroom bodies Mushroom bodies in ... Mushroom bodies are essential for olfactory learning and memory. Odor information is represented by sparse combinations of ... Information about odors may be encoded in the mushroom body by the identities of the responsive neurons as well as the timing ... Kenyon cells are the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropil found in the brains of most arthropods and some ...
*  Hippocampus
Some have proposed, however, that the insect's mushroom bodies may have a function similar to that of the hippocampus. ... Mizunami M, Weibrecht JM, Strausfeld NJ (Dec 1998). "Mushroom bodies of the cockroach: their participation in place memory". ... A major output goes via the fornix to the lateral septal area and to the mammillary body of the hypothalamus (which the fornix ... The hippocampal-size-to-body-size ratio broadly increases, being about twice as large for primates as for the echidna. It does ...
*  Amita Sehgal
Mushroom bodies are located in the brains of Drosophila and are known to play a role in learning, memory, olfaction, and ... 2006: Showed mushroom bodies in fruit flies are important for sleep. 2008: Discovered the sleepless gene in fruit flies. 2014: ... In 2006, Sehgal and her colleagues discovered that mushroom bodies also play a major role in regulating sleep in flies. By ... While the specific pathway through which these mushroom bodies regulate sleep is currently unknown, it may be that they are ...
*  Alexander Borst
Among these were the discoveries that a specific structure of the insect brain, the mushroom body, plays an important role in ... Maisak et al, Nature 2013) Heisenberg, M.; Borst, A.; Wagner, S. & Byers, D. (1985). "Drosophila Mushroom Body Mutants are ...
*  Vanessa Ruta
Ruta demonstrated that the mushroom body encodes information using a rewriteable random access memory architecture. She ... "Random convergence of olfactory inputs in the Drosophila mushroom body". Nature. 497 (7447): 113-7. doi:10.1038/nature12063. ...
*  Neuronal self-avoidance
In the majority of the mushroom bodies analyzed, one of the two lobes was completely absent and in the few remaining samples, ... Analysis of Dscam diversity in regulating axon guidance in Drosophila mushroom bodies. Neuron 43:673-86 Zhu H, Hummel T, ... including mushroom body axons, olfactory projection neuron (PN) dendrites, and dendritic arborization (da) neuron dendrites It ... which the function of Dscam diversity was explored by assessing the isoforms of Dscam expressed by the developing mushroom body ...
*  Sparse distributed memory
In Drosophila, sparse odor coding by the Kenyon cells of the mushroom body is thought to generate a large number of precisely ... "Sparse, decorrelated odor coding in the mushroom body enhances learned odor discrimination." Nature neuroscience 17.4 (2014): ...
*  Cerebral cortex
... reported strong affinities between the cerebral cortex and the mushroom bodies of ragworms. Mushroom bodies are structures in ... "Profiling by image registration reveals common origin of annelid mushroom bodies and vertebrate pallium". Cell. 142 (5): 800- ... The right half of the motor area controls the left side of the body, and vice versa. Two areas of the cortex are commonly ... For mammals, species with larger brains (in absolute terms, not just in relation to body size) tend to have thicker cortices. ...
*  Queen mandibular pheromone
9ODA specifically leads to changes in the endocrine organs, via the brain's mushroom bodies. QMP moderates the decrease in JH ... however research shows olfactory signals from floral odors are integrated to the level of mushroom bodies. Research has not ...
*  MARCM
... genes involved in neuronal morphogenesis of the mushroom bodies, and the regulation of commissural axon guidance have all been ... "A mosaic genetic screen for genes necessary for Drosophila mushroom body neuronal morphogenesis". Development. 130 (6): 1203-13 ...
*  Antenna (biology)
From there, neurons in the antennal lobes connect to mushroom bodies that identify the odour. The sum of the electrical ...
*  Martin Heisenberg
1994) M. Heisenberg: Mushroom body memoir: From maps to models. Nature Rev Neurosci 4, 266-275 (2003) M. Heisenberg: Is free ... Drosophila mushroom body mutants are deficient in olfactory learning. J. Neurogenetics. 2, 1-30 (1985) J.S. deBelle and M. ... Special issue Mushroom body. Learning & Memory 5, (1998) M. Heisenberg: Voluntariness (Willkürfähigkeit) and the general ... Associative odor learning in Drosophila abolished by chemical ablation of Mushroom Bodies. Science 263, 692-695 (1994) L. Liu, ...
*  Major royal jelly protein
MRJP8 is produced in the head of nurse bees, specifically by the Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies. It was earlier ... "A royal jelly protein is expressed in a subset of Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies of the honey bee brain". Die ... Yamanaka N, O'Connor MB (July 2011). "Apiology: royal secrets in the queen's fat body". Current Biology. 21 (13): R510-2. doi: ...
*  Polistes instabilis
Missing or empty ,url= (help); ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Molina, Yamile; Sean O'Donnell (2006). "Mushroom Body Volume ... Body size ranges between 0.51-0.98 in (13-25 mm) with wings that are about 0.55 in (14 mm), which are folded longitudinally ... against the body. Male Polistes are typically smaller than females, have a yellow face, and hold their antenna curled at the ...
*  DACH1
Martini SR, Davis RL (2005). "The dachshund gene is required for the proper guidance and branching of mushroom body axons in ...
*  Alcino J. Silva
2005). "Pharmacological rescue of synaptic plasticity, courtship behavior, and mushroom body defects in a Drosophila model of ...
*  Chronic bee paralysis virus
In fact, viral particles have been found to concentrate in two centers; mushroom bodies involved in sensory processing, memory ... Symptoms include trembling of wings and body, loss of flight, loss of hair, and rejection by healthy members of the colony. ...
*  Tricholoma terreum
... , commonly known as the grey knight or dirty tricholoma, is a grey-capped mushroom of the large genus ... Tricholoma terreum is found in Europe, where fruiting bodies appear under conifers, particularly pine and spruce, from late ... Bon mentions that T. myomyces has been defined for lowland mushrooms with white gills and a fleecy cap and Courtecuisse ... Bessette AE, Bessette AR, Trudell SA, Roody WC (2013). Tricholomas of North America: A Mushroom Field Guide. Austin, Texas: ...
*  Calvatia craniiformis
Hosaka K, Uno K (2012). "A preliminary survey on larval diversity in mushroom fruit bodies". Bulletin of the National Museum of ... Fruit bodies arise from the tips or the lateral branches or rhizomorphs. New fruit bodies are made of an exterior of thick ... Fruit bodies serve as a food source for several species of flies. Extracts of the puffball have strong antitumor activity in ... The skull-shaped fruit body is 8-20 cm (3-8 in) broad by 6-20 cm (2-8 in) tall and white to tan. Initially smooth, the skin ( ...