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*  Mechanoreceptor
... which activates stretch receptors within the muscle called muscle spindles. Each muscle spindle consists of sensory nerve ... endings wrapped around special muscle fibers called spindle fibers (also called intrafusal fibers). Stretching a spindle fiber ... The hammer strikes a tendon that inserts an extensor muscle in the front of the thigh into the lower leg. Tapping the tendon ... These, in turn, synapse with motor neurons leading back to the antagonistic muscle, a flexor in the back of the thigh. By ...
*  Stretch reflex
When a muscle lengthens, the muscle spindle is stretched and its nerve activity increases. This increases alpha motor neuron ... A sudden stretch, such as tapping the Achilles' tendon, causes a reflex contraction in the muscle as the spindles sense the ... For example, alpha-gamma co-activation might keep the spindles taut when a muscle is contracted, preserving stretch reflex ... A secondary set of neurons also causes the opposing muscle to relax. The reflex functions to maintain the muscle at a constant ...
*  Muscle spindle
Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers. Muscle spindles have a capsule of ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ... Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... These activate the muscle fibres within the spindle. Gamma motor neurons supply only muscle fibres within the spindle, whereas ...
*  Proprioception
... such as Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles), which play a large role in proprioception. Primary endings of muscle spindles ... In humans, it is provided by proprioceptors (muscle spindles) in skeletal striated muscles and tendons (Golgi tendon organ) and ... Secondary endings of muscle spindles detect changes in muscle length, and thus supply information regarding only the sense of ... Essentially, muscle spindles are stretch receptors. It has been accepted that cutaneous receptors also contribute directly to ...
*  Sensory neuron
Muscle spindles contain mechanoreceptors that detect stretch in muscles. Somatic sensory receptors near the surface of the skin ... Examples of such tonic receptors are pain receptors, joint capsule, and muscle spindle. A phasic receptor is a sensory receptor ...
*  Hans Diedrich Henatsch
Granit, R. and Henatsch, H. D. (1956). "Gamma control of dynamic properties of muscle spindles", J. Neurophysiol. 19, 356-366. ...
*  Extrafusal muscle fiber
"Chapter 1: The Muscle Spindle and the Central Nervous System". Neuromuscular Reeducation with Electromyometric Feedback (PDF). ... Extrafusal muscle fibers are not to be confused with intrafusal muscle fibers, which are innervated by sensory nerve endings in ... Extrafusal muscle fibers are the skeletal standard muscle fibers that are innervated by alpha motor neurons and generate ... Smith, RS; Ovalle, Jr, WK (October 1973). "Varieties of fast and slow extrafusal muscle fibres in amphibian hind limb muscles ...
*  Achilles tendon
This is because vibrations stimulate muscle spindles in the calf muscles. The muscle spindles alert the brain that the body is ... It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone. These muscles, acting ... Both muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve. Vibration of the tendon without vision has a major impact on postural ... Along the side of the muscle, and superficial to it, is the small saphenous vein. The tendon can receive a load stress 3.9 ...
*  Microneurography
Recordings from muscle spindle afferents indicate that the fusimotor system remains largely passive when the parent muscle is ... signal from muscle spindles remains efficient in monitoring large changes of muscle length without turning silent during muscle ... The most elaborate proprioceptive sense organ is the muscle spindle. It is unique because its functional state is continually ... Hagbarth, K-E; Vallbo ÅB (1968). "Discharge characteristics of human muscle afferents during muscle stretch and contraction". ...
*  RECQL4
Soukup T (1976). "Intrafusal fibre types in rat limb muscle spindles: morphological and histochemical characteristics". ...
*  Trigeminocerebellar fibers
This information originates in proprioceptors (e.g. muscle spindles) in the face. Primary cell bodies are in the mesencephalic ...
*  Type Ia sensory fiber
Muscle spindles are a type of proprioceptor, and they are found inside the muscle itself. They lie parallel with the ... It is the sensory fiber of a stretch receptor found in muscles called the muscle spindle, which constantly monitors how fast a ... Ia afferents from the muscle spindle terminate on the proximal dendrites of motor neurons. Intrafusal muscle fiber Type II ... This gives them the ability to monitor muscle length with precision. This change in length of the spindle is transduced ( ...
*  Gamma motor neuron
... muscle spindles would be very loose as the muscle contracts more. This does not allow for muscle spindles to detect a precise ... The nuclei of spindle muscle cells are located in the middle of these spindles, but unlike extrafusal muscle fibers, the ... muscle fibers outside of the muscle spindle). Gamma motor neurons, on the other hand, innervate only intrafusal muscle fibers ( ... muscle fibers with the muscle spindles are pulled parallel to the extrafusal contraction causing the muscle movement. The ...
*  EGR3
Tourtellotte WG, Milbrandt J (1998). "Sensory ataxia and muscle spindle agenesis in mice lacking the transcription factor Egr3 ... It may also play a role in muscle development. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000179388 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...
*  Beta-secretase 1
Tests in mice have indicated that BACE proteases, specifically BACE1, are necessary for the proper function of muscle spindles ... "Bace1 and Neuregulin-1 cooperate to control formation and maintenance of muscle spindles". European Molecular Biology ...
*  H-reflex
"The primary difference between the H-reflex and the spinal stretch reflex is that the H-reflex bypasses the muscle spindle, and ... Ia afferents stemming from muscle spindles) in their innervating nerves (for example, those located behind the knee). The H- ... Although stretch reflex gives just qualitative information about muscle spindles and reflex arch activity; if the purpose of ... The H-reflex (or Hoffmann's reflex) is a reflectory reaction of muscles after electrical stimulation of sensory fibers ( ...
*  Laura Forster
At Bern University she studied 12 semesters at the Pathological Institute researching muscle spindle fibers. Forster graduated ...
*  Tonic vibration reflex
30-100 Hz vibration activates receptors of the skin, tendons and, most importantly, muscle spindles. Muscle spindle discharges ... This reflex is caused by vibratory activation of muscle spindles - muscle receptors sensitive to stretch. Tonic vibration ... causing the muscle to contract. The effects of sustained vibratory stimulation on muscle contraction, posture and kinesthetic ... Lebedev MA, Polyakov AV (1992). "Analysis of surface EMG of human soleus muscle subjected to vibration". J Electromyogr ...
*  Beta motor neuron
The dynamic type innervates nuclear bag fibers of muscle spindles, with collaterals to extrafusal muscle fibers. Gamma motor ... These motor neurons innervate nuclear chain fibers of muscle spindles, with collaterals to extrafusal muscle fibers. Dynamic ... Beta motor neurons innervate intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles with collaterals to extrafusal fibers - a type of slow twitch ... neurons innervate only intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles, but extrafusal fibers (i.e. slow and fast fibers) are innervated ...
*  Grey column
Gamma motor neurons innervate intrafusal muscle fibers that control the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. They have ... They are organized in the same manner as the muscles they innervate. Alpha motor neurons innervate extrafusal muscle fibers ... It receives afferent input from muscle fibers and joints. The lateral grey column, or the lateral horn of spinal cord, is part ... The neurons of this lamina can be distinguished by their morphology as pyramidal, spindle, or multipolar. This layer is also ...
*  Trigeminal nerve
Proprioceptors (muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs) provide information about joint position and muscle movement. Although ... muscle spindle organs and Golgi tendon organs) are structurally more complex than those for pain-temperature, which are nerve ... The other four muscles are the tensor veli palatini, the mylohyoid, the anterior belly of the digastric and the tensor tympani ... Injury to a peripheral nerve can cause paralysis of muscles on one side of the jaw, with the jaw deviating towards the ...
*  Muscle
In skeletal muscles, muscle spindles convey information about the degree of muscle length and stretch to the central nervous ... Deep muscles, superficial muscles, muscles of the face and internal muscles all correspond with dedicated regions in the ... Scattered throughout the muscles are muscle spindles that provide sensory feedback information to the central nervous system. ( ... Cardiac muscle (myocardium), is also an "involuntary muscle" but is more akin in structure to skeletal muscle, and is found ...
*  Aging movement control
Studies in post-mortem subjects support that the thickness of muscle spindle capsules increases with age. There is a slight ... May 2009). "Age-related fatigue resistance in the knee extensor muscles is specific to contraction mode". Muscle Nerve. 39 (5 ... For instance, the number of motor units may decrease, the size of the motor units, i.e. the number of muscle fibers they ... They propagate in the spinal cord, the motor neurons and the set of muscle fibers they innervate. This results in a twitch ...
*  Lydia Maria Adams DeWitt
This also included studies of muscle spindles, which were published in 1897, before she finished her medical studies. Her first ... concerned the structure of nerve endings in both sensory nerves and motor nerves of striated muscle and smooth muscle. ... She studied muscles extensively, in their pathology and nervous connections, as well as the disease myositis ossificans. Other ...
*  Intrafusal muscle fiber
... s are walled off from the rest of the muscle by a collagen sheath. This sheath has a spindle or " ... that detect the amount and rate of change in length of a muscle. They constitute the muscle spindle and are innervated by two ... Histology at ucsd.edu Histology at umdnj.edu "Chapter 1: The Muscle Spindle and the Central Nervous System". Neuromuscular ... Intrafusal muscle fibers are not to be confused with extrafusal muscle fibers, which contract, generating skeletal movement and ...
*  An End Has a Start
"An End Has a Start turns out to be a pupae album-its Editors stretching their sonic muscles, poking the first spindles of ...
*  Sybil Cooper
Alone and with colleagues, she made advances in understanding how the muscle spindles functioned relative to their structure." ... She became a research assistant upon graduation to Edgar Adrian, studying nerve and muscle physiology, before receiving her Ph. ... She collaborated with her husband on muscle reflexes before and after the birth of her children. "Demonstrating great ability ...