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*  Dynamic functional connectivity
Biswal, B.; Zerrin Yetkin, F. Z.; Haughton, V. M.; Hyde, J. S. (1995). "Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting ... These patterns of activity have primarily been seen in rats as a propagating wave of synchronized activity along the cortex. ...
*  Cortical stimulation mapping
An example is the cortical homunculus of the primary motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex, which are separated by the ... is a motor cortex and the postcentral gyrus (post-Rolandic area) is a sensory cortex. These findings, which were repeated by ... "Harvey Cushing's contributions to motor mapping: 1902-1912". Cortex. 48 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2010.04.006. PMID ... Cortical stimulation mapping led to the development of a homunculus for the motor and sensory cortices, which is a diagram ...
*  Motor cortex
The motor cortex can be divided into three areas: 1. the primary motor cortex is the main contributor to generating neural ... Further, this motor cortex was necessary for the arboreal lifestyles of our primate ancestors. Enhancements to the motor cortex ... The greater the activity in motor cortex, the stronger the muscle force. Each point in motor cortex controls a muscle or a ... mapped the motor cortex in the monkey brain using electrical stimulation. He found that the motor cortex contained a rough map ...
*  Nonprimary motor cortex
The nonprimary motor cortex exerts its motor control at a higher neural level than the primary motor cortex by commanding the ... This is carried out by afferent nerves from the nonprimary motor cortex synapsing at the primary motor cortex. Both divisions ... The thalamic nuclei supplying the supplementary motor cortex are distinct from those enervating the primary motor cortex. ( ... Like the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts begin in the premotor area. Wise SP (1985). "The primate premotor cortex: ...
*  Primary motor cortex
Ventrally the primary motor cortex is bordered by the insular cortex in the lateral sulcus. The primary motor cortex extends ... The rodent motor cortex, like the monkey motor cortex, may contain subregions that emphasize different common types of actions ... Precentral sulcus Central sulcus The motor tract. Corticospinal tract Motor cortex Cortical homunculus Upper motor neuron ... see the main article on the motor cortex. The human primary motor cortex is located on the anterior wall of the central sulcus ...
*  Memory cells (motor cortex)
Neuronal correlates of motor performance and motor learning in the primary motor cortex of monkeys adapting to an external ... Memory cells are found in the primary motor cortex (M1), a region located in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe of the ... For a quick review see Also Motor control: Forcing neurons to change Current Biology, Volume 11, Issue 17, Pages R708-R709 A. ...
*  Michael Graziano
Graziano and colleagues used electrical microstimulation on the motor cortex of monkeys. Most previous protocols in the motor ... Instead, the motor cortex may contain a mapping of coordinated, behaviorally useful actions that make up a typical movement ... The method was not commonly used in the study of motor cortex although it had been used in the study of other brain regions. ... Notably he has suggested that the classical map of the body in motor cortex, the homunculus, is not correct and is better ...
*  John Rothwell (physiologist)
"Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 471 (1): 501-519. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1993. ... His main area of interest is transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor control. Rothwell was educated at the University of ... J. Rothwell: Physiology and Pathophysiology of Human Motor Control". ucl.ac.uk. London: University College London. Archived ...
*  Neuropathic pain
Motor Cortex Stimulation Pain Medicine 2006; 7:S140. Osenbach, R. Neurostimulation for the Treatment of Intractable Facial Pain ... Stimulation of the primary motor cortex through electrodes placed within the skull but outside the thick meningeal membrane ( ... The level of stimulation is below that for motor stimulation. As compared with spinal stimulation, which is associated with ...
*  C. David Marsden
"Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 471 (1): 501-519. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1993. ... His later contributions include the complications of levodopa; the motor control physiology of dystonia, myoclonus, and ...
*  Transcranial magnetic stimulation
If used in the primary motor cortex, it produces muscle activity referred to as a motor evoked potential (MEP) which can be ... and motor evoked potentials in the localization of the sensory-motor cortex". Neurol. Res. 17 (5): 361-367. Terao, Y; Ugawa, Y ... Deep TMS can reach up to 6 cm into the brain to stimulate deeper layers of the motor cortex, such as that which controls leg ... The most robust and widely accepted use is in measuring the connection between the primary motor cortex and a muscle to ...
*  Scratch reflex
doi:10.1007/s00359-004-0568-6. Sirota M. G., Pavlova G. A., Beloozerova I. N. (2006). "Activity of the motor cortex during ... While the scratch reflex can be produced without supraspinal structures, research indicates that neurons in the motor cortex ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Earhart G. M., Stein P. S. G. (2000). "Step, swim, and scratch motor patterns in the ... In preparations with movement-related sensory inputs, the muscles and the motor neuron outputs to muscles are left intact, ...
*  Brodmann area
Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex (Secondary Motor Cortex) (Supplementary motor area) Area 7 - Visuo-Motor ... Insular cortex Area 17 - Primary visual cortex (V1) Area 18 - Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 19 - Associative visual cortex ... Piriform cortex Area 28 - Ventral entorhinal cortex Area 29 - Retrosplenial cingulate cortex Area 30 - Part of cingulate cortex ... For example, Brodmann areas 1, 2 and 3 are the primary somatosensory cortex; area 4 is the primary motor cortex; area 17 is the ...
*  Transneuronal degeneration
Eisen A, Weber M (2001). "The Motor Cortex and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Muscle & Nerve. 24 (4): 564-573. doi:10.1002/mus ... Transneuronal degeneration of lower motor neurons is not present after upper motor neuron lesions in stroke patients. In ... If this exocitotoxic process occurs rapidly, it results in a more rapid death of anterior horn cells resulting in lower motor ... Terao, S., Li, M., Hashizume, Y., Osano, Y., Mitsuma, T., and Sobue, G. (1997). "Upper motor neuron lesions in stroke patients ...
*  Frontal lobe epilepsy
Primary motor cortex The primary motor cortex has jacksonian seizures that spread to adjacent areas of the lobe which often ... Supplementary motor area Area anterior to the primary motor cortex that is involved in planning complex motor movements and ... Orbitofrontal cortex The orbitofrontal cortex has similar functions as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but is thought to be ... Primary motor cortex Contains large neurons that project axons down to the spinal cord where they synapse onto alpha motor ...
*  Digit (anatomy)
... overlapping representation in the supplementary motor area and primary motor area. The somatosensory cortex representation of ... Kleinschmidt A, Nitschke MF, Frahm J (1997). "Somatotopy in the human motor cortex hand area. A high-resolution functional MRI ... Each finger has an orderly somatotopic representation on the cerebral cortex in the somatosensory cortex area 3b, part of area ... Nelson AJ, Chen R (2008). "Digit somatotopy within cortical areas of the postcentral gyrus in humans". Cereb Cortex. 18 (10): ...
*  Motor theory of speech perception
Hearing speech activates vocal tract muscles, and the motor cortex and premotor cortex. The integration of auditory and visual ... Disrupting the premotor cortex disrupts the perception of speech units such as plosives. The activation of the motor areas ... Pulvermuller, F.; Huss, M.; Kherif, F.; Moscoso del Prado Martin F; Hauk, O.; Shtyrov, Y. (2006). "Motor cortex maps ... The motor theory of speech perception would predict that speech motor abilities in infants predict their speech perception ...
*  Inferior frontal gyrus
... it acts indirectly through the motor cortex. The posterior inferior frontal gyrus, connected to Brodmann Area 44, codes motor ... cortex posterior to the ascending ramus of the lateral fissure) Pars triangularis (cortex between the ascending ramus and the ... Fecteau S, Pascual-Leone A, Zald DH, Liguori P, Théoret H, Boggio PS, Fregni F (2007). "Activation of prefrontal cortex by ... The left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is a part of the articulatory network I involved in motor syllable programs. ...
*  Pathology of multiple sclerosis
Yates R, Esiri M, Palace J, De Luca G (2016). "Fibrinogen Deposition in the Multiple Sclerosis Motor Cortex". Neurology. 86 (16 ... fibrinogen is deposited in MS motor cortex and associates with neurodegeneration. The olfactory nerve, similar to the optic ... The amount of interneuronal Parvalbumin is lower than normal in brain's motor cortex areas, and oxidative injury of ... "Distribution of parvalbumin and calretinin immunoreactive interneurons in motor cortex from multiple sclerosis post-mortem ...
*  Bereitschaftspotential
... is a measure of activity in the motor cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain leading up to voluntary muscle movement ... Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H.H. (1978). "An electrical sign of participation of the mesial "supplementary" motor cortex in human ... Deecke L, Kornhuber (1978). "supplementary" motor cortex in human voluntary finger movements". Brain Res. 159 (2): 473-476. doi ... 2003, showing that SMA proper and pre-SMA are active prior to volitional movement or action, as well as the cingulate motor ...
*  Congenital mirror movement disorder
These structural abnormalities in the motor cortex might explain why the hands, requiring great motor dexterity and therefore ... Kanouchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Isa, F.; Ishii, K.; Senda, M. (June 1997). "Role of the ipsilateral motor cortex in mirror movements ... This claim is supported by evidence of structural abnormalities in the primary motor cortex (M1) in CMM patients. ... "Bilateral motor cortex output with intended unimanual contraction in congenital mirror movements". Neurology. 58 (8): 1290-1293 ...
*  Speech science
... such as the supplementary motor area, cingulate motor areas, primary motor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Speech ... Simonyan K, Horwitz B (April 2011). "Laryngeal motor cortex and control of speech in humans". Neuroscientist. 17 (2): 197-208. ... As for theories of speech perception, there are a motor and an auditory theory. The motor theory is based upon the premise that ... The production of speech is a highly complex motor task that involves approximately 100 orofacial, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and ...
*  Blocq's disease
When non-motor cerebral cortex excites the striate body, the caudate and putamen specifically inhibit neurons in the globus ... One of the abilities of the motor cortex that allow this control is plasticity which occurs due to the everyday experience of ... Sanes, J. N. (2000). Skill learning: Motor cortex rules for learning and memory. Current Biology, 10(13), R495-R497. doi: ... Through literature, they have found that primary motor cortex neurons may control skill acquisition and retention. ...
*  Sense of balance
... motor cortex areas, via pons and cerebellar dentate nucleus. It outputs to thalamus, motor cortex areas, and red nucleus). ... motor cortices, and insula. Insula is also heavily connected to motor cortices; insula is likely where balance is likely ... Inferior olive nucleus (also known as the olivary nucleus) aids in complex motor tasks by encoding coordinating timing sensory ... motor relay). Nucleus of Cajal are one of the named oculomotor nuclei, they are involved in eye movements and reflex gaze ...
*  Sensory stimulation therapy
Studies with that utilize fMRI and PET scans have shown that the degree of activation increases in the motor cortex of patients ... Hallett M (October 2001). "Plasticity of the human motor cortex and recovery from stroke". Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 36 (2-3 ... The primary somatosensory cortex is known to have subsections that process information from different sections, and the area of ... Jacobs B; Driscoll L; Schall M (October 1997). "Life-span dendritic and spine changes in areas 10 and 18 of human cortex: a ...
*  TENM3
Furthermore, the null mutant mice display delayed motor skill acquisition in the accelerating rotorod task. In in vivo ... and primary visual cortex (V1) and to the superior colliculus (SC). Ten-m3 facilitates the retinotopic mapping of ipsilateral ... thus critical for motor skill acquisition. Ten-m3 molecule is the first to be reported to regulate connectivity in the ... Cerebral Cortex. 18 (1): 53-66. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm031. PMID 17478416. Tran H, Sawatari A, Leamey CA (January 2015). "The ...
*  Psychomotor learning
... is not limited to the motor cortex, however. Movement in learning Psychomotor agitation Psychomotor ... this leads to changes in the motor cortex. The more practiced a movement is, the stronger the neural encoding becomes. ... speed-actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills, such as use of precision instruments or tools. Behavioral examples ...