Molecular target for epilepsy therapy[edit]. The noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonists talampanel and perampanel have been ... Rogawski MA (2013). "AMPA receptors as a molecular target in epilepsy therapy". Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 127 (197): 9-18. doi ... Molecular and signaling response to LTP-inducing stimuli[edit]. The mechanism for LTP has long been a topic of debate, but, ... 2.1.1 Molecular and signaling response to LTP-inducing stimuli. *2.1.2 AMPA receptor trafficking to the PSD in response to LTP ...
Mitsuya, H; Yarchoan, R; Broder, S (1990). "Molecular targets for AIDS therapy". Science. 249 (4976): 1533-44. doi:10.1126/ ... It is used in combination with other medications as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is of the reverse ... Watson et al.: Molecular Biology of the Gene 4th edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, 1987. ... Yarchoan, R; Mitsuya, H; Broder, S (1988). "AIDS therapies". Sci Am. 259 (4): 110-9. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1088-110. ...
In recent years, various molecular targeted therapies have been developed for the treatment of advanced lung cancer. Gefitinib ... "New Progress in Targeted Lung Cancer Therapy; Researchers Report Positive Results With Drugs Matched to a Tumor's Molecular ... Reade, CA; Ganti AK (July 2009). "EGFR targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: potential role of cetuximab". Biologics ... Sun, S; Schiller JH; Spinola M; Minna JD (October 2007). "New molecularly targeted therapies for lung cancer". Journal of ...
"Emerging Drug Targets for Antiretroviral Therapy". Drugs. 65 (13): 1747-1766. doi:10.2165/00003495-200565130-00002. "Algae- ... Adams, James (May 2004). "MOLECULAR, GENETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII INSERTIONAL ... Recently Biomedical Engineers have included the D66 strain in their research for HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Drugs. Studies show ...
reported a targeted therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Based on the knowledge that BCR-ABL, a constitutively activated ... The finding helped begin the era of designing cancer drugs to target specific molecular abnormalities. On April 25, 1996, NEJM ... the authors tested with success an inhibitor of this tyrosine kinase in patients who had failed first-line therapy. ...
"Targeted Imaging and Therapy of Brain Cancer Using Theranostic Nanoparticles". Molecular Pharmaceutics. 7: 1921-1929. doi: ... Ligands can also be attached to the surface of a nanoparticle to target certain receptors located within the brain. Once the ... Nanoparticles are synthesized to encapsulate a target drug. The surface of the nanoparticle, if not already hydrophobic, may ...
Cao, Yihai (2009). "Tumor angiogenesis and molecular targets for therapy". Frontiers in Bioscience. 14 (14): 3962-73. doi: ... Bird, Alan C. (2010). "Therapeutic targets in age-related macular disease". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 120 (9): 3033-41 ... Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 14 (5): 1056-60. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01077.x. PMID 20646126. Lambiase, P. ...
Side Effects of Approved Molecular Targeted Therapies in Solid Cancers". Oncologist (12):1443-1455.PMID 18165622 Walko CM, ... appropriate candidates for toxgnostic studies due to the significant toxicity profiles associated with both targeted therapies ... One of the most commonly used chemotherapy drugs 5-fluorouracil (5FU) prescribed as adjuvant therapy following surgical ...
OSI specializes in the discovery and development of molecular targeted therapies. Though oncology is the top priority for OSI, ...
Adachi, H.; Waza, M.; Katsuno, M.; Tanaka, F.; Doyu, M.; Sobue, G. (2007-04-01). "Pathogenesis and molecular targeted therapy ... 13: Clinical aspects and the genetic and molecular biology of Kennedy's disease". In Tetsuo Ashizawa, Wells, Robert V. Genetic ... Chedrese, P. Jorge (2009-06-13). Reproductive Endocrinology: A Molecular Approach. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN ...
Olivieri, A.; Manzione, L. (2007). "Dasatinib: a new step in molecular target therapy". Annals of Oncology. 18 Suppl 6: vi42- ...
CML has a well defined molecular target and relatively selective therapies aimed at that target, which is not the case for the ... Olivieri, A.; Manzione, L. (2007). "Dasatinib: a new step in molecular target therapy". Annals of Oncology. 18 Suppl 6: vi42- ... Compounds that target the active conformation have been identified but the binding site in all the hundreds of human protein ... Despite, or even because of this, ponatinib is a potent drug and targets not just most of the known mutations on the Bcr-Abl TK ...
Wang TT, Qian XP, Liu BR (2007). "Survivin: potential role in diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer". ... The molecular mechanisms of survivin regulation are still not well understood, but regulation of survivin seems to be linked to ... These data suggest survivin might provide a new target for cancer therapy that would discriminate between transformed and ... Pennati M, Folini M, Zaffaroni N (April 2008). "Targeting survivin in cancer therapy". Expert Opin. Ther. Targets. 12 (4): 463- ...
Some of these involve targeted therapies against the cancer cells' molecular mechanisms. Others aim to target the highly ... If the tumor is not amenable to surgical removal and is causing symptoms, targeted therapy with everolimus or sunitinib can ... Radiation therapy is occasionally used if there is pain due to anatomic extension, such as metastasis to bone. Some PanNETs ... Clinical trials are often conducted for novel adjuvant therapies. The role of radiotherapy as an auxiliary (adjuvant) treatment ...
Here he extended his research on tumour hypoxia and molecular targeted therapies. Workman also continued his service for the ... "SABCS 2010: Molecular chaperones: cancer dependence and druggability - Prof Paul Workman - The Institute of Cancer Research, ... Check date values in: ,date= (help) "2010 Winner The George and Christine Sosnovsky Award in Cancer Therapy- Paul Workman". Rsc ... In 1991 Workman was appointed as a Cancer Research Campaign (CRC) Life Fellow, Professor of Experimental Cancer Therapy, ...
"P450-dependent enzymes as targets for prostate cancer therapy". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 56 ( ... McElwee KJ, Shapiro JS (June 2012). "Promising therapies for treating and/or preventing androgenic alopecia". Skin Therapy ... Comprehensive Dermatologic Therapy (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 460-472. ISBN 978-1-4377-2003-7. Neider R, Fritsch PO ... Comprehensive Dermatologic Therapy (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 562-569. ISBN 978-1-4377-2003-7. Finkel R, Cubeddu LX ...
Rogawski MA (2013). "AMPA receptors as a molecular target in epilepsy therapy". Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 127 (197): 9-18. doi ... The molecular basis for LTP has been extensively studied, and AMPARs have been shown to play an integral role in the process. ... Lisman J, Schulman H, Cline H (March 2002). "The molecular basis of CaMKII function in synaptic and behavioural memory". Nat. ... Greger IH, Ziff EB, Penn AC (August 2007). "Molecular determinants of AMPA receptor subunit assembly". Trends Neurosci. 30 (8 ...
"Cytokine-Modulating Strategies and Newer Cytokine Targets for Arthritis Therapy". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. ... His research focus on molecular imaging of cell death and drug development in immunology. He completed his PhD in Biomedical ... apoptosis-targeted peptide". Journal of Controlled Release. 162 (6): 521-8. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.07.023. PMID 22824781. ... 2008-present Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society 2010-2011 Korean Society Biochemistry and Molecular ...
"Id genes and proteins as promising targets in cancer therapy". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 10 (8): 387-92. doi:10.1016/j. ... Iavarone A, Lasorella A (December 2006). "ID proteins as targets in cancer and tools in neurobiology". Trends in Molecular ... ID proteins could be potential targets for systemic cancer therapies without inhibiting the functioning of most normal cells ... Pagliuca A, Bartoli PC, Saccone S, Della Valle G, Lania L (May 1995). "Molecular cloning of ID4, a novel dominant negative ...
These breakthroughs revolutionized our understanding of molecular events driving cancer progression. Targeted therapy may be ... Mills, GB (February 2012). "An emerging toolkit for targeted cancer therapies". Genome Research. 22 (2): 177-82. doi:10.1101/gr ... This target driven modelling has paved way for first of its kind clinical trials. Bekkal et al. presented a nonlinear model of ... In parallel with the exploits of molecular biology, cancer research focused on the identification of critical oncogenes or ...
"14-3-3 zeta as novel molecular target for cancer therapy". Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. 16 (5): 515-23. doi:10.1517/ ... Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 309 (2): L147-57. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00088.2015. PMC 4504974 . PMID 26001776. Lewis J ... It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. It was first described ... Chow CW, Davis RJ (Jan 2000). "Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3". Molecular and Cellular ...
... molecular mechanisms and targets for antiviral therapy". Frontiers in Bioscience. 14 (8): 3274-3285. Bibcode:2009CNSNS..14.3274 ... Although the research is relatively new, naringenin may offer new insight into HCV therapeutic target. Other agents that are ... De Francesco R (1999). "Molecular virology of the hepatitis C virus". J Hepatol. 31 (Suppl 1): 47-53. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(99 ... Meier V, Ramadori G; Ramadori (April 2009). "Hepatitis C virus virology and new treatment targets". Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ...
Kuan CT, Wikstrand CJ, Bigner DD (June 2001). "EGF mutant receptor vIII as a molecular target in cancer therapy". Endocrine- ... Ahmed SM, Salgia R (November 2006). "Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and susceptibility to targeted therapy in lung ... Zhang H, Berezov A, Wang Q, Zhang G, Drebin J, Murali R, Greene MI (August 2007). "ErbB receptors: from oncogenes to targeted ... Wang Z, Wang M, Lazo JS, Carr BI (May 2002). "Identification of epidermal growth factor receptor as a target of Cdc25A protein ...
"Oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinases as molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy". Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 7 ( ... Okamoto I (January 2010). "Epidermal growth factor receptor in relation to tumor development: EGFR-targeted anticancer therapy ... "Phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor on tumor-associated endothelial cells is a primary target for therapy with ... Another virus that targets tyrosine kinase is the Rous sarcoma virus, a retrovirus that causes sarcoma in chickens. Infected ...
Harbour JW (Mar 2012). "The genetics of uveal melanoma: an emerging framework for targeted therapy". Pigment Cell & Melanoma ... Materin MA, Faries M, Kluger HM (2011). "Molecular alternations in uveal melanoma". Current Problems in Cancer. 35 (4): 211-24 ... Carbone M, Yang H (Feb 2012). "Molecular pathways: targeting mechanisms of asbestos and erionite carcinogenesis in mesothelioma ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 29 (8): 2181-92. doi:10.1128/MCB.01517-08. PMC 2663315 . PMID 19188440. Yu H, Mashtalir N, Daou ...
The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) excessive inflammatory responses to pathogens, trauma, burns, and other forms of tissue injury [see Inflammation#Causes); b) chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimers disease (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, rashes, and eczema; d) NSAID-induced acute non-allergic reactions such as asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema and urticaria; and e) the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and pancreas. However, clinical use of drugs that inhibit ALOX5 to treat any of these diseases has been successful with only Zileuton along with its controlled released preparation, Zileuton CR. Zileuton is approved in the U.S.A. for the prophylaxis and chronic ...
The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) excessive inflammatory responses to pathogens, trauma, burns, and other forms of tissue injury [see Inflammation#Causes); b) chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimers disease (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, rashes, and eczema; d) NSAID-induced acute non-allergic reactions such as asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema and urticaria; and e) the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and pancreas. However, clinical use of drugs that inhibit ALOX5 to treat any of these diseases has been successful with only Zileuton along with its controlled released preparation, Zileuton CR. Zileuton is approved in the U.S.A. for the prophylaxis and chronic ...
... (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes. Pre-clinical studies, primarily in animal models and human tissues, implicate SPM in orchestrating the resolution of inflammation. SPM join the long list of other physiological agents which tend to limit inflammation (see Inflammation § Resolution of inflammation) including glucocorticoids, interleukin 10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (an inhibitor of the action of pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1), annexin A1 (an inhibitor of formation of pro-inflammatory metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids), and the gaseous resolvins, carbon monoxide (see Carbon monoxide § Normal human physiology), nitric oxide (see Nitric oxide § Biological ...
As of September 2018, two CGRP blockers have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of migraine.[21] Additional CGRP blockers are progressing through clinical trials.[22] Anticipating later botox therapy for migraine, early work by Jancsó et al. found some success in treatment using denervation or pretreatment with capsaicin to prevent uncomfortable symptoms of neurogenic inflammation.[23] A recent (2010) study of the treatment of migraine with CGRP blockers shows promise.[24] In early trials, the first oral nonpeptide CGRP antagonist, MK-0974 (Telcagepant), was shown effective in the treatment of migraine attacks,[25] but elevated liver enzymes in two participants were found. Other therapies and other links in the neurogenic inflammatory pathway for interruption of disease are under study, including migraine therapies.[26] Noting that botulinum toxin has been shown to have an effect on inhibiting neurogenic inflammation, and evidence suggesting the role of neurogenic inflammation in the ...
... (or haemopexin; HPX), also known as beta-1B-glycoprotein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HPX gene and belongs to hemopexin family of proteins. Hemoglobin and its scavenger protein hemopexin (Hx) associate with HDL[expand acronym] and influence the inflammatory properties of HDL. In addition it can also be said that HDL from Hx-null mice is proinflammatory. Moreover, hemopexin deficiency is associated with various other inflammatory diseases such as septic shock and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Takahashi et al. (1985) determined that human plasma beta-glycoprotein hemopexin consists of a single polypeptide chain of 439 amino acids residues with six intrachain disulfide bridges and has a molecular mass of approximately 63 kD. The amino-terminal threonine residue is blocked by an O-linked galactosamine oligosaccharide, and the protein has five glucosamine oligosaccharides N-linked to the acceptor sequence Asn-X-Ser/Thr. The 18 tryptophan residues are arranged ...
... is a disease in which there is permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung. Symptoms typically include a chronic cough with mucus production. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and chest pain. Wheezing and nail clubbing may also occur. Those with the disease often get frequent lung infections. Bronchiectasis may result from a number of infective and acquired causes, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, immune system problems, and cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis eventually results in severe bronchiectasis in nearly all cases. The cause in 10-50% of those without cystic fibrosis is unknown. The mechanism of disease is breakdown of the airways due to an excessive inflammatory response. Involved airways (bronchi) become enlarged and thus less able to clear secretions. These secretions increase the amount of bacteria in the lungs, result in airway blockage and further breakdown of the airways. It is classified as an obstructive lung disease, ...
9 hours) is associated with a doubling of the risk of death, though not primarily from cardiovascular disease. Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality, though the cause is probably other factors such as depression and socioeconomic status, which would correlate statistically. Sleep monitoring of hunter-gatherer tribes from Africa and from South America has shown similar sleep patterns across continents: their average sleeping duration is 6.4 hours (with a summer/winter difference of 1 hour), afternoon naps (siestas) are uncommon, and insomnia is very rare (tenfold less than in industrial societies). Physical exercise may increase life expectancy. People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who are not physically active. Moderate levels of exercise have been correlated with preventing aging and improving quality of life by reducing inflammatory potential. The ...
... (trade name Eucrisa) is a nonsteroidal topical medication approved for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (eczema) in patients 2 years of age and older. As of 2016[update] it is also under development by Anacor Pharmaceuticals for the topical treatment of psoriasis. It is a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, mainly acting on phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), which causes inflammation. Chemically, crisaborole is a phenoxybenzoxaborole. It contains a boron atom that helps penetrate the skin and is essential for its binding activity. Inhibition of PDE4B appears to suppress the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-23 and other cytokines, proteins believed to be involved in the immune response and inflammation. The chemical name for crisaborole is 4-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-5-yl)oxy]benzonitrile. During preclinical and clinical development, crisaborole was called AN2728 and PF-06930164. As of 2016, two Phase III clinical ...
The immune system recognizes foreign pathogens and eliminates them. This occurs in several phases. In the early inflammation phase, the pathogens are recognized by antibodies that are already present (innate or acquired through prior infection; see also cross-reactivity). Immune-system components (e.g. complement) are bound to the antibodies and kept near, in reserve to disable them via phagocytosis by scavenger cells (e.g. macrophages). Dendritic cells are likewise capable of phagocytizing but do not do it for the purpose of direct pathogen elimination. Rather, they infiltrate the spleen and lymph nodes, and each presents components of an antigen there, as the result of which specific antibodies are formed that recognize precisely that antigen. These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an acute infection, however, so what we think of as "immunology" constitutes only the second half of the process. Because this phase would always start too late to play an essential role in the ...
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides. It plays a central role in cell immunity as an inflammatory response initiator. Once activated through formation of an inflammasome complex, it initiates a proinflammatory response through the cleavage and thus activation of the two inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) as well as pyroptosis, a programmed lytic cell death pathway, through cleavage of Gasdermin D. The two inflammatory cytokines activated by Caspase-1 are excreted from the cell to further induce the inflammatory response in neighboring cells. Caspase-1 is evolutionarily conserved in many Eukaryotes of the Kingdom Animalia. Due to its role in the inflammatory immune response, it is highly expressed in the ...
... may be due to any number of causes, including proliferation of basal layer of epidermis to compensate skin loss, chronic inflammatory response, hormonal dysfunctions, or compensation for damage or disease elsewhere.[11] Hyperplasia may be harmless and occur on a particular tissue. An example of a normal hyperplastic response would be the growth and multiplication of milk-secreting glandular cells in the breast as a response to pregnancy, thus preparing for future breast feeding.[12] Perhaps the most interesting and potent effect IGF has on the human body is its ability to cause hyperplasia, which is an actual splitting of cells.[13] By contrast, hypertrophy is what occurs, for example, to skeletal muscle cells during weight training and steroid use and is simply an increase in the size of the cells.[14] With IGF use, one is able to cause hyperplasia which actually increases the number of muscle cells present in the tissue.[15] Weight training with or without anabolic steroid use ...
Because the glycocalyx is so prominent throughout the cardiovascular system, disruption to this structure has detrimental effects that can cause disease. Certain stimuli that cause atheroma may lead to enhanced sensitivity of vasculature. Initial dysfunction of the glycocalyx can be caused by hyperglycemia or oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which then causes atherothrombosis. In microvasculature, dysfunction of the glycocalyx leads to internal fluid imbalance, and potentially edema. In arterial vascular tissue, glycocalyx disruption causes inflammation and atherothrombosis.[8] Experiments have been performed to test precisely how the glycocalyx can be altered or damaged. One particular study used an isolated perfused heart model designed to facilitate detection of the state of the vascular barrier portion, and sought to cause insult-induced shedding of the glycocalyx to ascertain the cause-and-effect relationship between glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability. Hypoxic perfusion ...
ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ (ଇଂରାଜୀରେ Hepatitis) ଏକ ରୋଗ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀ ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ଯକୃତର ପ୍ରଦାହ (inflammation) ହୁଏ ।[୩] କେତେକ ଲୋକଙ୍କର କୌଣସି ଲକ୍ଷଣ ନ ଥାଏ ଓ ଅନ୍ୟ ପକ୍ଷରେ ଅନ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କର କାମଳ, ଆନୋରେକ୍ସିଆ ବା ଅରୁଚି (poor appetite), ବାନ୍ତି, ଥକ୍କା ଲାଗିବା (feel tired), ପେଟ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା (abdominal pain) ବା ତରଳ ଝାଡ଼ା ହୁଏ । [୧][୨] ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ ଏକ ସାମୟିକ ରୋଗ ବା ଦୀର୍ଘକାଳୀନ କ୍ରନିକ ରୋଗ (long term) ହୋଇପାରେ । [୧] ଆକ୍ୟୁଟ ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ ସ୍ୱତଃ ଉପଶମ ହୋଇପାରେ, ଏହା ପ୍ରଗତିଶୀଳ ହୋଇ କ୍ରନିକ ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ ...