**Biological** **model**

... the fluid mosaic

**model****Models**of abnormality#The**biological**(medical)**model**, the only**model**of psychological abnormalities not ... A**biological****model**is an organism or system representing a more complex**biological**entity. It may refer to: a**model**organism, a ... representing complex in vivo systems a mathematical**model**of a**biological**system, e.g., the**biological**neuron**model**, a ... mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system a scientific**model**of a**biological**system, e. ...**Modelling** **biological** systems

A challenge is the development of

**models**that predict effects across**biological**scales. Ecotoxicology and**models**discusses some ... Most current**models**describe effects on one of many different levels of**biological**organization (e.g. organisms or populations ...**Modelling****biological**systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology. Computational systems biology ...**Biological**data visualization Biosimulation Gillespie algorithm Molecular**modelling**software Stochastic simulation Sometimes ...**Biological** neuron **model**

... mechanistic

**models**) to more pragmatic**models**(e.g., phenomenological**models**).[better source needed]**Modeling**helps to analyze ... Aims of neuron**models**Ultimately,**biological**neuron**models**aim to explain the mechanisms underlying the operation of the ...**Biological**neuron**models**, also known as a spiking neuron**models**, are mathematical descriptions of neurons. In particular, these ... The Galves-Löcherbach**model**is a stochastic neuron**model**closely related to the spike response**model**SRM0 and to the leaky ...###### Chicken as **biological** research **model**

Today they continue to serve as an important

**model**for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes. Human ... The relatively large size of the chick as a**model**organism allowed scientists during this time to make these significant ... The chicken embryo is a unique**model**that overcomes many limitations to studying the biology of cancer in vivo. The ... Gordon, J. R.; Quigley, J. P. (1986). "Early spontaneous metastasis in the human epidermoid carcinoma HEp3/chick embryo**model**: ...**Biological** dispersal

A number of different functions are used for dispersal kernels in theoretical

**models**of dispersal including the negative ...**Biological**dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site ... Therefore,**biological**dispersal is critical to the stability of ecosystems. Few species are ever evenly or randomly distributed ...**Biological**dispersal may be contrasted with geodispersal, which is the mixing of previously isolated populations (or whole ...###### Linear no-threshold **model**

Its data was used in 1972 by the

**Biological**Effects of Ionizing Radiation I committee to support the LNT**model**. However, it has ... The validity of the LNT**model**, however, is disputed, and other significant**models**exist: the threshold**model**, which assumes ... The LNT**model**has been contested by a number of scientists. It has been claimed that the early proponent of the**model**Hermann ... Whether the LNT**model**describes the reality for small-dose exposures is disputed, and challenges to the LNT**model**used by NRC ...###### Info-gap decision theory

The conservation biologist faces info-gaps in using

**biological****models**. They use info-gap robustness curves to select among ... Sniedovich has shown that info-gap's robustness**model**is a simple stability radius**model**, namely a local stability**model**of the ... info-gap's robustness**model**is a Maximin**model**in disguise. More specifically, it is a simple instance of Wald's Maximin**model**... in an info-gap robustness**model**does not necessarily alter the fact that this**model**is a Maximin**model**. For instance, consider ...###### Theta **model**

The theta

**model**, or Ermentrout-Kopell canonical**model**, is a**biological**neuron**model**originally developed to mathematically ... The theta**model**is very similar to the QIF**model**since the theta**model**differs from the QIF**model**by means of a simple ...**Biological**neuron**model**Computational neuroscience FitzHugh-Nagumo**model**Hodgkin-Huxley**model**Neuroscience Kopell, N., ... Parabolic bursting**models**are mathematical**models**that mimic parabolic bursting in real**biological**systems. Each burst of a ...###### Clem Tisdell

Ecological

**Modelling**. 198 (3-4): 515-519. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.04.021. Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo; Swarna Nantha, ...**Biological**Conservation. 123 (2): 237-248. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.11.012. Tisdell, Clem (15 October 2006). "Knowledge about ...**Models** of neural computation

This article aims to provide an overview of the most definitive

**models**of neuro-**biological**computation as well as the tools ... The FitzHugh-Nagumo**model**is a simplication of the Hodgkin-Huxley**model**. The Hindmarsh-Rose**model**is an extension which ... The most widely used**models**of information transfer in**biological**neurons are based on analogies with electrical circuits. The ... The soliton**model**is an alternative to the Hodgkin-Huxley**model**that claims to explain how action potentials are initiated and ...###### Animal **models** of Parkinson's disease

Ding, Wen-Xing; Yin, Xiao-Ming (2012-07-01). "Mitophagy: mechanisms, pathophysiological roles, and analysis".

**Biological**... Parkinson's disease animal**models**are divided into two categories: neurotoxin**models**and genetic**models**. Neurotoxin**models**... The pre-formed fibril**model**was developed as a way to study the propagation of α-synuclein. This**model**consists of injecting ... A limitation to the pre-formed fibril**model**is that although it is a widely used**model**, it lacks overt neurodegeneration. The ...###### Spike response **model**

A common choice for the 'escape rate' f {\displaystyle f} (that is consistent with

**biological**data) is f ( V − ϑ ) = 1 τ 0 exp ... Precursors of the Spike Response**Model**are the integrate-and-fire**model**introduced by Lapicque in 1907 as well as**models**used ... The spike response**model**(SRM) is a spiking neuron**model**in which spikes are generated by either a deterministic or a ... The Spike Response**Model**has been introduced in a series of papers between 1991 and 2000. The name Spike Response**Model**...###### Wilson-Cowan **model**

page needed]Epilepsy as a Dynamic Disease, edited by J. Milton and P. Jung,

**Biological**and Medical Physics series Springer, ... When time coarse-grained**modeling**is assumed the**model**simplifies, being the new equations of the**model**: τ d E ¯ d t = − E ... Cowan and extensions of the**model**have been widely used in**modeling**neuronal populations. The**model**is important historically ... The**model**was inspired as the neural analog of Rayleigh-Bénard convection cloud patterns in fluid thermodynamics. The Wilson- ...###### Kuramoto **model**

Its formulation was motivated by the behavior of systems of chemical and

**biological**oscillators, and it has found widespread ... The Kuramoto**model**(or Kuramoto-Daido**model**), first proposed by Yoshiki Kuramoto (蔵本 由紀, Kuramoto Yoshiki), is a mathematical ... There are a number of types of variations that can be applied to the original**model**presented above. Some**models**change to ... The topology on which the Kuramoto**model**is studied can be made adaptive by use of fitness**model**showing enhancement of ...###### Haken-Kelso-Bunz **model**

**Biological**Cybernetics. 51: 347-356. doi:10.1007/BF00336922. Kelso, J.A.S. (2008). "Haken-Kelso-Bunz

**model**. Scholarpedia. , 3( ... In the HKB

**model**ϕ is the relative phase or phase relation between the fingers. The parameter k in the

**model**has a ... Excitator

**model**Haken, H.; Kelso, J.A.S.; Bunz, H. (1985). "A theoretical

**model**of phase transitions in human hand movements". ... The HKB

**model**has had a profound effect on many conceptual, methodological, and practical

**models**since its inception. HKB has ...

###### Dynamic energy budget theory

Several popular empirical

**models**are special cases of the DEB**model**, or very close numerical approximations. The theory ... M., Kooijman, S. A. L. (1993). Dynamic energy budgets in**biological**systems : theory and applications in ecotoxicology. ...**Models**based on DEB theory can be linked to more traditional bioenergetic**models**without deviating from the underlying ... The main advantage of the DEB-theory based**model**over most other**models**is its description of energy assimilation and ...###### Quantitative **models** of the action potential

**Biological**neuron

**models**GHK current equation

**Models**of neural computation Saltatory conduction Bioelectronics Cable theory ... The simplest

**models**of the action potential are the "flush and fill"

**models**(also called "integrate-and-fire"

**models**), in which ... Both types of

**models**may be used to understand the behavior of small

**biological**neural networks, such as the central pattern ... The FitzHugh-Nagumo

**model**is a typical example of such a simplified system. Based on the tunnel diode, the FHN

**model**has only ...

###### Dynamic causal **modeling**

A

**model**of interacting neural populations is specified, with a level of**biological**detail dependent on the hypotheses and ... The**model**(s) are fitted to the data to determine their evidence and parameters.**Model**comparison. The evidence for each**model**... Neural Field**Model**(NFM). Extends the**models**above into the spatial domain,**modelling**continuous changes in current across the ... Conductance**models**: Neural Mass**Model**(NMM) and Mean-field**model**(MFM). These have the same arrangement of neural populations ...###### Action potential

2005).

**Modeling**in the Neurosciences: from**Biological**Systems to Neuromimetic Robotics. Boca Raton, Fla.: Taylor & Francis. ... its complexity has inspired several even-more-simplified**models**, such as the Morris-Lecar**model**and the FitzHugh-Nagumo**model**, ... Kepler TB, Abbott LF, Marder E (1992). "Reduction of conductance-based neuron**models**".**Biological**Cybernetics. 66 (5): 381-7. ... Anode break excitation Bioelectricity**Biological**neuron**model**Bursting Central pattern generator Chronaxie Frog battery Law of ...**Biological** network inference

There is great interest in network medicine for the

**modelling****biological**systems. This article focuses on inference of ...**Model**refinement Cross-check how well the results meet the expectations. The process is terminated upon obtaining a good**model**...**Biological**network inference is the process of making inferences and predictions about**biological**networks. By using these ...**Model**selection A formalism to**model**your system, usually an ordinary differential equation, boolean network, or Linear ...###### Basal ganglia

The circuitry

**model**has evolved since the first proposed**model**in the 1990s by DeLong in the parallel processing**model**, in ...**Biological**Cybernetics. 103 (3): 237-53. doi:10.1007/s00422-010-0401-y. PMID 20644953. S2CID 853119. Cameron IG, Watanabe M, ... which although was not included in the first formulations of basal ganglia**models**, has been an addition to more recent**models**. ... Two**models**have been proposed for the basal ganglia, one being that actions are generated by a "critic" in the ventral striatum ...###### Dopamine

"WHO

**Model**List of Essential Medicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 ... Dopamine-derived melanin probably appears in at least some other**biological**systems as well. Some of the dopamine in plants is ... A neuropsychological**model**which distinguishes these two components of an intrinsically rewarding stimulus is the incentive ... In the**model**organism, nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, it reduces locomotion and increases food-exploratory movements; in ...###### Marxan

McGowan J, Hines E, Elliott M, Howar J, Dransfield A, Nur N, Jahncke J (2013-08-13). "Using seabird habitat

**modeling**to inform ...**Biological**Conservation. 162: 41-51. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.03.003. ISSN 0006-3207. Segan DB, Game ET, Watts ME, Stewart RR ... 2009-12-01). "Marxan with Zones: Software for optimal conservation based land- and sea-use zoning". Environmental**Modelling**& ...**Biological**Conservation. 144 (7): 2020-2030. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.024. ISSN 0006-3207. Tulloch VJ, Possingham HP, ...###### Niche apportionment **models**

Mechanistic

**models**for niche apportionment are**biological****models**used to explain relative species abundance distributions. ... Fixed Division**Model**was similar to the random fraction**model**, but the randomness of the**model**is drawn from a triangular ... A similar**model**was developed by Sugihara in an attempt to provide a**biological**explanation for the log normal distribution of ... the Dominance Pre-emption**model**to the most even the Dominance Decay and MacArthur Fraction**models**. This**model**describes a ...###### Wilson Lake (Kansas)

"Wilson

**Model**" (PDF). Kansas Water Office. Retrieved 2015-11-09. "Bathymetric and Sediment Survey of Wilson Lake Reservoir, ... Russell County, Kansas" (PDF). Kansas**Biological**Survey. May 2009. Retrieved 2015-09-23. "Wilson Wildlife Area". Kansas ...###### Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology

**Modeling**Biology. Structures, Behaviors, Evolution. Manfred D. Laubichler and Gerd B. Müller (Eds.), 2007.

**Biological**... Functions in

**Biological**and Artificial Worlds. Comparative Philosophical Perspectives. Ulrich Krohs and Peter Kroes (Eds.), ... The KLI fosters research projects, workshops, archives, book projects, and the journal

**Biological**Theory, all devoted to ... and the

**biological**bases of cognition and mind. The Vienna Series grew out of the Altenberg Workshops in Theoretical Biology ...

###### Limit cycle

Roenneberg, Till; Chua, Elaine Jane; Bernardo, Ric; Mendoza, Eduardo (2008-09-09). "

**Modelling****Biological**Rhythms". Current ... The Sel'kov**model**of glycolysis. The daily oscillations in gene expression, hormone levels and body temperature of animals, ... Limit cycles have been used to**model**the behavior of many real-world oscillatory systems. The study of limit cycles was ... Some non-linear electrical circuits exhibit limit cycle oscillations, which inspired the original Van der Pol**model**. The ...###### Dynamic global vegetation **model**

B,

**Biological**Sciences. The Royal Society. 273 (927): 593-610. 1976-02-26. doi:10.1098/rstb.1976.0035. ISSN 0080-4622. Stewart ... "UMD Earth system**model**". atmos.umd.edu. "Community Climate System**Model**(CCSM) , Community Earth System**Model**". www.cesm.ucar. ... "Vegetation/ecosystem**modeling**and analysis project- Comparing biogeography and biogeochemistry**models**in a continental-scale ... The next generation of**models**- Earth system**models**(ex. CCSM, ORCHIDEE, JULES, CTEM ) - now includes the important feedbacks ...###### Transformed cladistics

And where

**models**are introduced in phylogenetic reconstruction, we should prefer**models**dictated by features of the data to ... Woodger, S. (1945). "On**Biological**Transformations". In: Essays on Growth and Form. Le Gros Clark, W. E., Medawar, P. B (eds ... Patterson, C. (1994). "Null or minimal**models**". In:**Models**In Phylogeny Reconstruction. Scotland, R. W. , Siebert, D. J. (eds ... Nelson, G. (1989). "Cladistics and evolutionary**models**". Cladistics. 5(3): 275-289. Patterson, C. (1980). "Cladistics". The ...###### History of artificial neural networks

In 1959, a

**biological****model**proposed by Nobel laureates Hubel and Wiesel was based on their discovery of two types of cells in ... This**model**paved the way for research to split into two approaches. One approach focused on**biological**processes while the ... This evolved into**models**for long-term potentiation. Researchers started applying these ideas to computational**models**in 1948 ... The first network is a generative**model**that**models**a probability distribution over output patterns. The second network learns ...