see also mitochondrial diseases. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is ... The MT-TI gene is located on the p arm of the mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 69 base pairs.[2] The structure of ... Mitochondrially encoded tRNA isoleucine also known as MT-TI is a transfer RNA which in humans is encoded by the mitochondrial ... July 1992). "Mitochondrial tRNA(Ile) mutation in fatal cardiomyopathy". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. ...
mitochondrial matrix. • extracellular exosome. • mitochondrion. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • citrate metabolic process ... Maximal activity of citrate synthase indicates the mitochondrial content of skeletal muscle.[6] The maximal activity can be ... It is synthesized using cytoplasmic ribosomes, then transported into the mitochondrial matrix. ... Citrate synthase is localized within eukaryotic cells in the mitochondrial matrix, but is encoded by nuclear DNA rather than ...
Carboxin was mainly used to control disease caused by basidiomycetes such as stem rusts and Rhizoctonia diseases. More recently ... Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial. Pfam PF05328 Ubiquinone binding site[edit]. Two ... Human disease[edit]. The human gene named SDH5, encodes for the SdhE protein. The gene itself is located in the chromosomal ... Role in disease[edit]. The fundamental role of succinate-coenzyme Q reductase in the electron transfer chain of mitochondria ...
see also mitochondrial diseases. *v. *t. *e. Metabolism: Protein metabolism, synthesis and catabolism enzymes ...
Schlattner U, Tokarska-Schlattner M, Wallimann T (February 2006). "Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease". ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ... Atomic structures of mitochondrial and cytosolic Creatine Kinase family members[edit]. A number of genuine CK structures have ...
For example, in yeast, the splicing is not carried out in the nucleus but at the cytoplasmic side of mitochondrial membranes.[ ... tRFs have multiple dependencies and roles; such as exhibiting significant changes between sexes, among races and disease status ... As with all eukaryotes, there are 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes[30] in humans. Mutations in some of these genes have been ... Two online tools are available for those wishing to learn more about tRFs: the framework for the interactive exploration of mitochondrial ...
Mitochondrial mutations in disease[edit]. See also: Mitochondrial diseases. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA are usually single ... Mitochondrial diseases. Notes and references[edit]. *^ Rose G, Passarino G, Scornaienchi V, Romeo G, Dato S, Bellizzi D, Mari V ... It is an important factor in considering the severity of mitochondrial diseases. Because most eukaryotic cells contain many ... Smigrodzki, R. M.; Khan, S. M. (2005). "Mitochondrial Microheteroplasmy and a Theory of Aging and Age-Related Disease". ...
The disease exists in both rapid and slow onsets, and involves inflammation of the gray matter of the bulb.[1] Infantile PBP is ... Wilson, John Eastman (1909). Diseases of the nervous system. Boericke & Runyon. p. 296. Retrieved 5 December 2017. Infantile ... a disease that manifests itself in two forms: Fazio Londe syndrome (FL) and Brown-Vialetto-Van-Laere syndrome (BVVL).[2] ...
US: The Foundation for PSP, CBD and Related Brain Diseases[47]. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Golbe LI (April 2014). " ... Especially, mitochondrial complex I inhibitors (such as acetogenins, quinolines and rotenoids) are implicated in PSP-like brain ... PSP may be mistaken for other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The cause of the ... Others consider them separate diseases.[16][17][18] PSP has been shown occasionally to co-exist with Pick's disease.[19] ...
The rarity of the disease complicates efforts to establish guidelines.[30] GABAA agonists,[2] usually diazepam but sometimes ... These patients tend not to have GAD antibodies.[2] Passive transfer of the disease by plasma injection has been shown in ... The stiff-man syndrome (SMS, also known as stiff-person syndrome) is a rare central nervous system autoimmune disease, but is ... Their description of the disease was based on 14 cases that they had observed over 32 years. Using electromyography, they noted ...
A Disease entity in childhood". Lancet. 2 (7311): 749-52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(63)90554-3. PMID 14055046.. ... and there is a number of ways that aspirin could cause or exacerbate mitochondrial damage. A potential increased risk of ... Reye syndrome is a rapidly worsening brain disease.[2] Symptoms may include vomiting, personality changes, confusion, seizures ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Surgeon General, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and ...
Louis ED (2014). "'Essential tremor' or 'the essential tremors': is this one disease or a family of diseases?". ... cerebrovascular disease, abnormal bleeding, hemorrhage and/or blood clotting disorders, advanced kidney disease or on dialysis ... "Journal of Parkinson's Disease. 7 (2): 369-376. doi:10.3233/JPD-160992. ISSN 1877-7171.. ... Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism can also occur simultaneously with ET.[5] A study found that the degree of tremor, ...
"Archives of Disease in Childhood. 78 (1): 89-94. doi:10.1136/adc.78.1.89. PMC 1717437. PMID 9534686.. ... It is not known what percentage of people with IIH will remit spontaneously, and what percentage will develop chronic disease.[ ... Those patients in whom no tumour was found were therefore diagnosed with "pseudotumor cerebri" (a disease mimicking a brain ... and Behçet's disease.[9] Mechanism[edit]. The cause of IIH is not known. The Monro-Kellie rule states that the intracranial ...
The current terminology and diagnostic criteria for the disease were established at a 2007 conference of experts on the disease ... As the disease progresses one of three groups of symptoms predominate. These are: *Parkinsonism (slow, stiff movement, writing ... MSA, Parkinson's disease, the Lewy body dementias, and other more rare conditions make up the synucleinopathies- ... 4] MSA often presents with some of the same symptoms as Parkinson's disease. However, those with MSA generally show little ...
... , also known as Lichtheim's disease,[1][2] refers to degeneration of the posterior ...
Brewis M, Poskanzer DC, Rolland C, et al., "Neurological disease in an English city". Acta Neurologica Scand Suppl 24:1--89, ... been demonstrated a block to the free flow of cerebrospinal fluid is a contributory factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. ... Mitochondrial disease. *Leigh disease. Demyelinating. *autoimmune *Multiple sclerosis. *Neuromyelitis optica. *Schilder's ...
Last PM, Sherlock S (February 1960). "Systemic absorption of orally administered neomycin in liver disease". N. Engl. J. Med. ... Hepatic encephalopathy can occur in those with acute or chronic liver disease.[3] Episodes can be triggered by infections, GI ... The antibiotic rifaximin may be recommended in addition to lactulose for those with recurrent disease.[1] It is a nonabsorbable ... The diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy can only be made in the presence of confirmed liver disease (types A and C) or a ...
"Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 179 (4): 181-241.. *^ Owens, Laurence J; France, Karyn G; Wiggs, Luci (1999). "REVIEW ... It is neither a disease nor a specific condition. (from p. 322). CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link). .mw-parser-output ... Idiopathic hypersomnia: a chronic neurological disease similar to narcolepsy in which there is an increased amount of fatigue ... Arnulf, Isabelle; Rico, Thomas; Mignot, Emmanuel (2012). "Diagnosis, Disease Course, and Management of Patients with Kleine- ...
Lyme disease or Bartonella henselae may also cause encephalitis.[citation needed] Other bacterial pathogens, like Mycoplasma ... "Clinical Infectious Diseases. 57 (8): 1114-28. doi:10.1093/cid/cit458. PMC 3783060. PMID 23861361.. ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (9): 1443-51. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131332. PMC 4178385. PMID 25148201.. ... Center for Disease Control. Archived from the original on 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2015-08-05.. ...
... and there are a number of these diseases; even then, such an outcome is usually still not a cure, just an amelioration of a ... unless perhaps if the person had a fatal or very severe form of a neurodegenerative syndrome or other disease where such severe ... Mitochondrial disease. *Leigh disease. Demyelinating. *autoimmune *Multiple sclerosis. *Neuromyelitis optica. *Schilder's ...
Rosenberg, Gary (1999). "Ischemic Brain Edema". Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 42 (3): 209-16. doi:10.1016/s0033-0620(99) ...
Mitochondrial disease. *Leigh disease. Demyelinating. *autoimmune *Multiple sclerosis. *Neuromyelitis optica. *Schilder's ...
Hammer, edited by Stephen J. McPhee, Gary D. (2010). "7". Pathophysiology of disease : an introduction to clinical medicine ( ... Hippocrates (400 BC) held this view, treating it as a sacred disease. However, in his writings about it, he concludes that it ... It cannot be used to rule out the diagnosis and may be falsely positive in those without the disease. In certain situations it ... Other causes are CNS tumors, head trauma, and other degenerative diseases that are common in the older age group, such as ...
GBD 2016 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (16 September 2017). "Global, regional, and national ... Dec 15, 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic ... They are thus not recommended for people with cardiovascular disease,[10] who have had a stroke, or have migraines that are ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016". Lancet. 390 (10100): 1211-1259. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17) ...
See also: Parkinson's disease. History[edit]. Vesalius and Piccolomini in 16th century distinguished subcortical nuclei from ... Poewe, Werner; Jankovic, Joseph (2014-02-20). Movement Disorders in Neurologic and Systemic Disease. Cambridge University Press ... Baizabal-Carvallo, JF; Jankovic J. (2012-07-18). "Movement disorders in autoimmune diseases". Movement disorders : official ... Movement disorders have been known to be associated with a variety of autoimmune diseases.[7] ...
Adler, C. H.; Thorpy, M. J. (2005). "Sleep issues in Parkinson's disease". Neurology. 64 (12 Suppl 3): S12-S20. doi:10.1212/WNL ... In many cases, insomnia is co-morbid with another disease, side-effects from medications, or a psychological problem. ... or related neurological diseases can benefit from the use of melatonin. This is because they often have trouble sleeping due to ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. ...
... which is more commonly called diffuse Lewy body disease and refers to the underlying disease process, and the umbrella term, ... "variously ascribed to Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, or postencephalitic parkinsonism".[17] Based on signs in his work ... Lewy body dementia (LBD, sometimes referred to as Lewy body disorder) is an umbrella term[1] that includes Parkinson's disease ... Not to be confused with dementia with Lewy bodies, one of the Lewy body dementias, along with Parkinson's disease dementia. ...
G71.3) Mitochondrial myopathy, not elsewhere classified. *(G72) Other myopathies *(G72.0) Drug-induced myopathy ... G00-G99 - Diseases of the nervous system[edit]. (G00-G09) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. *(G00) ... G30) Alzheimer's disease. *(G31) Other degenerative diseases of nervous system, not elsewhere classified *(G31.0) ... G94) Other disorders of brain in diseases classified elsewhere. *(G95) Other diseases of spinal cord *(G95.0) Syringomyelia and ...
... chronic kidney disease and a number of neurodegenerative diseases that damage or destroy parts of the brainstem or the ... is often a precursor to Parkinson's disease (more than 25 percent of patients with Parkinson's disease have an associated ... Tremor in peripheral neuropathy may occur when the nerves that supply the body's muscles are traumatized by injury, disease, ... Cerebellar tremor is caused by lesions in or damage to the cerebellum resulting from stroke, tumor, or disease such as multiple ...
Mitochondrial[edit]. Main article: Mitochondrial disease. This type of inheritance, also known as maternal inheritance, applies ... sickle-cell disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Niemann-Pick disease, spinal muscular atrophy, and Roberts syndrome. Certain other ... It is important to stress that the vast majority of mitochondrial disease (particularly when symptoms develop in early life) is ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Office of Rare Diseases (ORD), National Institutes of Health (NIH) ...
... mitochondrial disease)中具有一定的重要性。而且這些基因也可以用來研究人類的演化,舉例而言,若分析人類粒線體基因組的變異情況,將能夠使科學家描繪出人類的共同祖先,稱為「粒線體夏娃」(Mitochondrial Eve)。之所以稱為夏娃 ... Mitochondrial DNA and human history. The Human Genome. 2003-10-09 [2006-09-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-07) (英语).. ... Olson M, Varki A. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights
It is commonly found when the ileum is abnormal or has been surgically removed, as in Crohn's disease, or cause a condition ... An alternative (acidic) pathway of bile acid synthesis is initiated by mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), expressed ... particularly in primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease, with varying results partly related to dosage.[ ... "Bile acids in glucose metabolism in health and disease". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 215 (2): 383-396. doi:10.1084/jem. ...
... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure, and severe burns; patients who have "cachexia" in these disease settings ... mitochondrial dynamics and functions). Moreover, HMB is cheap (~30- 50 US dollars per month at 3 g per day) and may prevent ... There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy, including activity, as seen ... Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD ( ...
Infectious diseasesEdit. Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... Cardiology, atherosclerosis and vascular disease study: In clinical cardiology, FDG-PET can identify so-called "hibernating ... March 1999). "In vivo mapping of cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity in aging and Alzheimer's disease". Neurology. 52 (4): ...
Curran SP, Koehler CM (2004). Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis. Springer. p. 59. ISBN 9783540214892. .. ... Many became exaptations, taking on new functions like participating in cell division, protein routing, and even disease ... A few chloroplast genes found new homes in the mitochondrial genome-most became nonfunctional pseudogenes, though a few tRNA ... Hedtke B, Börner T, Weihe A (August 1997). "Mitochondrial and chloroplast phage-type RNA polymerases in Arabidopsis". Science. ...
Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ... comparative cytogenetics and analysis of mitochondrial DNA". The Journal of Heredity. 82 (6): 447-52. doi:10.1093/ ... Malignant catarrhal fever is a fatal disease of domestic cattle caused by a gammaherpesvirus. Like the blue wildebeest, the ... Wild individuals can be competitors of commercial livestock, and can transmit fatal diseases such as rinderpest, and cause ...
Coccidians in the genus Aggregata living in the gut cause severe disease to the host. Octopuses have an innate immune system, ... inferred from three mitochondrial and six nuclear loci: a comparison of alignment, implied alignment and analysis methods". ... The diseases and parasites that affect octopuses have been little studied, but cephalopods are known to be the intermediate or ...
Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. ... thus interrupting the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Cyanogen gas is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory system. ...
The results of this program were first documented in the Effects of a Disease Management Program in Individuals with Alpha-1 ... Perlmutter DH (December 2002). "Liver injury in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: an aggregated protein induces mitochondrial ... Axelsson and Laurell first investigated the possibility of allelic variants of A1AT leading to disease in 1965. Alpha 1- ... Campos, Michael A.; Alazemi, Saleh; Zhang, Guoyan; Wanner, Adam; Sandhaus, Robert A. (2009-02-01). "Effects of a disease ...
Paterson, Sue (December 17, 2007). Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Science, Ltd. pp. 74-79. ISBN 9780470752432. .. ... "Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 95 ... Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Haesbrouck, Freddy; Martel, An (July 2012). "Dermatological Diseases in Lizards". The ... a common skin disease in snakes and lizards, will occur when ecdysis, or shedding, fails.[94] There are numerous reasons why ...
Lipids in Health and Disease. 9: 94. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94. PMC 2941756 . PMID 20815907.. ... "Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death". Physiology. 20 (5): 303-315. doi:10.1152/physiol.00020.2005. ISSN ... 2006). "Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (19): 1991-2002. doi ... Jennifer Petrelli; Kathleen Y. Wolin (2009). Obesity (Biographies of Disease). Westport, Conn: Greenwood. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-313 ...
Mitochondrial toxicityEdit. Vitamin A exerts several toxic effects regarding redox environment and mitochondrial function [31] ... Possible pregnancy, liver disease, high alcohol consumption, and smoking are indications for close monitoring and limitation of ... Gundermann KJ, Kuenker A, Kuntz E, Droździk M (2011). "Activity of essential phospholipids (EPL) from soybean in liver diseases ... hyena disease): a historical review of the human and veterinary literature". Pediatric Radiology. 37 (12): 1264-7. doi:10.1007/ ...
... mitochondrial dysfunction, sleep disturbances, and chronic infections. The Infectious Disease Society of America states that ... Holtorf Medical Group, Inc - Torrance, CA) Lyme Disease". Hormoneandlongevitycenter.com. Retrieved 2011-11-26. "Lyme Disease ... Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 43 (9): 1089-134. ... This view is contrary to the position statements of agencies such as the Center for Disease Control and the Institute of ...
Over 60 million Brazilians possess at least one Native South American ancestor, according to a recent mitochondrial DNA study.[ ... Many Germans died of tropical disease, while others left the colonies to find better living conditions. The German colony of ... The original Amerindian population of Brazil (between two and five million) largely died from disease or violence or was ... Mortality by non-transmissible illness: 151.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants caused by heart and circulatory diseases, along ...
Alzheimer's disease[edit]. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with an inherited form of the disease may carry mutations in the ... mitochondrial inner membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of ... These mutations result in early-onset Alzheimer's Disease, which is a rare form of the disease. These rare genetic variants are ... "Entrez Gene: PSEN1 presenilin 1 (Alzheimer disease 3)".. *^ Chan YM, Jan YN (August 1998). "Roles for proteolysis and ...
mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • condensed chromosome. • ... news from an old disease". Veterinary Pathology. 48 (1): 98-116. doi:10.1177/0300985810390826. PMID 21149845.. ...
Gilbert F (1999). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 16". Genet Test. 3 (2): 243-54. ... ACSM2B: encoding enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM2B, mitochondrial. *ACSM3: encoding enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ... PDF: encoding enzyme Peptide deformylase, mitochondrial. *PDPR: encoding protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory ... PKDTS: Polycystic kidney disease, infantile severe, with tuberous sclerosis. *PMFBP1: encoding protein Polyamine-modulated ...
... it may originate from the disease of psittacosis, which can be passed to humans.[121][122] The first occurrence of a related ... inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences". Systematic Biology. 55 (3): 454-470. doi:10.1080/10635150600697390. ...
Anthrax and the blood-disease sepsis are known to occur.[11] In March 2017, of a group of four tigers consisting of an adult ... Mitochondrial DNA comparison suggests the ancestors of modern rhinos split from the ancestors of Equidae around 50 million ... The rhinos are also vulnerable to diseases spread by parasites such as leeches, ticks, and nematodes. ... Any catastrophic event such as disease, civil disorder, poaching, or habitat loss would have a devastating impact on the Indian ...
500000-599999: Mitochondrial loci or phenotypes. *600000 and above: Autosomal loci or phenotypes (entries created after May 15 ... Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, a database that integrates chemicals and genes with human diseases, including OMIM data. ... and its numbering system is widely used in the medical literature to provide a unified index for genetic diseases.[8] ...
Alexander, T. L., & Buxton, D. (Eds.). (1986). Management and diseases of deer: a handbook for the veterinary surgeon. ... Studies of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA in white-tailed eagles from north-central Europe have shown that the recovering ... An ancient DNA study published in 2015 characterized the rapidly evolving mitochondrial control region of one of these ... Evolutionary history of New and Old World vultures inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. ...
mitochondrial inner membrane. • mitochondrial envelope. • mitochondrial nucleoid. • extracellular exosome. • mitochondrion. ... A compound heterozygous mutation of the HADHB gene can causes axonal Charcot-Marie-tooth disease, which is a neurological ... This gene encodes the beta subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, a catalyst of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of ... Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial (TP-beta) also known as 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, ...
Mitochondrial DNA[edit]. In 2001, a method was devised by Jeffrey Wells and Felix Sperling to use mitochondrial DNA to ... it is often considered a pest that can carry serious diseases. The adults are 6-9 mm long. Their thorax is gray, with four ...
efficacy - empirical - encephalitis - end-stage disease - endemic - endogenous - endoscopy - endotoxin - endpoint - enteric - ... mitochondrial toxicity - molecule - molluscum contagiosum - monocyte - mononeuritis multiplex (MM) - monovalent vaccine - ... NAT - National Cancer Institute (NCI) - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) - National Institute of ... HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine trials network (HVTN) - HIV-1 - HIV-2 - HIV- ...
2008) Agricultural lung diseases. Environ Health Perspect 108:705-12. Hlastala MP, Ralph DD, Babb AL, Influence of gas physical ... Arita Y, Harkness SH, Kazzaz JA, Koo HC, Joseph A, Melendez JA, Davis JM, Chander A, Li Y. (2006) Mitochondrial localization of ... Secondary effects of sulfur mustard exposure lead to chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. A common exposure ... 2011) Sarcoid like granulomatous pulmonary disease in World Trade Center disaster responders. Am J Ind Med. 54:175-84. Banauch ...
The syndrome can be divided into primary (no underlying disease state) and secondary (in association with an underlying disease ... Anti-mitochondrial antibody. *Anti-cardiolipin. Anti-cytoplasm antibody. *Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic *C-ANCA ... Often, this disease is treated by giving aspirin to inhibit platelet activation, and/or warfarin as an anticoagulant. The goal ... Like many autoimmune diseases, it is more common in women than in men. The exact cause is not known, but activation of the ...
Breast cancer; Endometriosis; Female infertility (assisted reproduction); Prostate cancer; Uterine diseases (endometrial ... Mitochondrial donation. *Sex selection. In fiction. *See subsection in sperm donation. *Reproduction and pregnancy in ...
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 48 (1): 95-112. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-48.1.95. PMID 22247378. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... Gibb, G. C.; Kardailsky, O.; Kimball, R. T.; Braun, E. L. & Penny, D. (2007). "Mitochondrial genomes and avian phylogeny: ...