... miocamycin MeSH D09.408.477.550 - natamycin MeSH D09.408.477.575 - nystatin MeSH D09.408.477.600 - oleandomycin MeSH D09.408. ...
J01FA06 Roxithromycin J01FA07 Josamycin J01FA08 Troleandomycin J01FA09 Clarithromycin J01FA10 Azithromycin J01FA11 Miocamycin ...
... miocamycin MeSH D04.345.349.550 - natamycin MeSH D04.345.349.575 - nystatin MeSH D04.345.349.600 - oleandomycin MeSH D04.345. ...
... is a macrolide antibiotic. Holliday SM, Faulds D (October 1993). "Miocamycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity ...
... is an aminonucleoside antibiotic, derived from the Streptomyces alboniger bacterium,[1] that causes premature chain termination during translation taking place in the ribosome. Part of the molecule resembles the 3' end of the aminoacylated tRNA. It enters the A site and transfers to the growing chain, causing the formation of a puromycylated nascent chain and premature chain release.[2] The exact mechanism of action is unknown at this time but the 3' position contains an amide linkage instead of the normal ester linkage of tRNA. That makes the molecule much more resistant to hydrolysis and stops the ribosome. Puromycin is selective for either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Also of note, puromycin is critical in mRNA display. In this reaction, a puromycin molecule is chemically attached to the end of an mRNA template, which is then translated into protein. The puromycin can then form a covalent link to the growing peptide chain allowing the mRNA to be physically linked to its translational ...
First isolated from the Streptomyces fradiae and Streptomyces albogriseus in 1949 (NBRC 12773).[12] Neomycin is a mixture of neomycin B (framycetin); and its epimer neomycin C, the latter component accounting for some 5-15% of the mixture. It is a basic compound that is most active with an alkaline reaction.[2] It is also a thermostable compound that is soluble in water while insoluble in organic solvents.[2] Neomycin has good activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but is very ototoxic. Its use is thus restricted to oral treatment of intestinal infections.[13] Neomycin B is composed of four linked parts: D-neosamine, 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS), D-ribose, and L-neosamine. Neomycin A, also called neamine, contains D-neosamine and 2-deoxystreptamine. Neamine is made from six genes, DOIS gene (btrC, neo7); L-glutamine:DOI aminotransferase gene (btrS, neo6); a putative glycosyltransferase gene (btrM, neo8); a putative aminotransferase (similar to glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1- ...
Biosynthesis of spectinomycin begins similar to all aminoglycosides, with the formation of an inositol ring. The difference is the initial modification that forms the inositol ring of spectinomycin. The process begins with a glucose-6-phosphate (1a), which is reduced by NADH to form a ketone at C2 (2a). This ketone is then formed into a primary amine group through PLP and glutamine transamination (3a). This process is repeated again at C4 to form a second primary amine (4a). Once these two amines are present, the glucose ring is ready to be methylated through two S-adenosyl methionine molecules (5a). With this methylation, the glucose ring is finally ready to be converted into an inositol ring through inositol cyclase (6a). This can then be hydrolyzed to get rid of the phosphate group, making the inositol ring necessary for spectinomycin (7a). While all this happens, an alternate pathway is occurring creating the sugar functional group from a similar starting product. In this pathway, ...
... (formerly torezolid, trade name Sivextro),[1] is an oxazolidinone-class antibiotic. Tedizolid phosphate is a phosphate ester prodrug of the active compound tedizolid. It was developed by Cubist Pharmaceuticals, following acquisition of Trius Therapeutics (originator: Dong-A Pharmaceuticals), and is marketed for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (also known as complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs)).[2] Tedizolid has been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration on June 20, 2014, for the treatment of acute bacterial Skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by certain susceptible bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains, MRSA, and methicillin-susceptible strains), various Streptococcus species (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and S. anginosus group including S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), and Enterococcus faecalis.[3][4] Tedizolid is a second-generation ...
... can cause neurotoxicity if used at a higher dose or for longer than recommended. The resulting effects of neurotoxicity include vertigo, numbness, tingling of the skin (paresthesia), muscle twitching, and seizures.[2] Its toxic effect on the 8th cranial nerve causes ototoxicity, resulting in loss of balance and, more commonly, hearing loss.[1] Damage to the cochlea, caused by the forced apoptosis of the hair cells, leads to the loss of high-frequency hearing and happens before any clinical hearing loss can be detected.[9][23] Damage to the ear vestibules, most likely by creating excessive oxidative free radicals. It does so in a time-dependent rather than dose-dependent manner, meaning that risk can be minimized by reducing the duration of use.[24] Amikacin causes nephrotoxicity (damage to the kidneys), by acting on the proximal renal tubules. It easily ionizes to a cation and binds to the anionic sites of the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule as part of receptor-mediated ...
InChI=1S/C45H73BNO15/c1-24(2)36(47)39(50)54-27(5)30-16-12-11-13-17-32(48)42(7,8)34-21-19-26(4)45(57-34)38-41(52)56-31-23-29(53-28(31)6)15-14-18-33(49)43(9,10)35-22-20-25(3)44(58-35)37(40(51)55-30)59-46(60-38,61-44)62-45/h11-12,24-38,48-49H,13-23,47H2,1-10H3/q-1/p+1/b12-11-/t25-,26-,27-,28-,29-,30+,31+,32+,33-,34+,35+,36?,37?,38+,44+,45+,46?/m1/s1 ...
Like all aminoglycosides, tobramycin does not pass the gastro-intestinal tract, so for systemic use it can only be given intravenously or by injection into a muscle. Ophthalmic (tobramycin only, Tobrex, or combined with dexamethasone, sold as TobraDex) and nebulised formulations both have low systemic absorption. The formulation for injection is branded Nebcin. The nebulised formulation (brand name Tobi) is indicated in the treatment of exacerbations of chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. A proprietary formulation of micronized, nebulized tobramycin has been tested as a treatment for bacterial sinusitis.[3] Tobrex is a 0.3% tobramycin sterile ophthalmic solution is produced by Bausch & Lomb Pharmaceuticals. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% is added as a preservative. It is available by prescription only in the United States and Canada. In certain countries, it is available over the counter. Tobrex and TobraDex are indicated in the treatment of ...
... s are a class of antibiotics with a phenylpropanoid structure. They function by blocking the enzyme peptidyl transferase on the 50S ribosome subunit of bacteria.[1] Examples of amphenicols include chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, azidamfenicol and florfenicol. The first-in-class compound was chloramphenicol, introduced in 1949. Chloramphenicol was initially discovered as a natural product, but all amphenicols are now made by chemical synthesis. ...
InChI=1S/C14H24N2O7/c1-5-4-6(17)14(20)13(21-5)22-12-10(19)7(15-2)9(18)8(16-3)11(12)23-14/h5,7-13,15-16,18-20H,4H2,1-3H3/t5-,7-,8+,9+,10+,11-,12-,13+,14+/m1/s1 ...
سفتریاکسون (آیوپاک آدی: (6R,7R)-7-{[(2Z)-2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-,2-(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino}-3-{[(2-methyl-5,6-dioxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)thio]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, اینگیلیسجه: Ceftriaxone, (چینجه:頭孢曲松‎)، عربجه: سيفترياكسون‎، روسجا: Цефтриаксон) بیر شیمیایی بیلشیک دواء. بۇ دواءنین مول جرمیسی مول/قرم ۵۵۴٫۵۸ دیر. نیمه عمر یا یاریلانما سۆرعتی ۵٫۸-۸٫۷ ساعات زامان آپاریر و آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ اۆچون ایستیفاده اوْلونور. ...
سیکلوسرین (آیوپاک آدی: (R)-4-Amino-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, اینگیلیسجه: Cycloserine, عربجه: سيكلوسيرين‎، روسجا: Циклосерин) بیر شیمیایی بیلشیک دواء. بۇ دواءنین مول جرمیسی مول/قرم ۱۰۲٫۰۹۲ دیر. متابولیسمی قاراجییرده باش وئریر. سیکلوسرین آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ اۆچون ایستیفاده اوْلونور. ...
اسید نالیدیکسیک (آیوپاک آدی: 1-Ethyl-7-methyl-4-oxo-[1,8]naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid, اینگیلیسجه: Nalidixic acid, عربجه: حمض الناليديكسيك‎، روسجا: Налидиксовая кислота) بیر شیمیایی بیلشیک دواء. بۇ دواءنین مول جرمیسی مول/قرم ۲۳۲٫۲۳۵ دیر. متابولیسمی قاراجییرده باش وئریر. اسید نالیدیکسیک آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ اۆچون ایستیفاده اوْلونور. ...
سیلور سولفادیازین (آیوپاک آدی: Silver [(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl](pyrimidin-2-yl)azanide, اینگیلیسجه: Silver sulfadiazine, (چینجه:磺胺嘧啶银‎)) بیر شیمیایی بیلشیک دواء. بۇ دواءنین مول جرمیسی مول/قرم ۳۵۷٫۱۴ دیر. سیلور سولفادیازین آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ اۆچون ایستیفاده اوْلونور. ...
InChI=1S/C21H39N7O12/c1-5-21(36,4-30)16(40-17-9(26-2)13(34)10(31)6(3-29)38-17)18(37-5)39-15-8(28-20(24)25)11(32)7(27-19(22)23)12(33)14(15)35/h4-18,26,29,31-36H,3H2,1-2H3,(H4,22,23,27)(H4,24,25,28)/t5-,6-,7+,8-,9-,10-,11+,12-,13-,14+,15+,16-,17-,18-,21+/m0/s1 ...