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*  Photosynthesis
... outer layer of mesophyll cells surrounding a tightly packed cholorophyllous vascular bundle sheath cells. This type of anatomy ... The cells in the interior tissues of a leaf, called the mesophyll, can contain between 450,000 and 800,000 chloroplasts for ... Plants that use the C4 carbon fixation process chemically fix carbon dioxide in the cells of the mesophyll by adding it to the ... The transparent epidermis layer allows light to pass through to the palisade mesophyll cells where most of the photosynthesis ...
*  Glomerella graminicola
Hyphae migrate from epidermal cells to mesophyll cells. As a defense response, the cells produce papillae to prevent cell entry ... The penetration peg then grows, extends through the cell extracting nutrients and the host cell wall dies. ... This builds up an incredible amount of turgor pressure which the fungus then uses to push a hyphae through the corn cell wall. ... It is believed C. graminicola has a biotrophic phase because the plasma membrane of the epidermal cells is not immediately ...
*  Rust (fungus)
Then a peg grows into the plant's mesophyll cells. The peg produces specialised hyphal tips, known as haustoria. These spread ... The plant cell membranes invaginate around the main haustorial body forming a space known as the extra-haustorial matrix. An ... Inside the stoma, the hyphae tips flatten out to form structures known as appressoria that lock to the cell walls. It is ... Zhou, X.L., et al., A mechanosensitive channel in whole cells and in membrane patches of the fungus Uromyces. Science, 1991. ...
*  Laminaria
These structures are very similar to mesophyll cells found in higher plant leaves. A laminaria stick may be used to slowly ... Nestle, Nikolaus F.E.I.; Kimich, Rainer (March 1996). "NMR Imaging of Heavy Metal Absorption in Alginate, Immobilized Cells, ...
*  C4 carbon fixation
CO2 is shuttled via malate or aspartate from mesophyll cells to bundle-sheath cells. In these bundle-sheath cells CO2 is ... called bundle sheath cells, contains starch-rich chloroplasts lacking grana, which differ from those in mesophyll cells present ... The CO2 now enters the Calvin cycle and the pyruvate is transported back to the mesophyll cell. Since every CO2 molecule has to ... This enables a bundle-sheath-type area and a mesophyll-type area to be established within a single cell. Although this does ...
*  Vascular bundle
Loosely arranged mesophyll cells lie between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface. The Calvin cycle is confined to the ... Bundle-sheath cells are photosynthetic cells arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf. They form a ... chloroplasts of these bundle sheath cells in C4 plants. Campbell, N. A. & Reece, J. B. (2005). Photosynthesis. Biology (7th ed ... protective covering on leaf veins, and consist of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma. ...
*  Xylem
Transpiration in leaves creates tension (differential pressure) in the cell walls of mesophyll cells. Because of this tension, ... This causes millions of minute menisci to form in the mesophyll cell wall. The resulting surface tension causes a negative ... Transpirational pull: Similarly, the evaporation of water from the surfaces of mesophyll cells to the atmosphere also creates a ... Metaxylem vessels and cells are usually larger; the cells have thickenings which are typically either in the form of ladderlike ...
*  Myrothamnus flabellifolius
Most of the mesophyll cells fold their cell wall in response to desiccation. Sclerenchyma and vascular cells do not fold, ...
*  Tupiocoris notatus
It feeds on mesophyll cell contents of solanaceous plants like Datura and Nicotiana-species. The insect is about 2 - 3 mm long ...
*  Carrot Yellow-leaf Virus
Closteroviruses are usually phloem-limited, but some groups might infect parenchyma and mesophyll cells; therefore, ... but cell-to-cell movement is not possible. Therefore, the tail is essential for viral movement. Hsp70h, which was seen in cell- ... the viral genome has successfully infected another cell. Egress to neighbour cells and to cell matrix happens in a similar ... One of the most important proteins for cell-to-cell movement is a Hsp70 homolog, or Hsp70h; it has this name because it is one ...
*  Oil body
Journal of Cell Biology 1992 vol. 117 no. 2 327-335 doi:10.1083/jcb.117.2.327 Lersten et al. Oil bodies in leaf mesophyll cells ... An oil body is a lipid-containing structure found in plant cells. The term can refer to at least two distinct kinds of ... The size, shape, color, and number of oil bodies per cell is characteristic of certain species and may be used to identify ... Oil Bodies are the organelle that has evolved to hold triglycerides in plant cells. They are therefore the principal store of ...
*  Transpiration stream
First, the water moves into the mesophyll cells from the top of the xylem vessels. Then the water evaporates out of the cells ... As the cells surface membrane of the root hair cell is semi-permeable, osmosis can take place; and water passes from the soil ... The water either goes through the cortex cells (between the root cells and the xylem vessels) or it bypasses them - going ... There is greater water potential in the soil than in the cytoplasm of the root hair cells. ...
*  Phytosulfokine
... sulfated peptides that induce the proliferation of single mesophyll cells of Asparagus officinalis L". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Phytosulfokines are sulfated growth factors strongly promoting proliferation of plant cells in cultures. Matsubayashi Y, ...
*  Palisade cell
... converting the in light to the chemical energy of carbohydrates Beneath the palisade mesophyll are the spongy mesophyll cells, ... Cytoplasmic streaming Guard cell Xylem cell Phloem cell Higaki, T.; Rasmussen, H.P.; Carpenter, W.J. (1984). A Study of Some ... They are vertically elongated, a different shape from the spongy mesophyll cells beneath them in the leaf. Their chloroplasts ... Palisade cells contain the largest number of chloroplasts per cell, which makes them the primary site of photosynthesis in the ...
*  Pressure Flow Hypothesis
Glucose is produced by photosynthesis in the mesophyll cells of green leaves. Some glucose is used within the cells during ... solution in the photosynthesis cells. The sucrose is actively transported to the companion cells of the smallest veins in the ... Cells in a sugar source "load" a sieve-tube element by actively transporting solute molecules into it. This causes water to ... In sugar sinks, cells actively transport solutes out of the sieve-tube elements, producing the exactly opposite effect. The ...
*  Saintpaulia
This is thought to be because rapid leaf cooling causes cell vacuole collapse in the palisade mesophyll cells. African violets ... Palisade Cells Induced by a Rapid Temperature Decrease". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e57259. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057259. PMC 3581458 ...
*  Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
Pyruvate is converted back to PEP in the mesophyll cells, and the cycle begins again, thus actively pumping CO2. The second ... PEP carboxylase plays the key role of binding CO2 in the form of bicarbonate with PEP to create oxaloacetate in the mesophyll ... Estimation of the activities in the cells grown on various compounds". J. Biochem. 87 (2): 441-9. PMID 6987214. Smith, Thomas E ... to release the CO2 in the deeper layer of bundle sheath cells for carbon fixation by RuBisCO and the Calvin cycle. ...
*  Anthocyanin
In these parts, they are found predominantly in outer cell layers such as the epidermis and peripheral mesophyll cells. Most ... The many benefits to using dye-sensitized solar cells instead of traditional p-n junction silicon cells, include lower purity ... Anthocyanins fluoresce, enabling a tool for plant cell research to allow live cell imaging without a requirement for other ... dynamic tubular vacuoles radiate through the cortical cytoplasm of red onion epidermal cells". Plant & Cell Physiology. 50 (10 ...
*  Plant matrix metalloproteinase
... neighboring mesophyll cell layers, and epidermal cells. The flowers were noted as having the gene in pistils, ovules, and ... The most basic description of the plant extracellular matrix (ECM) is the cell wall, but it is actually the cell surface ... The ECM is composed of the primary and secondary cell walls, along with the intercellular gap between its neighboring cells. ... Its RNA was taken from stromal cells in human breast carcinomas. Based on the PUMP sequence and functionality of carcinomas in ...
*  Photorespiration
PEPC is faster than RuBisCO, and more selective for CO 2. C4 plants capture carbon dioxide in their mesophyll cells (using an ... The CO 2 concentrations in the Bundle Sheath are approximately 10-20 fold higher than the concentration in the mesophyll cells ... Ammonia must be detoxified at a substantial cost to the cell. Photorespiration also incurs a direct cost of one ATP and one NAD ... This oxaloacetate is then converted to malate and is transported into the bundle sheath cells (site of carbon dioxide fixation ...
*  Transpiration
This movement lowers the water potential in the leaf airspace and causes evaporation of liquid water from the mesophyll cell ... The stomata are bordered by guard cells and their stomatal accessory cells (together known as stomatal complex) that open and ... Because of the cohesive properties of water, the tension travels through the leaf cells to the leaf and stem xylem where a ... This evaporation increases the tension on the water menisci in the cell walls and decrease their radius and thus the tension ...
*  Dawsonia (plant)
Polytrichia have lamella - chains of small cells on the upper surface of the leaves analogous to the mesophyll cells of ... The leaves of Polytrichum and Dawsonia (and related moss) differ from those of most mosses, which are only one or two cells ... They increase the surface area of cell walls available for CO2 uptake, while at the same time maintaining layers of moist air ... The water-conducting tissue is the hydrome, made up of elongated cells known as hydroids. Unlike the xylem of vascular plants, ...
*  Callus (cell biology)
In alfalfa, Medicago truncatula, however callus and somatic embryos are derived from mesophyll cells that undergo ... Plant callus (plural calluses or calli) is a growing mass of unorganized plant parenchyma cells. In living plants, callus cells ... Regeneration of a whole plant that has some genetically transformed cells and some untransformed cells yields a chimera. In ... In Jatropha curcas callus cells, small organized callus cells became disorganized and varied in size after browning occurred. ...
*  Hemiptera
Baje, Leontine; Stewart, A.J.A.; Novotny, Vojtech (2014). "Mesophyll cell-sucking herbivores (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) on ... The Typhlocybine Cicadellids specialize in feeding on non-vascular mesophyll tissue of leaves, which is more nutritious than ... Most Heteroptera also feed on mesophyll tissue where they are more likely to encounter defensive secondary plant metabolites ... polygalacturonase to weaken the tough cell walls of plants, and proteinases to break down proteins. Although the Hemiptera vary ...
*  Gas exchange
The spongy mesophyll cells are loosely packed, allowing for an increased surface area, and subsequently an increased rate of ... The size of a stoma is regulated by the opening and closing of its two guard cells: the turgidity of these cells determines the ... It consists of the alveolar epithelial cells, their basement membranes and the endothelial cells of the pulmonary capillaries ( ... Each cell of the sponge's body is therefore exposed to a constant flow of fresh oxygenated water. They can therefore rely on ...
*  Asparagus virus 1
Inclusions are present in infected cells. Inclusion bodies in the host cell are found in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic inclusions ... 1983). Virus can be best detected in leaves, stems, roots and mesophyll. Virions are found in the cytoplasm. ...