4.5 Protein targeting and import *4.5.1 Transport proteins and membrane translocons ... Outer chloroplast membrane. Main article: Chloroplast membrane. The outer chloroplast membrane is a semi-porous membrane that ... Transport proteins and membrane translocons. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, an ... Inner chloroplast membrane. Main article: Chloroplast membrane. The inner chloroplast membrane borders the stroma and regulates ...
... performs this function by specifically binding to ergosterol and inhibiting membrane transport proteins.[14] ... Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2012, 109, 11156-11159. ... Natamcyin is able to inhibit growth of fungi by inhibiting transport of amino acids and glucose across the plasma membrane. ... It results in fungal death by altering the cell membrane.[1] ...
membrane transport proteins. *nucleic acids. Drug target identificationEdit. Identifying the biological origin of a disease, ... proteins *G protein-coupled receptors (target of 50% of drugs)[7]. *enzymes (especially protein kinases, proteases, esterases, ... Examples of common classes of biological targets are proteins and nucleic acids. The definition is context-dependent, and can ... The term "biological target" is frequently used in pharmaceutical research to describe the native protein in the body whose ...
... inhibits amino acid and glucose transport proteins leading to a loss of nutrient transport across the plasma membrane ... "Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... It results in fungal death by altering the cell membrane. Natamycin was discovered in 1955 and approved for medical use in the ... Natamycin inhibits the growth of fungi by specifically binding to ergosterol present in fungal cell membranes. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... membrane. • mitochondrion. • nucleus. • plasma membrane. • integral component of membrane. • apical plasma membrane. • receptor ... heme transport. • drug transmembrane transport. • xenobiotic transport. • transmembrane transport. • cholesterol efflux. • ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.[§ 1] [[File:. ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • membrane. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... amyloid precursor protein catabolic process. • reverse cholesterol transport. • toxin transport. • high-density lipoprotein ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... This particular protein is responsible for the transport of taurocholate and other cholate conjugates from hepatocytes (liver ... This membrane-associated protein is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ... ABCB11 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ABCB11 human gene location in the ...
Functional and Phylogenetic Classification of Membrane Transport Proteins. Saier Lab. Group, UCSD and SDSC. Chen JS, Reddy V, ... All three subunits are essential for transport to the membrane assembly of functional channels on the membrane. The C-terminus ... CFTR is a transmembrane channel responsible for chloride transport and defects in this protein cause cystic fibrosis, partly ... Toczyłowska-Mamińska R, Dołowy K (February 2012). "Ion transporting proteins of human bronchial epithelium". Journal of ...
Identification of membrane proteins involved in water transport". European Journal of Cell Biology. 41 (2): 252-262. PMID ... benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes". Biochemistry. 25 (7 ... Peter Agre independently isolated the protein and demonstrated it was a ubiquitously expressed water transport protein, naming ... Benga showed the existence of a protein water channel in the red blood cell membrane. Two years later, in 1988, ...
Identification of membrane proteins involved in water transport". European Journal of Cell Biology. 41 (2): 252-262. PMID ... benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes". Biochemistry. 25 (7 ... In 1986 Gheorghe Benga showed the existence of a protein water channel in the red blood cell membrane. The omission of Gheorghe ... the first discoverer of the water channel protein in the red blood cell membrane". Agre, Peter. "Nobel Lecture, December 8, ...
A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ... Olweus J, Lund-Johansen F, Horejsi V (1993). "CD53, a protein with four membrane-spanning domains, mediates signal transduction ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... CD53+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD53 genome location and CD53 ...
Patched has sequence similarity to known membrane transport proteins. When extracellular Hh is present (Figure 3), it binds to ... The steps leading to Ci protein proteolysis include phosphorylation of Ci protein by several protein kinases; PKA, GSK3β and ... PTCH1 has homology to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) that is known to transport lipophilic molecules across a membrane. ... The Drosophila protein Fused (Fu in Figure 3) is a protein kinase that binds to Costal-2. Fused can inhibit Suppressor of Fused ...
Molecular targets in pharmacology include receptors, enzymes and membrane transport proteins. Enzymes can be targeted with ... Interactions between proteins are frequently visualized and analyzed using networks. This network is made up of protein-protein ... target membrane transport proteins and anticholinesterases (such as sarin) target enzymes ... Major receptor types studied in pharmacology include G protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels and receptor ...
ZIP7 is a membrane transport protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. Phosphorylation of ZIP7 by casein kinase 2 stimulates the ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Zinc transporter SLC39A7 (ZIP7), also known as solute carrier family 39 member 7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... It is involved in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as in the control of gene transcription, ...
A urea transporter is a membrane transport protein, transporting urea. Humans and other mammals have two types of urea ... Urea transport in the kidney is regulated by vasopressin. The structure of a urea transport family protein from Desulfovibrio ... accounting for the ability of urea transport proteins to move up to one million urea molecules per second across the membrane. ... Urea Transporter 2 transports urea across the apical membrane into the luminal space of cells in the thin descending loop of ...
"Trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins by the intraflagellar transport/BBSome machinery". Essays in Biochemistry. 62 (6): 753 ... as is Rab8a in transporting PKD2. Not all ciliary proteins use a RVxP motif for transport, however; VxPx and Ax(S/A)xQ have ... "The Joubert syndrome protein ARL13B binds tubulin to maintain uniform distribution of proteins along the ciliary membrane". ... The kinesins KIF17 is implicated in transporting the CNGB1 protein which has a RVxP motif into human cilia, ...
The protein localisation to the vacuolar membrane supports this suggestion (see also Chapter 1.5). The protein transports Mg2+ ... also showed that the protein could transport Zn2+ and Fe2+, but did not report on the capacity of the protein to transport ... Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. All forms of life require magnesium, yet ... Smith DL, Tao T, Maguire ME (Oct 1993). "Membrane topology of a P-type ATPase. The MgtB magnesium transport protein of ...
Hicke L, Dunn R (2003). "Regulation of membrane protein transport by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins". Annual Review ... Vesicles also transport molecules directly back to the plasma membrane, but many molecules are transported in vesicles that ... Transmembrane proteins can be delivered to the perimeter membrane or the lumen of lysosomes. Transmembrane proteins destined ... and the iron transport protein transferrin. Internalization of these receptors from the plasma membrane occurs by receptor- ...
"Solid-State NMR Reveals Key Structural Features of Membrane Transport Proteins". Physics Today. 53 (9): 19-22. Bibcode:2000PhT ... and as a researcher of membrane-associated peptides and proteins, an organizer of international symposia, and author of a book ... Solid-State NMR Reveals Structural and Dynamical Properties of a Membrane-Anchored Electron-Carrier Protein, Cytochrome b(5), J ... Amyloid fiber formation and membrane disruption are separate processes localized in two distinct regions of IAPP, the type-2- ...
A carboxylate transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports carboxylate. They are responsible for the ... there are several kinds of carboxylate transporters in the apical membrane and the basolateral membrane. Na-monocarboxylate ...
... is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency. This protein is involved in the active ... transporting one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Organic cations transported by this protein include ... The SLC22A5 gene codes for a plasma integral membrane protein which functions as both an organic cation transporter and a ... The gene produces a 63 kDa protein composed of 557 amino acids. The protein has 12 putative transmembrane domains, with a long ...
Like the outer membrane secretin GspD these proteins are transported into the periplasm via the Sec translocation pathway ... Once the Sec machinery has transported the pre-pseudopilin across the inner membrane, but before the protein itself is released ... Unlike the other proteins that make up the inner membrane complex GspF is a multipass transmembrane protein and it may play a ... Korotkov KV, Gonen T, Hol WG (2011). "Secretins: dynamic channels for protein transport across membranes". Trends in ...
"Molecular mechanism of SRP-dependent light-harvesting protein transport to the thylakoid membrane in plants". Photosynthesis ... Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system. ... This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space. Enclosed ... Electron transport chain and ATP synthesis (thylakoid membranes). microsecond to millisecond 4. Carbon fixation and export of ...
2004). "Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Mol Membr Biol. 21 (3): 171-181. doi: ... The membrane potential alters the conformation of the channel proteins, regulating their opening and closing. Cell membranes ... thus they must diffuse through the membrane through transmembrane protein channels. They have a crucial role in excitable cells ... which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α ...
The Holin superfamily VI is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... These proteins appear to have one N-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS), followed by an amphipathic, weakly hydrophobic peak ...
The Holin superfamily VII is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... includes proteins displaying 4 putative TMSs. Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database "Holin Superfamily VII". ...
"Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Molecular Membrane Biology. 21 (3): 171-81. doi ... The KefC ancillary protein is YabF while the KefB ancillary protein is YheR. These ancillary proteins stimulate transport ... Its transport function is not known. The GerN and GrmA proteins of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, respectively, are ... The identification of these proteins as members of the CPA2 family reveals that monovalent cation transport is required for ...
The Holin Superfamily III is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... The average size of proteins in the entire superfamily is 114 aas with a standard deviation o 23 aas. Holin Lysin Transporter ... The missing TMS in family 34 proteins is the N-terminal TMS as revealed by multiple alignments. These seven families have ...
The Holin superfamily V is a superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. It is one of the seven different holin ... Proteins of this superfamily all appear to have 3 transmembrane segments (TMSs) and have average sizes of 97 and 101 amino acyl ... In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families ... Family Superfamily V includes protein families classified in the Transporter Classification Database as TC# 1.E.21 and TC# 1.E. ...
Another bile acid receptor is the cell membrane receptor known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 or TGR5. Many of their ... About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion ... Among these protein targets, the enzyme N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) generates bioactive ... Bile acids bind to some other proteins in addition to their hormone receptors (FXR and TGR5) and their transporters. ...
Main article: Membrane protein. Proteins within the membrane are key to its working. These proteins mainly transport chemicals ... may be membrane proteins.[5] Some of these proteins are linked to the exterior of the cell membrane. An example of this is the ... Some proteins are always stuck into it, these are called integral membrane proteins. It also has some which are only sometimes ... The membrane contains many proteins. The surface proteins can act as gates. They let some chemicals into the cell and let other ...
Newly synthesised structural proteins and genomes self-assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions ... "West Africa - Ebola virus disease Update: Travel and transport". International travel and health. World Health Organization ( ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... This processing appears to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes ...
... the newly synthesized protein is transported across the membrane (gray) into the interior of the ER. Sec61 is the protein- ... is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from dolichol to nascent protein. It is a type of ... Yeast OST is composed of eight different membrane-spanning proteins in three subcomplexes (one of them is OST4).[7][8] These ... ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ...
GABA metabolism/transport modulators This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. ... membrane. • synapse. • integral component of plasma membrane. • chloride channel complex. • cell junction. • plasma membrane. • ... ion transmembrane transport. • signal transduction. • chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of membrane potential. • ... chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • regulation of response to drug. • central nervous system development. • ...
A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... it is known that for about every five Toc75 proteins in the outer chloroplast membrane, there are two Tic20 I proteins (the ... which anchors the protein to the outer chloroplast membrane.[48]. Toc159 probably works a lot like Toc34, recognizing proteins ...
5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi ... The lacey membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 by scientists using an electron microscope.[2] ... It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm ... Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), so called because it is studded with ribosomes, and secretes proteins into the cytoplasm. ...
... blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ... which is mostly suspended from the roof of the mantle cavity by numerous membranes. The tract consists of a crop, where the ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ...
As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ... "Sister group relationship of turtles to the bird-crocodilian clade revealed by nuclear DNA-coded proteins". Molecular Biology ...
and interstitial protein osmotic pressure (. π. i. {\displaystyle \pi _{i}}. ), and two absorptive forces, plasma protein ... is the hydraulic conductivity of the membrane (SI units of m2·s·kg−1, equivalent to m·s−1·mmHg−1) ... The second Kedem-Katchalsky equation explains the trans endothelial transport of solutes, J. s. {\displaystyle J_{s}}. . ... Thus, the difference in protein concentration would produce a flow of fluid into the vessel at the venous end equivalent to 28 ...
protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • integral component of ... protein transport. • cerebral cortex cell migration. • positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body ... membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis. • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus. • ephrin receptor ...
Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[23] ... Possibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[37] ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected [2]. Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ...
In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K. ... M cells within the Peyer's patches physically transport the insoluble whole glucan particles into the gut-associated lymphoid ... "Role of the glycocalyx in regulating access of microparticles to apical plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells: ...
Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ... as the high temperature of freshly brewed tea can denature the proteins found in fresh milk, similar to the change in taste of ... which if left undisturbed will become a leathery membrane that can be wound around your finger and flipped away...[123] ...
postsynaptic membrane. Biological process. • calcium ion transport into cytosol. • regulation of insulin secretion. • ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... integral component of membrane. • membrane. • postsynaptic density. • plasma membrane. • Z disc. • L-type voltage-gated calcium ... calcium ion transmembrane transport via high voltage-gated calcium channel. • membrane depolarization during AV node cell ...
UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... EMP2: Epithelial membrane protein 2. *ENKD1: Enkurin domain-containing protein 1. *ERAF: Alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein ... TANGO6: encoding protein Transport and Golgi organization protein 6 homolog. *TAO2: encoding Serine/threonine-protein kinase ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ...
protein import into nucleus. • positive regulation of potassium ion transport. • response to amphetamine. • научение. • пищевое ... endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • часть клеточной мембраны. • ciliary membrane. • система эндомембран. • non-motile cilium. • ... regulation of protein phosphorylation. • histone H3-S10 phosphorylation. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... integral component of postsynaptic membrane. • integral component of presynaptic membrane. • Дендритный шипик. • дендрит. • ...
動物也有類似的構造,允許動物細胞間的物質交流,包含間隙連接(gap junctions)[7]和膜奈米管(英语:membrane nanotubes)(membrane nanotubes)[8][9] ... FT protein movement contributes to long distance signalling in floral induction of Arabidopsis. Science. 2007, 316 (5827): 1030 ... 14.0 14.1 Plasmodesmata and the control of symplastic transport A. G. ROBERTS & K. J. OPARKA ... PM=細胞膜(Plasma membrane). ER=內質網(Endoplasmic reticulum).
In order to carry large quantities of cholesterol it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins-protein "molecular- ... Cholesterol is required to build and maintain cell membranes; it regulates membrane fluidity over a wide range of temperatures ... assisting in the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. It also reduces the permeability of the plasma membrane to ... Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 and 2).[10] In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: ...
This is because fluorescein is xylem-mobile and unable to cross plasma membranes, making it particularly useful in tracking ... FITC reacts with the amine groups of many biologically relevant compounds including intracellular proteins to form a thiourea ... "Fluorescein Transport Assay to Assess Bulk Flow of Molecules Through the Hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana". Bio-Protocol. 8 ... allowing biologists to target the fluorophore to specific proteins or structures within cells. This application is common in ...
Disruption of cellular membranes can, for example, slow the transport of immunomodulatory proteins to the surface of infected ... An aggresome is a perinuclear site where misfolded proteins are transported and stored by the cell components for their ... Szajner; Weisberg, AS; Wolffe, EJ; Moss, B (2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral membranes ... At the same time, large amounts of ribosomes, protein-synthesis components, protein folding chaperones, and mitochondria are ...
Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex. *Glycine decarboxylase complex. *Mitochondrial trifunctional protein ... membrane. • mitochondrial outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • mitochondrial inner membrane. • mitochondrial envelope. • ... "Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2015.. ... The encoded protein can also bind RNA and decreases the stability of some mRNAs. The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of ...
The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins which accounts for its hydrophobicity as a result of being non-polar ... Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells. ... proteins and lipids which are either free flowing or membrane bound, along with different internal compartments known as ... and membrane channels. Inside of the cell are extensive internal sub-cellular membrane-bounded compartments called organelles. ...
Mitochondrial membrane transport protein *Mitochondrial permeability transition pore. *Mitochondrial carrier. Mitochondrial DNA ... that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosome site of protein synthesis during ...
Gravity is a Peripheral Membrane Protein That Modulates Gravity-Induced Cytoplasmic Alkalinization and Lateral Auxin Transport ...
1995). «Spatial association of HIV-1 tat protein and the nucleolar transport protein B23 in stably transfected Jurkat T-cells ... protein N-terminus binding. • chromatin binding. Componente celular. • citoplasma. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • spindle pole ... protein stabilization. • protein homooligomerization. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization ... protein oligomerization. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ...
Others modulate the activity of ion channels that control fluid transport across lung membranes or target surfactant, a ... In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... Type 2 pneumocytes are more resistant to damage, which is important as these cells produce surfactant, transport ions and ... Additionally oxidation of chlorine may form hypochlorous acid, which can penetrate cells and react with cytoplasmic proteins ...
plasma membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • tertiary granule membrane. • ficolin-1-rich granule membrane. • integral ... Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (October 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in ... effects of monensin on glycosylation and transport". Journal of Virology. 63 (6): 2452-6. PMC 250699. PMID 2542563.. ... membrane. • lysosomal membrane. • lysosomal lumen. • lysosome. • extracellular exosome. • ...
Protein builds tissue and cells in the body. Carbohydrates are very good for energy, but, if a person eats more than needed, ... Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. ... They play a special role in cell membranes.. *Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of ... If necessary, humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change proteins into carbohydrates. ...