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*  Membrane lipid
Membrane lipids also form a matrix in which membrane proteins reside. Historically lipids were thought to merely serve a ... lipid bilayer). The three major classes of membrane lipids are phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Lipids are ... Non-bilayer forming lipid like monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) predominates the bulk lipids in thylakoid membranes, which ... lipids_by_sucrose?ev=prf_pub YashRoy R.C. (1987) 13-C NMR studies of lipid fatty acyl chains of chloroplast membranes. Indian ...
*  Perilipin-2
"Adipocyte differentiation-related protein is secreted into milk as a constituent of milk lipid globule membrane". The ... This protein surrounds the lipid droplet along with phospholipids and are involved in assisting the storage of neutral lipids ... "Adipophilin enhances lipid accumulation and prevents lipid efflux from THP-1 macrophages: potential role in atherogenesis". ... Accumulation of lipid droplets induce the modification of macrophages to foam cells. Lysis of foam cells resulted in ...
*  Fatty acid metabolism
Stryer, Lubert (1995). "Biosynthesis of membrane lipids and steroids.". In: Biochemistry (Fourth ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman ... Fatty acids are an integral part of the phospholipids that make up the bulk of the plasma membranes, or cell membranes, of ... All cells in the body need to manufacture and maintain their membranes and the membranes of their organelles. Whether they rely ... Lipid Library - Lipid Chemistry, Biology, Technology and Analysis. Web. 30 Apr. 2011. <"Archived copy". Archived from the ...
*  3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) dehydratase
Cronan, J.E. Jr.; Rock, C.O. (1996). "Biosynthesis of membrane lipids". In Neidhardt, F.C. Escherichia coli and Salmonella: ...
*  Protein
... membrane lipids and proteins; cellular organelles, and nucleic acids. Precipitation by a method known as salting out can ... Membrane proteins often serve as receptors or provide channels for polar or charged molecules to pass through the cell membrane ... The membrane alone has a hydrophobic core through which polar or charged molecules cannot diffuse. Membrane proteins contain ... Others are membrane proteins that act as receptors whose main function is to bind a signaling molecule and induce a biochemical ...
*  Kinase
Lipid kinases phosphorylate lipids in the cell, both on the plasma membrane as well as on the membranes of the organelles. The ... 2003). "Lipid Kinases Play Crucial and Multiple Roles in Membrane Trafficking and Signalling" (PDF). Histology and ... Sphingolipids are ubiquitous membrane lipids. Upon activation, sphingosine kinase migrates from the cytosol to the plasma ... In its dephosphorylated form, glucose can move back and forth across the membrane very easily. Mutations in the hexokinase gene ...
*  Glycolysis
ISBN 0 7167 2009 4. Stryer, Lubert (1995). "Biosynthesis of membrane lipids and steroids.". In: Biochemistry (Fourth ed.). New ... The energy released during this process is used to create a hydrogen ion (or proton) gradient across the inner membrane of the ... Cholesterol can be used as is, as a structural component of cellular membranes, or it can be used to synthesize the steroid ... However the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH and NAD+. Use is therefore made of two "shuttles" to transport ...
*  Protocell
Because lipid bilayer of membranes is impermeable to most hydrophilic molecules (dissolved by water), the cell must have ... The authors remark that montmorillonite is known to serve as a chemical catalyst, encouraging lipids to form membranes and ... Primitive reproduction can be envisioned when the clay bubbles burst, releasing the lipid membrane-bound product into the ... National Science Foundation (2013). "Membrane Lipids of Past and Present". Exploring Life's Origins Project - A timeline of ...
*  Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol
Lipid Membrane lipids Sulfoquinovose Sulfoglycolysis Benson; Daniel, H; Wiser, R; et al. (1959). "A sulfolipid in plants". Proc ... CF1 bound to membranes was found to be much more resistant to heat and cold than solubilised protein. Mitochondrial coupling ... In 1959 A. A. Benson and coworkers discovered a new sulfur-containing lipid in plants and identified it as sulfoquinovosyl ... SQDGs have been found to be closely associated with certain membrane proteins. In some cases the (electrostatic) interactions ...
*  Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase
Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rock, Charles O. (2008-03-01). "Membrane lipid homeostasis in bacteria". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 6 (3): ... Palmitic acid is also used to synthesize sphingosines, which play a role in cell membranes. The different types of beta- ... Bacteria has the ability to adapt to its environment; bacteria can alter the phospholipid composition of its membrane to best ... These uses include energy storage and creation of cell membranes. Fatty acids can also be used to synthesize prostaglandins, ...
*  Tuberculosis
Mycobacteria have an outer membrane lipid bilayer. If a Gram stain is performed, MTB either stains very weakly "Gram-positive" ... The high lipid content of this pathogen accounts for many of its unique clinical characteristics. It divides every 16 to 20 ... During this process, the bacterium is enveloped by the macrophage and stored temporarily in a membrane-bound vesicle called a ... or does not retain dye as a result of the high lipid and mycolic acid content of its cell wall. MTB can withstand weak ...
*  Abetalipoproteinemia
Cooper RA; Durocher JR; Leslie MH (July 1977). "Decreased fluidity of red cell membrane lipids in abetalipoproteinemia". J. ... The initial workup of abetalipoproteinemia typically consists of stool sampling, a blood smear, and a fasting lipid panel ... There is an absence of apolipoprotein B. On intestinal biopsy, vacuoles containing lipids are seen in enterocytes. This ... lipids accumulate at the surface of the cell, crowding the functions that are necessary for proper absorption. Treatment ...
*  Lysophospholipase
van Tienhoven M, Atkins J, Li Y, Glynn P (2002). "Human neuropathy target esterase catalyzes hydrolysis of membrane lipids". J ... Cytosolic phospholipase A2 associates with natural membranes in response to physiological increases in Ca2+ and selectively ... dependent lipid-binding domain and a Ca(2+)-independent catalytic domain". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (27): 18239-18249. PMID 8027085. ...
*  Chlorophyllase
Lambers JW, Terpstra W (October 1985). "Inactivation of chlorophyllase by negatively charged plant membrane lipids". Biochim. ... It is a membrane protein that is commonly known as Chlase (EC 3.1.1.14, CLH) and systematically known as chlorophyll ... These two lipids cooperatively inhibit the activity of chlorophyllase, but this inhibition can be reversed by the presence of ... Finally, there is evidence that chlorophyllase has been found in the inner envelope membrane of chloroplast where it does not ...
*  Endosome
van Meer, Gerrit; Voelker, Dennis R.; Feigenson, Gerald W. (2008-02-01). "Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave ... It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane. Molecules or ligands ... PI(4,5)P2 is present on plasma membranes, PI(3)P on early endosomes, PI(3,5)P2 on late endosomes and PI(4)P on the trans Golgi ... These lipids on the surface of the endosomes help in the specific recruitment of proteins from the cytosol, thus providing them ...
*  Neuropathy target esterase
van Tienhoven M, Atkins J, Li Y, Glynn P (2002). "Human neuropathy target esterase catalyzes hydrolysis of membrane lipids". J ... It sequentially hydrolyses both fatty acids from the major membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine, which generates water-soluble ... In cells of eukaryotes from yeast to humans, NTE is anchored to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and ... J Lipid Res. 47 (9): 1940-9. doi:10.1194/jlr.M600185-JLR200. PMID 16799181. Kienesberger PC, Oberer M, Lass A, Zechner R (Apr ...
*  Acanthocyte
Alterations in membrane lipids are seen in abetalipoproteinemia and liver dysfunction. Alteration in membrane structural ... "Decreased fluidity of red cell membrane lipids in abetalipoproteinemia". J. Clin. Invest. 60 (1): 115-21. doi:10.1172/JCI108747 ... In abetalipoproteinemia, there is deficiency of lipids and vitamin E causing abnormal morphology of RBCs. Acanthocytosis can be ... This causes abnormalities of membrane of RBC causing remodeling in spleen and formation of acanthocytes. ...
*  Lipid raft
In the plasma membrane, one approach of compartmentalization utilizes lipid rafts. One reasonable way to consider lipid rafts ... In 1974, the effects of temperature on membrane behavior had led to the proposal of "clusters of lipids" in membranes and by ... "Lipid Rafts, Signalling and the Cytoskeleton" at University of Edinburgh Satyajit Mayor's seminar: "Membrane Rafts" Lipid Rafts ... By one early definition of lipid rafts, lipid rafts differ from the rest of the plasma membrane. In fact, researchers[who?] ...
*  Phagosome
"Mycobacteria manipulate macrophage recruitment through coordinated use of membrane lipids". Nature. 505 (7482): 218-222. doi: ... As the membrane of the phagosome is formed by the fusion of the plasma membrane, the basic composition of the phospholipid ... Autophagosomes have a double membrane, the inner one from the engulfed organelle, and the outer membrane is speculated to be ... A phagosome is formed by the fusion of the cell membrane around a microorganism or senescent cell. Phagosomes have membrane- ...
*  Lipid bilayer phase behavior
Annular lipid shell Hexagonal phase Lipid bilayer Lipid polymorphism Lipidomics Liposome Membrane fluidity Membrane lipids H. C ... Motion constraints on lipids in lipid bilayers are also imposed by presence of proteins in biological membranes, especially so ... Thermotropic Phase Transitions of Pure Lipids in Model Membranes and Their Modifications by Membrane Proteins. John Wiley & ... Bhattacharya, S.; Haldar, S. (2000). "Interactions between cholesterol and lipids in bilayer membranes: Role of lipid headgroup ...
*  Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1
One proposed mechanism is that an increase in cell membrane fluidity, consisting largely of lipid, activates the insulin ... Hagen, Rachel M.; Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Vidal-Puig, Antonio (2010-06-18). "An allostatic control of membrane lipid ... Oleate is a major constituent of membrane phospholipids and membrane fluidity is influenced by the ratio of saturated to ... A decrease in MUFA content of the membrane phospholipids in the SCD-1−/− mice is offset by an increase in polyunsaturated fatty ...
*  Mycosphaerella coffeicola
This damages membrane lipids resulting in cell death and nutrient leakage. The pathogen uses the leaked nutrients as an energy ...
*  Microorganism
Sinninghe Damsté JS, Rijpstra WI, Hopmans EC, Prahl FG, Wakeham SG, Schouten S (June 2002). "Distribution of Membrane Lipids of ... For example, while bacterial cell membranes are made from phosphoglycerides with ester bonds, archaean membranes are made of ... A prokaryote is defined as having no cell nucleus or other membrane bound-organelle. Archaea share this defining feature with ... Bacteria like archaea are prokaryotic - unicellular, and having no cell nucleus or other membrane-bound organelle. Bacteria are ...
*  Sulfanyl
A contender for the isomerization of double bonds in membrane lipids". Angewandte Chemie. Wiley. 46 (11): 1914-1916. doi: ... The S•− can catalyze a cis-trans conversion in lipids. The interatomic distance between sulfur and hydrogen in the radical is ...
*  Chaperone-mediated autophagy
Degradation of LAMP-2A monomers at the lysosomal membrane occurs in discrete cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains of the ... Kaushik, Susmita; Massey, Ashish C; Cuervo, Ana Maria (2006). "Lysosome membrane lipid microdomains: Novel regulators of ... CMA degrades lipid droplet proteins (perilipin 2 and perilipin 3). Removal of these lipid droplet coat proteins by CMA precedes ... This impairment of CMA in aging is mainly due to a decrease in the levels of LAMP-2A at the lysosomal membrane, because of ...
*  Phage display
Lipid Res. 46 (7): 1512-6. doi:10.1194/jlr.M500048-JLR200. PMID 15863836. Hufton SE, Moerkerk PT, Meulemans EV, de Bruïne A, ... Ff phages for phage display is that they require the protein of interest to be translocated across the bacterial inner membrane ...
*  GLUT4
PI-3 kinase converts the membrane lipid PIP2 to PIP3. PIP3 is specifically recognized by PKB (protein kinase B) and by PDK1, ... and is quickly incorporated into the plasma membrane of the cell when insulin binds to membrane receptors. Under conditions of ... The mechanism for GLUT4 is an example of a cascade effect, where binding of a ligand to a membrane receptor amplifies the ... In striated skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 concentration in the plasma membrane can increase as a result of either exercise or ...