The official start to its development started in December 1986 when Merck's president, Edward Scolnick, announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in West Point, Pennsylvania and placed Emilio Emini in charge of the laboratory.[11] A couple months later on January, 1987, a team of researchers consisting of Emilio Emini, Joel Huff, and Irving Sigal, kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. Over a year later, in July 1988, Nancy Kohl, Emilio Emini, et al., published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Science about the idea of inhibiting the protease.[11] On February, 1989, Manuela Navia, Paula Fitzgerald, et al., published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other ...
In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an estrogen and a progestin.[101] They work by decreasing the production of androgen hormones by the ovaries and by decreasing the free and hence biologically active fractions of androgens, resulting in lowered skin production of sebum and consequently reduce acne severity.[10][102] First-generation progestins such as norethindrone and norgestrel have androgenic properties and can worsen acne.[15] Although oral estrogens decrease IGF-1 levels in some situations, which could theoretically improve acne symptoms,[103][104] combined birth control pills do not appear to affect IGF-1 levels in fertile women.[101][105] Cyproterone acetate-containing birth control pills seem to decrease total and free IGF-1 levels.[106] Combinations containing third- or fourth-generation progestins, including desogestrel, dienogest, drospirenone, or norgestimate, as well as birth control pills containing cyproterone ...
a b MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Nosebleed U.S. National Library of Medicine Medline Plus service. Retrieved 2010-03-15. ...
MedlinePlus. 003009. [edit on Wikidata]. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent ...
MedlinePlus. a682461. Pregnancy. category. *US: A (No risk in human studies) *. Routes of. administration. by mouth, ...
MedlinePlus. 007069. [edit on Wikidata]. Digital rectal examination (DRE; Latin: palpatio per anum, PPA) is an internal ...
"Tonsils , Tonsilitis , Lymph Nodes , MedlinePlus". Retrieved 2017-01-29.. *^ Ezzeddini, R; Darabi, M; Ghasemi, B; et al. (2012 ...
Guide to rashes on Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia - includes photographs. *Links to pictures of skin rashes (Hardin MD/Univ ...
MedlinePlus. a613043. License data. *EU EMA: by INN. *US DailyMed: Dolutegravir. *US FDA: Dolutegravir ...
InChI=1S/C26H37NO3/c1-18(2)26(29)30-25-13-12-21(17-28)16-24(25)23(22-10-8-7-9-11-22)14-15-27(19(3)4)20(5)6/h7-13,16,18-20,23,28H,14-15,17H2,1-6H3/t23-/m1/s1 ...
"Beta-carotene: MedlinePlus Supplements". medlineplus.gov. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease *^ a b Goldstein NE, Morrison RS (2013). Evidence-based ...
MedlinePlus. a681043. License data. *US FDA: Isotretinoin. Pregnancy. category. *AU: X (High risk) ...
MedlinePlus. a607057. Pregnancy. category. *US: B (No risk in non-human studies) ...
"Vitamin C: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Archived from the original on July 28, 2016. Retrieved July 23, ...
MedlinePlus. a682125. Pregnancy. category. *US: D (Evidence of risk) *. Routes of. administration. intravenous, intramuscular, ...
a b c d Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears. MedlinePlus. *^ a b Neonatal Dermatology: Ear Anomalies. Archived November 9, ...
MedlinePlus. 007254. [edit on Wikidata]. Ankle replacement, or ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace the ...
MedlinePlus. 001918. [edit on Wikidata]. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ...
... is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side-effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63] It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
"Donepezil: MedlinePlus Drug Information". MedlinePlus. 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-31. If you forget to take a dose of ...
... , sold under the brand name Tasigna, is a medication used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) which has the Philadelphia chromosome.[2] It may be used both in initial cases of chronic phase CML as well as in accelerated and chronic phase CML that has not responded to imatinib.[2][3] It is taken by mouth.[3] Common side effects may include low platelets, low white blood cells, anemia, rashes, vomiting, diarrhea, and joint pains.[3] Other serious side effects may include QT prolongation, sudden death, pancreatitis, and liver problems.[3] It is not safe for use during pregnancy.[3] Nilotinib is a Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor and works by interfering with signalling within the cancer cell.[3] Nilotinib was approved for medical use in the United States in 2007.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[4] In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS £2,432.85 per month as of 2018.[5] In ...
MedlinePlus. 003103. MeSH. D004487. [edit on Wikidata]. Anasarca, edema, is a severe and generalized edema with widespread ...
MedlinePlus. a693001. License data. *EU EMA: by INN. *US DailyMed: Ketorolac. *US FDA: Toradol ...
In the late 1960s, John Vane of the Royal College of Surgeons of England was working on mechanisms by which the body regulates blood pressure.[13] He was joined by Sérgio Henrique Ferreira of Brazil, who had been studying the venom of a Brazilian pit viper, the jararaca (Bothrops jararaca), and brought a sample of the viper's venom. Vane's team found that one of the venom's peptides selectively inhibited the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which was thought to function in blood pressure regulation; the snake venom functions by severely depressing blood pressure. During the 1970s, ACE was found to elevate blood pressure by controlling the release of water and salts from the kidneys. Captopril, an analog of the snake venom's ACE-inhibiting peptide, was first synthesized in 1975 by three researchers at the U.S. drug company E.R. Squibb & Sons Pharmaceuticals (now Bristol-Myers Squibb): Miguel Ondetti, Bernard Rubin, and David Cushman. Squibb filed for U.S. patent protection on the ...
... was also the first drug used for treatment of malaria.[40] Quinine was used as a muscle relaxant by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, to halt shivering due to low temperatures.[41] The Quechuas would mix the ground bark of cinchona trees with sweetened water to offset the bark's bitter taste, thus producing tonic water.[citation needed] The Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. The Spanish were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by the 1570s or earlier: Nicolás Monardes (1571) and Juan Fragoso (1572) both described a tree that was subsequently identified as the cinchona tree and whose bark was used to produce a drink to treat diarrhea.[42] Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the early 17th century. It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Malaria was responsible for the deaths of ...
MedlinePlus. a688021. License data. *EU EMA: by INN. *US DailyMed: Mesalamine. *US FDA: Mesalazine ...
MedlinePlus. a685013. Pregnancy. category. *AU: A *US: B (No risk in non-human studies) ...
"Folate deficiency: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. ...
This is considered to be a hybrid between an exocrine and endocrine tumor derived from crypt cells of the appendix. Histologically, it forms clusters of goblet cells containing mucin with a minor admixture of Paneth cells and endocrine cells. The growth pattern is distinctive: typically producing a concentric band of tumor nests interspersed among the muscle and stroma of the appendiceal wall extending up the shaft of the appendix. This makes the lesion difficult to suspect grossly and difficult to measure. Small tumor nests may be camouflaged amongst the muscle or in periappendiceal fat; cytokeratin preparations best demonstrate the tumor cells; mucin stains are also helpful in identifying them. They behave in a more aggressive manner than do classical appendiceal carcinoids. Spread is usually to regional lymph nodes, peritoneum, and particularly the ovary. They do not produce sufficient hormonal substances to cause the carcinoid or other endocrine syndromes. In fact, they more closely resemble ...
MedlinePlus. a607024. License data. *EU EMA: by rotavirus. Pregnancy. category. *US: C (Risk not ruled out) [1] ...