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*  Umbilical vein
The unpaired umbilical vein carries oxygen and nutrient rich blood derived from fetal-maternal blood exchange at the chorionic ... More than two-thirds of fetal hepatic circulation is via the main portal vein, while the remainder is shunted from the left ... The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta into the growing ... This prolongs the communication between the placenta and fetal heart, allowing for a sort of autotransfusion of remaining blood ...
*  Cytotrophoblast
This pathway is important because the syncytiotrophoblast plays an important role in fetal-maternal gas exchange, nutrient ... The primary function of an interstitial cytotrophoblast is to anchor the growing fetus to the maternal uterine tissue. These ... The primary function of the endovascular cytotrophoblast is to penetrate maternal spiral arteries and route the blood flow ... exchange, and immunological and metabolic functions. An undifferentiated cytotrophoblastic stem cell will differentiate into a ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G08)
... maternal age MeSH G08.520.769.408.770 --- pregnancy in adolescence MeSH G08.520.769.455 --- maternal-fetal exchange MeSH ... fetal development MeSH G08.520.170.157.374 --- fetal movement MeSH G08.520.170.157.750 --- fetal organ maturity MeSH G08.520. ... 170.157.875 --- fetal viability MeSH G08.520.170.157.937 --- fetal weight MeSH G08.520.170.157.968 --- gestational age MeSH ...
*  Retinol-binding protein
... the fetal contribution to the placenta and the site of attachment to the uterine epithelium for fetal/maternal exchange. ... Expression of RBP in developing conceptuses, extraembryonic membranes, and at the fetal-maternal interface indicate that there ... indicating that RBP plays a role in proper retinol exposure to the embryo and successful transport at the maternal-fetal ... RBP expression has also been identified within the yolk sac, myometrium, oviduct, and numerous other fetal tissues. STRA6 ( ...
*  Placentation
Evolution of placental functions Placental functions include nutrient transport, gas exchange, maternal-fetal communication, ... In mammals, maternal-fetal communication occurs via the production of a range of signalling molecules and their receptors in ... This suggests that maternal fetal communication has evolved by utilising the existing signalling molecules and their receptors ... Mammalian placentas can be classified based on the number of tissues separating the maternal from the fetal blood. These ...
*  Placental cotyledon
The cotyledons are surrounded by maternal blood, which can exchange oxygen and nutrients with the fetal blood in the ... The cotyledons receive fetal blood from chorionic vessels, which branch off cotyledon vessels into the cotyledons, which, in ... ISBN 0-7637-1856-4. [1] Gordon, Z.; Elad, D.; Almog, R.; Hazan, Y.; Jaffa, A. J.; Eytan, O. (2007). "Anthropometry of fetal ...
*  Decidualization
... a membrane between the fetal and maternal tissues, and allows for nutrient and gas exchange. However, decidualization-like ... This allows maternal blood to come into direct contact with the fetal chorion, ... As the fetus consists of both maternal and paternal DNA, the decidual leukocytes play a role in suppressing the immune response ... Outside of their immune functions, the uNK cells and dendritic cells also act as regulators of maternal spiral artery ...
*  BMFMS
British Maternal and Fetal Medicine Society. ... The initials BMFMS may refer to: Sibiu Stock Exchange, known as ...
*  Fetal-maternal haemorrhage
... with gas and nutrient exchange taking place across a membrane in the placenta made of two layers, the syncytiotrophoblast and ... Fetal-maternal haemorrhage is the loss of fetal blood cells into the maternal circulation. It takes place in normal pregnancies ... 2000 cells are counted under the microscope and a percentage of foetal to maternal cells is calculated. Foetal-maternal ... Fetal-maternal haemorrhage occurs when this membrane ceases to function as a barrier and fetal cells may come in contact with ...
*  Trophoblast
... and thus facilitates the exchange of nutrients, wastes and gases between the maternal and fetal systems. In addition, ... The core of placental villi contain mesenchymal cells and placental blood vessels that are directly connected to the fetal ... It is this syncytiotrophoblast that is in direct contact with the maternal blood that reaches the placental surface, ... into the maternal uterus is a vital stage in the establishment of pregnancy. Failure of the trophoblast to invade sufficiently ...
*  Pre-eclampsia
One hypothesis for vulnerability to pre-eclampsia is the maternal-fetal conflict between the maternal organism and fetus. After ... During normal pregnancy, the placenta vascularizes to allow for the exchange of water, gases, and solutes, including nutrients ... has been documented that fetal cells such as fetal erythroblasts as well as cell-free fetal DNA are increased in the maternal ... Fetal complications include fetal growth restriction and potential fetal or perinatal death. Long-term, an individual with ...
*  Fetal hemoglobin
... thereby allowing gas exchange to occur between the maternal and fetal circulation. Deoxygenated maternal blood drains into open ... The chorion acts as a barrier between the maternal and fetal circulation so that there is no admixture of maternal and fetal ... For mothers to deliver oxygen to a fetus, it is necessary for the fetal hemoglobin to extract oxygen from the maternal ... This lowered affinity allows for adult hemoglobin (maternal hemoglobin) to readily transfer its oxygen to the fetal bloodstream ...
*  Rh blood group system
The discovery of fetal cell-free DNA in maternal circulation by Holzgrieve et al. led to the noninvasive genotyping of fetal Rh ... including exchange transfusion), and very importantly the prevention of it by screening and prophylaxis. ... Here, sensitization to Rh D antigens (usually by feto-maternal transfusion during pregnancy) may lead to the production of ... were at a higher risk of fetal or newborn death or health impairment from hemolytic disease. It was suggested that higher ...
*  Placenta
... the maternal blood comes into direct contact with the fetal chorion, though no fluid is exchanged. As the pressure decreases ... bringing the fetal blood extremely close to the maternal blood; but no intermingling of fetal and maternal blood occurs (" ... Maternal blood flow is approximately 600-700 ml/min at term. Deoxygenated fetal blood passes through umbilical arteries to the ... Schematic view of the placenta Maternal side of a whole human placenta, just after birth Fetal side of same placenta Close-up ...
*  Amniotic fluid
It is generated from maternal plasma, and passes through the fetal membranes by osmotic and hydrostatic forces. When fetal ... This fluid serves as a cushion for the growing fetus, but also serves to facilitate the exchange of nutrients, water, and ... Then the relationship between fluid and fetal growth stops. It reaches a plateau of 800ml by the 28-week gestational age. The ... In earlier times, it was believed that the amniotic fluid was composed entirely of fetal urine. The fluid is absorbed through ...
*  Placental villous immaturity
It is associated with diabetes mellitus and fetal death near term, i.e. intrauterine demise close to the normal gestational ... the diffusion distance for gas and nutrient exchange is larger and, therefore, placental function is impaired. Placenta ... Correlation of placental villous immaturity and dysmaturity with clinical control of maternal diabetes]". Nihon Sanka Fujinka ... The development and maturation of chorionic villi is essential for normal fetal development. Immature chorionic villi are ...
*  Poeciliidae
However, their modes of maternal provisioning vary greatly. P. monacha can be considered to be lecithotrophic because it does ... P. prolifica is considered to be highly matrotrophic, and almost all of the nutrients and materials needed for fetal ... allowing for increased nutrient exchange. ...
*  Microchimerism
Fetal microchimerism can occur in the maternal mouse brain, responding to certain cues in the maternal body. Fetal ... resulting in exchange of cell lines. If the twins are a male-female pair, the male hormones from the bull calf have the effect ... Fetal maternal microchimerism may be related to autoimmune thyroid diseases. There have been reports of fetal cells in the ... Fetal cells colonize maternal tissues like the thyroid gland and are able to survive many years postpartum. These fetal ...
*  Syncytiotrophoblast
Maternal-fetal medicine. Lash, G, Robson, S, Bulmer, J. (2010). "Review: Functional role of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells ... facilitating passive exchange of material between the mother and the embryo. The syncytial property is important since the ... rupturing maternal capillaries and thus establishing an interface between maternal blood and embryonic extracellular fluid, ... If they were to reach the fetal side of the placenta many foreign proteins would be recognised, triggering an immune reaction. ...
*  Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell)
CVS is possible as well to test fetal antigen status but is not recommended. CVS carries a higher risk of fetal maternal ... Exchange transfusion - Exchange transfusion is used when bilirubin reaches either the high or medium risk lines on the nonogram ... "Fetal genotyping for the K (Kell) and Rh C, c, and E blood groups on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma". Transfusion. 47 ( ... It should be noted that maternal titers are not useful in predicting fetal anemia after the first affected gestation and should ...
*  Immune tolerance in pregnancy
March 2008). "Foreign fetal cells persist in the maternal circulation". Fertil. Steril. 91 (6): 2593-5. doi:10.1016/j. ... It forms a syncytium without any extracellular spaces between cells in order to limit the exchange of migratory immune cells ... Page 31 to 32 in: Maternal-Fetal Medicine : Principles and Practice. Editor: Robert K. Creasy, Robert Resnik, Jay D. Iams. ISBN ... Trowsdale J, Betz AG (March 2006). "Mother's little helpers: mechanisms of maternal-fetal tolerance". Nat. Immunol. 7 (3): 241- ...
*  Rh disease
Maternal blood The Kleihauer-Betke test or flow cytometry on a postnatal maternal blood sample can confirm that fetal blood has ... IVIG can be used to reduce the need for exchange transfusion and to shorten the length of phototherapy. The AAP recommends "In ... The discovery of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma has allowed for the non-invasive determination of the fetal RHD genotype ... into the maternal circulation and can also be used to estimate the amount of fetal blood that has passed into the maternal ...
*  Medical simulation
"Fidelis Lucina is the only childbirth simulator with validated maternal-fetal physiology. The physiological modeling allows ... With true respiratory gas exchange, PediaSIM HPS inhales oxygen and exhales CO2, interfaces with real clinical monitors and ... maternal/fetal) Athena (high fidelity standard female simulator) iStan METIman Apollo HPS Caesar PediaSim BabySim ECS Victoria ... and intraosseous insertion This pregnant patient simulator is meant for child birthing simulations and is a Maternal Fetal ...
*  Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Fetal-maternal hemorrhage, which is the movement of fetal blood cells across the placenta, can occur during abortion, ectopic ... Exchange transfusion - Exchange transfusion is used when bilirubin reaches either the high or medium risk lines on the nonogram ... The amount of fetal blood needed to cause maternal sensitization depends on the individual's immune system and ranges from 0.1 ... This fetal disease ranges from mild to very severe, and fetal death from heart failure (hydrops fetalis) can occur. When the ...
*  Sequenom
... the presence of cell-free fetal DNA fragments in maternal blood. On June 13, 2015, the CAFC affirmed the District Court's ... Dragon has since been charged by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) because she "lied to the public about the ... cover methods for detecting fetal nucleic acids and diagnosing fetal abnormalities. In July 2012, The United States District ... the development and commercialization of a non-invasive aneuploidy test utilizing circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal ...
*  Placental abruption
... bleeding to mild vaginal bleeding Slightly tender uterus Normal maternal blood pressure and heart rate No coagulopathy No fetal ... When the placenta is separated, it is unable to exchange waste, nutrients, and oxygen, a necessary function for the fetus's ... decreased fetal movement, and decreased fetal heart rate. Vaginal bleeding, if it occurs, may be bright red or dark. A ... In the vast majority of cases, placental abruption is caused by the maternal vessels tearing away from the decidua basalis, not ...