Loading...
*  MAP2K2
1995). "Independent human MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways defined by MEK and MKK isoforms". Science. 267 (5198): 682-5 ... "Identification of signalling proteins interacting with B-Raf in the yeast two-hybrid system". Oncogene. 12 (10): 2213-21. PMID ... The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase ... The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. The inhibition ...
*  MAPK/ERK pathway
MAP Kinase Resource . Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes - MAPK pathway MAP Kinase Signaling System at the US National ... 2001). "Ras activation of the Raf kinase: tyrosine kinase recruitment of the MAP kinase cascade". Recent Progress in Hormone ... Activated Ras activates the protein kinase activity of RAF kinase. RAF kinase phosphorylates and activates MEK (MEK1 and MEK2 ... "extracellular signal-regulated kinases" (ERKs) and "microtubule associated protein kinase" (MAPK). One of the first proteins ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G04)
... map kinase signaling system MeSH G04.335.880.580 --- mechanotransduction, cellular MeSH G04.335.880.700 --- phototransduction ... MeSH G04.335.880.800 --- second messenger systems MeSH G04.335.880.800.100 --- calcium signaling MeSH G04.335.880.850 --- ... signal transduction MeSH G04.335.122.850.580 --- mechanotransduction, cellular MeSH G04.335.125.180 --- chromosome positioning ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G06)
... map kinase signaling system MeSH G06.184.850.580 --- mechanotransduction, cellular MeSH G06.184.850.700 --- phototransduction ... protein sorting signals MeSH G06.184.603.060.670.600 --- nuclear export signals MeSH G06.184.603.060.670.610 --- nuclear ... MeSH G06.184.850.800 --- second messenger systems MeSH G06.184.850.800.100 --- calcium signaling MeSH G06.184.850.850 --- ... calcium signaling MeSH G06.184.603.060 --- amino acid sequence MeSH G06.184.603.060.040 --- amino acid motifs MeSH G06.184. ...
*  Oncomodulin
Signaling complexes that may be important to work with oncomodulin include PI 3 Kinase, MAP Kinase, JAK/STAT, and CaM Kinase II ... To date, it has been found in the central nervous system in inner ear hair cells and retinal ganglion cells. Oncomodulin ... Oncomodulin is activated by activating downstream signaling of Ca2+, calmodulin kinase, and gene transcription. Oncomodulin ... Oncomodulin is a macrophage-derived signal for axon regeneration in retinal ganglion cells. Nature Neuroscience. Accessed from ...
*  Anisomycin
... can activate stress-activated protein kinases, MAP kinase and other signal transduction pathways. Anisomycin is ... Anisomycin interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system. Anisomycin ...
*  RASD1
"Dexras1/AGS-1 inhibits signal transduction from the Gi-coupled formyl peptide receptor to Erk-1/2 MAP kinases". The Journal of ... ". "BioGPS - your Gene Portal System". biogps.org. Retrieved 2016-10-12. Graham TE, Prossnitz ER, Dorin RI (March 2002). " ... "Activation of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling by a ras-related protein. Implications for signal integration". The Journal of ... Hiskens R, Vatish M, Hill C, Davey J, Ladds G (Dec 2005). "Specific in vivo binding of activator of G protein signalling 1 to ...
*  Neurotoxicity
Aβ was found manipulating the level of nicotine in the brain along with the MAP kinase, another signaling receptor, to cause ... which are cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Neurotoxicity can result ... Another chemical in the brain that Aβ regulates is JNK; this chemical halts the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) ... Aβ uses several routes in the central nervous system to cause cell death. An example is through the nicotinic acetylcholine ...
*  Ultrasensitivity
"Using Engineered Scaffold Interactions to Reshape MAP Kinase Pathway Signaling Dynamics". Science. 319 (5869): 1539-43. Bibcode ... This is especially relevant for large cascades, such as the flagellar regulatory system in which the master regulator signal is ... In mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (see example below), the ultrasensitivity of the signaling is supported by ... called MAPK kinase, or MAPKK. Similarly, MAPKK is activated by MAPKK kinase, or MAPKKK. These kinases are sequentially ...
*  Pattern recognition receptor
NODs transduce signals in the pathway of NF-κB and MAP kinases via the serine-threonine kinase called RIP2. NODs signal via N- ... Another proof of the cooperation and integration of the entire immune system has been shown in vivo, when TLR signaling was ... TLR-independent signaling such as Dectin 1, and Dectin 2 - mincle signaling lead to MAP kinase and NFkB activation. Membrane ... dependent pathway and triggers the signaling through NF-κB and the MAP kinase pathway and therefore the secretion of pro- ...
*  Gaseous signaling molecules
... inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing the Erk/MAP kinase pathway mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling". ... Functional Summary CO functions as an endogenous signaling molecule. CO modulates functions of the cardiovascular system. CO ... Mustafa AK, Gadalla MM, Snyder SH (2009). "Signaling by gasotransmitters". Sci Signal. 2 (68): re2. doi:10.1126/scisignal. ... and IL-10 provide weak inhibitory signals. In this way, the immune system may regulate the resources of phagocytes that play a ...
*  Sulfur dioxide
... inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing the Erk/MAP kinase pathway mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling". ... Tian H. (Nov 2014). "Advances in the study on endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system". Chin Med J. 127 (21): ... ISBN 0-07-041677-X. Liu, D.; Jin, H; Tang, C; Du, J (2010). "Sulfur dioxide: a novel gaseous signal in the regulation of ... Global map of sulfur dioxide distribution United States Environmental Protection Agency Sulfur Dioxide page International ...
*  GPR126
... expression of GPR126 is induced by MAP kinases in endothelial cells. During angiogenesis, GPR126 promotes protein kinase A (PKA ... GPR126 stimulates VEGF signaling and angiogenesis by modulating VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression through STAT5 and GATA2 in ... In the vertebrate nervous system, many axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath to conduct action potentials rapidly and ... ISBN 1-4419-7912-3. Langenhan T, Aust G, Hamann J (21 May 2013). "Sticky signaling--adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors ...
*  Development of the nervous system
Trk dimerization and phosphorylation leads to activation of various intracellular signaling pathways including the MAP kinase, ... In the auditory system, spontaneous activity is thought to be involved in tonotopic map formation by segregating cochlear ... These induce sensory interneurones by activating Sr/Thr kinases and altering SMAD transcription factor levels. Signals that ... These intracellular signals, such as calcium signaling, lead to actin and microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics, which produce ...
*  Host microbe interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans
... including the DAF-2/DAF-16 insulin-like receptor pathway and several MAP kinase pathways, which activate physiological immune ... Ewbank, Jonathan (2006). "Signaling in the immune response". WormBook. doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.83.1. Schulenburg, H., Ewbank, J. ... C. elegans has been used intensively as a model organism for studying host-pathogen interactions and the immune system. These ... Neither TOR (target of rapamycin), nor insulin signalling seem to mediate this effect on the accelerated development. It is ...
*  MAPK14
MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular ... p38γ MAPK mostly in skeletal muscle and nerve system, and p38δ MAPK in uterus and pancreas. Like all MAP kinases, p38α MAPK has ... TGFβ-activated kinase (TAK1), TAO1-3, mixed-lineage kinase 2/3 (MLK2/3), and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1/2 (ASK1/2), ... Zarubin T, Han J (Jan 2005). "Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway". Cell Research. 15 (1): 11-8. doi:10.1038 ...
*  Scutellaria
"Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract via suppression of immune modulators and MAP kinase signaling ... Skullcaps are common herbal remedies in systems of traditional medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine they are utilized to " ... "Scutellaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-11-12. Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis. Robert W. ... "Biological Properties of Baicalein in Cardiovascular System". Current Drug Targets. 5 (2): 177-84. doi:10.2174/1568006043586206 ...
*  Dopamine receptor
Beta arrestin has been shown to form complexes with MAP kinase, leading to activation of Extracellular signal-regulated kinases ... While there is evidence that the dopamine system is involved in schizophrenia, the theory that hyperactive dopaminergic signal ... D2 receptor signaling may mediate protein kinase B, arrestin beta 2, and GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of these proteins ... Dopamine receptors can also transactivate Receptor tyrosine kinases. Beta Arrestin recruitment is mediated by G-protein kinases ...
*  Adenosine triphosphate
Mishra, N.; Tuteja, R.; Tuteja, N. (2006). "Signaling through MAP kinase networks in plants". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 452 (1): ... a tale of two systems". J. Mol. Biol. 362 (4): 623-639. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2006.07.045. PMC 3662476 . PMID 16934836. Hanoune, J ... ATP is involved signal transduction by serving as substrate for kinases, enzymes that transfer phosphate groups. Kinases are ... A second magnesium ion is critical for ATP binding in the kinase domain. The presence of Mg2+ regulates kinase activity. Salts ...
*  Chemical biology
... are potent inhibitors useful in the dissection of MAP kinase signaling pathways. These pyridinylimidazole compounds function by ... Tetracysteine biarsenical systems can be used to study protein synthesis and turnover, which requires discrimination of old ... Pargellis C, Ton L, Churchill L, CIrillo PF, Gilmore T, Graham AG, Grob PM, Hickey ER, Moss N (2002). "p38 MAP kinase". Nature ... "The structural basis for the specificity of pyridinylimidazole inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase". Chem. Biol. 4 (6): 423-31. doi: ...
*  NEK9
"Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/ ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK9 gene. NEK9 has been shown to interact ... and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
*  Arsenic poisoning
MAP] kinases, extracellular regulated kinase [ERK], c-jun terminal kinases [JNK] and p38. Via JNK and p38 it activates c-fos, c ... January 1998). "The stress inducer arsenite activates mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinases ... Chronic arsenic exposure can remain in the body systems for a longer period of time than a shorter term or more isolated ... Ueki K, Kondo T, Tseng YH, Kahn CR (July 2004). "Central role of suppressors of cytokine signaling proteins in hepatic ...
*  Tropic cues involved in growth cone guidance
As described above for the visual system, Eph/Ephrin signaling plays an important role in topographic mapping in several other ... protein kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and MAP Kinase (MAPK) have been implicated in mediating downstream attractive ... Eph/Ephrin forward signaling regulates actin dynamics via small GTPases of the Rho family; reverse signaling occurs when the ... Ephrin-B also contains a PDZ binding motif important in axon guidance regulation via G-protein signaling. Reverse signaling can ...
*  P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases
P38mapkPathway p38 Signaling Pathway MAP Kinase Resource p38 MAPK Pathway Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... is normally regulated from intracellular pathways that integrate signals from the surrounding tissue and the immune system. In ... MKK3 and SEK activate p38 MAP kinase by phosphorylation at Thr-180 and Tyr-182. Activated p38 MAP kinase has been shown to ... which participates in a signaling cascade controlling cellular responses to cytokines and stress. Four p38 MAP kinases, p38-α ( ...
*  GRB2
Pratt RL, Kinch MS (Oct 2002). "Activation of the EphA2 tyrosine kinase stimulates the MAP/ERK kinase signaling cascade". ... Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M. "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Molecular Systems Biology. 1: ... Liang Q, Mohan RR, Chen L, Wilson SE (Jul 1998). "Signaling by HGF and KGF in corneal epithelial cells: Ras/MAP kinase and Jak- ... "The germinal center kinase (GCK)-related protein kinases HPK1 and KHS are candidates for highly selective signal transducers of ...
*  MAPK8IP3
... protein in the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase signaling pathways suppresses the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling ... A new mode of regulation of the MAP kinase cascade". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 277 (43): 40703-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 2001). "Expression of JNK cascade scaffold protein JSAP1 in the mouse nervous system". Neurosci. Res. 39 (4): 391-400. doi: ... protein in the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase signaling pathways suppresses the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling ...
*  Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK
... central nervous system development, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway, innate immune response, epithelium ... positive regulation of MAP kinase activity, regulation of cell proliferation, regulation of cytokine production, regulation of ... "Activation of the COOH-terminal Src kinase (Csk) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits signaling through the T cell ... Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK is involved in the following developmental, metabolic, and signal transduction cascades: Adherens ...