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*  Radiosensitizer
... fluoropyrimidines increase sensitivity by dysregulating S-phase cell cycle checkpoints in tumor cells. Gemcitabine progresses ... causing cells in the S-phase to disrepair DNA damage caused by the radiation. Platinum analogs such as cisplatin inhibit DNA ... Tumor cells in a hypoxic environment may be as much as 2 to 3 times more resistant to radiation damage than those in a normal ... A radiosensitizer is an agent that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. It is sometimes also known as a ...
*  MDC1
This protein is required to activate the intra-S phase and G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. MDC1 ... Knock out MDC1 mice cells and silenced human cells were radiosensitive, failed to initiate Intra-S phase and G2/M checkpoints, ... MDC1 protein is a regulator of the Intra-S phase and the G2/M cell cycle checkpoints and recruits repair proteins to the site ... and cell cycle alterations in NFBD1-depleted human esophageal cancer cells". Mol Cell Biochem. 342 (1-2): 1-6. doi:10.1007/ ...
*  Cell cycle
Once the check point of G1 phase is crossed, cell cycle will go uninterrupted till it is completed. The ensuing S phase starts ... In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (1) To continue cell cycle and enter S phase (2) Stop cell cycle and enter G0 phase for ... Cell cycle checkpoints are used by the cell to monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Checkpoints prevent cell ... Controlling the Cell Cycle The cell cycle & Cell death Transcriptional program of the cell cycle: high-resolution timing Cell ...
*  Cell cycle checkpoint
... the cell cycle consists of four main stages: G1, during which a cell is metabolically active and continuously grows; S phase, ... After the cell has split into its two daughter cells, the cell enters G1. DNA repair processes and cell cycle checkpoints have ... Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms in eukaryotic cells which ensure proper division of the cell. Each checkpoint ... Biochemical switches in the cell cycle Cell cycle analysis G2-M DNA damage checkpoint Postreplication checkpoint Meiotic ...
*  CDC25A
... is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle, but also plays roles in later cell cycle events. ... "Disruption of the checkpoint kinase 1/cell division cycle 25A pathway abrogates ionizing radiation-induced S and G2 checkpoints ... Nilsson I, Hoffmann I (2000). "Cell cycle regulation by the Cdc25 phosphatase family". Progress in cell cycle research. 4: 107- ... resulting in cell cycle arrest. Thus, this degradation represents one axis of a DNA damage checkpoint, complementing induction ...
*  Spindle checkpoint
... verifying that all the requirements to pass to the next phase in the cell cycle have been fulfilled are called checkpoints. All ... has a major effect on cell cycle checkpoint regulators and has been shown to act at the G1 checkpoint in the past, but now ... Usually the various checkpoints in the cell cycle take care of genomic integrity via highly conserved redundant mechanisms that ... After checkpoint deactivation and during the normal anaphase of the cell cycle, the anaphase promoting complex is activated ...
*  Clb 5,6 (Cdk1)
... and fail to activate the MEC1-DNA M-phase checkpoint, which usually inhibits cell cycle progression if DNA has not been ... S-phase cyclin binding to Cdk1 directly stimulates DNA replication as well as progression to the next phase of the cell cycle. ... Clb5 and Clb6 are B-type, S-phase cyclins in yeast that assist in cell cycle regulation. Clb5 and Clb6 bind and activate Cdk1, ... In cells without Clb5, S-phase is extended because late-stage origins are required to be replicated through the gradual spread ...
*  S phase
The G1/S transition is a major checkpoint in the regulation of the cell cycle. S phase: To produce two similar daughter cells, ... S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase. ... cells must decide to enter the cell cycle or move into a non-dividing state known as G0 phase. This transition, as with all of ... There is also a check point in s phase(proved from research) The major event in S-phase is DNA replication. The goal of this ...
*  BTG2
In particular, the BTG2 protein has been shown to negatively control a cell cycle checkpoint at the G1 to S phase transition in ... B-cell translocation gene 2) and in other mammals by the homologous Btg2 gene. This protein controls cell cycle progression and ... "Selective lengthening of the cell cycle in the neurogenic subpopulation of neural progenitor cells during mouse brain ... The pro-differentiative action of BTG2 appears to be consequent not only to inhibition of cell cycle progression but also to a ...
*  POLD1
Cell cycle block in these phases typically indicates presence of DNA damage and activation of DNA damage checkpoints. POLD1 ... Depletion of POLD1 can halt cell cycle at G1 and G2/M phases in human cells. ... Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start ... is degraded by ubiquitin ligases in response to DNA damage and during cell cycle progression". Cell Cycle. 13 (1): 23-31. doi: ...
*  Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase
With the loss of function of Cdc7 in ESCs the S phase is stopped at the G2/M checkpoint. Recombinational repair (RR) is done at ... The gene coding for the Dbf4 or ASK protein is regulated during the different phases of cell cycle. The concentration of Dbf4 ... Mitosis occurs during M phase of the cell cycle and has a number of stages; telophase is the end stage of mitosis when the ... Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene. The Cdc7 kinase is ...
*  Palbociclib
In the G1 phase of the cell cycle, mammalian cells must pass a checkpoint known as the restriction point, R, in order to ... This prevents the cell from passing R and exiting G1, and in turn from proceeding through the cell cycle. Palbociclib is taken ... Rocca A, Farolfi A, Bravaccini S, Schirone A, Amadori D (2014). "Palbociclib (PD 0332991): targeting the cell cycle machinery ... non-small cell lung cancer, recurring brain metastasis, squamous cell carcinoma, central nervous system tumors, and other solid ...
*  Paclitaxel
... prolonged activation of the mitotic checkpoint triggers apoptosis or reversion to the G-phase of the cell cycle without cell ... Phase I clinical trials began in April 1984, and the decision to start Phase II trials was made a year later. These larger ... Paclitaxel-treated cells have defects in mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cell division. Unlike other ... "Microtubules do not promote mitotic slippage when the spindle assembly checkpoint cannot be satisfied". The Journal of Cell ...
*  Cdc6
... plays important roles in the activation and maintenance of the checkpoint mechanisms in the cell cycle that coordinate S phase ... Cdc6p is normally present at high levels during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This is partly because the CDC6 gene is only ... Cdc6, or cell division cycle 6, is a protein in eukaryotic cells that is studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Borlado LR, Méndez J (February 2008). "CDC6: from DNA replication to cell cycle checkpoints and oncogenesis". Carcinogenesis. ...
*  Cellular model
... but once the phase has changed at a bifurcation event (cell cycle checkpoint), the system cannot go back to the previous levels ... the cell cycle has phases (partially corresponding to G1 and G2) in which mass, via a stable point, controls cyclin levels, and ... G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. In a 2014 published article in PLOS computational biology, collaborators at University of ... The eukaryotic cell cycle is very complex and is one of the most studied topics, since its misregulation leads to cancers. It ...
*  Mathematical and theoretical biology
... but once the phase has changed at a bifurcation event (Cell cycle checkpoint), the system cannot go back to the previous levels ... Complex Systems Analysis of Arrested Neural Cell Differentiation during Development and Analogous Cell Cycling Models in ... the cell cycle has phases (partially corresponding to G1 and G2) in which mass, via a stable point, controls cyclin levels, and ... "Integrative analysis of cell cycle control in budding yeast". Mol Biol Cell. 15 (8): 3841-3862. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-11-0794. ...
*  DNA replication
... synthesis phase). The progress of the eukaryotic cell through the cycle is controlled by cell cycle checkpoints. Progression ... As the cell grows and divides, it progresses through stages in the cell cycle; DNA replication takes place during the S phase ( ... Intracellular Control of Cell-Cycle Events: S-Phase Cyclin-Cdk Complexes (S-Cdks) Initiate DNA Replication Once Per Cycle Brown ... The G1/S checkpoint (or restriction checkpoint) regulates whether eukaryotic cells enter the process of DNA replication and ...
*  Proteasome
Earlier cell cycle checkpoints such as post-restriction point check between G1 phase and S phase similarly involve proteasomal ... activated by specific cyclins that demarcate phases of the cell cycle. Mitotic cyclins, which persist in the cell for only a ... In vertebrate cells, "slippage" through the mitotic checkpoint leading to premature M phase exit can occur despite the delay of ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins. However, some cell lines ...
*  Cyclin D/Cdk4
... for the Start or G1/S checkpoint. Under non-dividing conditions (when the cell is in the G0 phase of the cell cycle), ... D/Cdk4 complex is integral for the progression of the cell from the Growth 1 phase to the Synthesis phase of the cell cycle, ... "hearts of the cell-cycle control system" and govern the cell cycle and its progression. As its name would suggest, the cyclin- ... Controlling the Cell Cycle: Introduction. Muntean A, Pang L, Poncz M, Dowdy S, Blobel G, Crispino J (2007). "Cyclin D-Cdk4 is ...
*  Casein kinase 2
CK2s anti-apoptotic function is in the continuation of the cell cycle; from G1 to S phase and G2 to M phase checkpoints. This ... Having roles in cell cycle regulation may also indicate CK2's role in allowing cell cycle progression when normally it should ... Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1)(CK2/CSNK2) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that has been implicated in cell cycle ... An increased concentration of substrates in cancerous cells infers a likely survival benefit to the cell, and activation of ...
*  CAS/CSE protein family
Like CSE1, it is essential for the mitotic checkpoint in the cell cycle (CAS depletion blocks the cell in the G2 phase), and ... CAS is therefore thought to affect the cell cycle through its effect on the nuclear transport of these proteins. Since ... Apoptosis is inhibited in CAS-depleted cells, while the expression of CAS correlates to the degree of cellular proliferation. ... Cell. 90 (6): 1061-71. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80372-4. PMID 9323134. Kutay U, Bischoff FR, Kostka S, Kraft R, Görlich D ( ...
*  DNA damage (naturally occurring)
During S phase the cell is more vulnerable to DNA damage than any other part of the cell cycle. G2 checkpoint checks for ... per cell per day 55,200 Double-strand breaks Human cells, per cell cycle 10 50 O6-methylguanines Mammalian cells, per cell per ... where it blocks cell cycle progression. Activation of p53 can trigger cell death or permanent cell cycle arrest. p53 can also ... These cells fail to delay in the G2 phase when exposed to x-irradiation, and end up progressing through the cell cycle ...
*  Mitosis
... and other cell cycle proteins. The phases follow one another in strict order and there are "checkpoints" that give the cell ... Cells may also temporarily or permanently leave the cell cycle and enter G0 phase to stop dividing. This can occur when cells ... phase of an animal cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The ... The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell ...
*  UHRF1
Its expression peaks at late G1 phase and continues during G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. It plays a major role in the G1/S ... "Down-regulation of nuclear protein ICBP90 by p53/p21Cip1/WAF1-dependent DNA-damage checkpoint signals contributes to cell cycle ... a key mechanism in the G1/S transition during the cell cycle". Oncogene. 24 (49): 7337-45. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208878. PMID ... in tumor cell growth". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (12): 5621-9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-03-0194. PMC 1289407 . PMID 16195352 ...
*  Oncovirus
Forcing the cell into the S phase of the cell cycle could cause the cell to become transformed. Some types of HPV increase the ... Similarly, Rb proteins regulate many essential cell functions, including but not limited to a crucial cell cycle checkpoint, ... and use this to transcribe it and transform cells by bypassing the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle. DNA oncoviruses transform ... To drive the cell into S phase prematurely, the viruses must inactivate p53, which plays a central role in the G1/S checkpoint ...
*  G1 phase
There are three checkpoints in the cell cycle: the G1/S Checkpoint or the Start checkpoint in yeast; the G2/M checkpoint; and ... the cell enters the next phase of the cell cycle, S phase. The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in ... The g1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division. In ... G1 phase ends when the cell moves into the S phase of interphase. G1 phase together with the S phase and G2 phase comprise the ...