*  Hy's law
"Use of Hy's law and a new composite algorithm to predict acute liver failure in patients with drug-induced liver injury", ... and nR criteria to predict acute liver failure or transplantation in patients with drug-induced liver injury.", ... Hy's law is a rule of thumb that a patient is at high risk of a fatal drug-induced liver injury (DILI) if given a medication ... The law is based on observations by Hy Zimmerman, a major scholar of drug-induced liver injury. Some have suggested the ...
*  Acute liver failure
... may infrequently present with acute liver failure. In the majority of acute liver failure (ALF) there is widespread ... acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and idiopathic (without an obvious cause). Reye syndrome is acute liver failure in a child with ... Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice ... in a patient without known prior liver disease".page 1557 The diagnosis of acute liver failure is based on physical exam, ...
*  Hepatic encephalopathy
... the encephalopathy is caused directly by liver failure; this is more likely in acute liver failure. More commonly, especially ... If encephalopathy develops in acute liver failure (type A), even in a mild form (grade 1-2), it indicates that a liver ... Type A (=acute) describes hepatic encephalopathy associated with acute liver failure, typically associated with cerebral oedema ... Loss of glutamate transporter gene expression (especially EAAT 2) has been attributed to acute liver failure. Benzodiazepine- ...
*  Liver failure
Two forms are recognised, acute and chronic. Recently a third form of liver failure known as acute-on-chronic liver failure ( ... "Acute on chronic liver failure" is said to exist when someone with chronic liver disease develops features of liver failure. A ... liver failure" (PDF). Journal of Hepatology. Retrieved 30 May 2017. Sood, Gagan K. "Acute Liver Failure". Mescape. Retrieved 14 ... "Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Distinct Clinical Condition". Seminars in Liver Disease. 36: 107-108. doi:10.1055/s-0036- ...
*  Flavocoxid
No instances of acute liver failure or chronic liver injury have been linked to flavocoxid use and all cases have been self- ... Most cases have been moderate in severity and no instance of acute liver failure or death has been reported. Complete ... However, there have been several reports of clinically apparent acute liver injury attributed to flavocoxid. Most cases have ... both of which have been implicated in causing idiosyncratic acute liver injury, but the mechanism is unknown. ...
*  Chronic liver disease
... causes acute liver damage. Metabolic Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Haemochromatosis Wilson's disease Autoimmune response ... Signs of right heart failure Note that other diseases can involve the liver and cause hepatomegaly but would not be considered ... Testing for chronic liver disease involves blood tests, imaging including ultrasound and a biopsy of the liver. The liver ... Liver problems Alternative medicine - 27/01/2007/ Gastroenterology Consultants: Liver Disease Good summary of classes of liver ...
*  Liver function tests
... is similar to ALT in that it is another enzyme associated with liver parenchymal cells. It is raised in acute liver damage, but ... or fulminant liver failure. When AST and ALT are greater than three times normal but not greater than 1000 IU/L, the ... Liver Function Tests at Lab Tests Online Overview at Mayo Clinic Abnormal Liver Function Tests Overview of liver enzymes ... are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only ...
*  Liver transplantation
... is a treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure, although availability of donor ... Liver transplantation is a potential treatment for many acute or chronic condition which cause irreversible and severe liver ... Virtually all liver transplants are done in an orthotopic fashion, that is, the native liver is removed and the new liver is ... Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another ...
*  Cyproheptadine
Chertoff, Jason (8 July 2014). "Cyproheptadine-Induced Acute Liver Failure". ACG Case Reports Journal. 1 (4). doi:10.14309/crj. ... liver) side effects such as: - Hepatitis - Jaundice - Hepatic failure - Hepatic function abnormality Epigastric distress ... Euphoria Hallucinations Hysteria Faintness Allergic manifestation of rash and edema Diphoresis Urticaria Photosensitivity Acute ...
*  Tetrabamate
Binder D, Jost R, Flury R, Salomon F (May 1995). "[Acute liver failure following tetrabamate]". Schweizerische Medizinische ... 1997 after over 30 years of use due to reports of hepatitis and acute liver failure. The decision to restrict the use of the ... Eugene R. Schiff; Willis C. Maddrey; Michael F. Sorrell (19 October 2011). Schiff's Diseases of the Liver. John Wiley and Sons ...
*  Lábrea fever
Death occurs by acute liver failure (ALF). In the last phase, neurological symptoms such as agitation, delirium, convulsions ... Fonseca JC, Souza RA, Brasil LM, Araujo JR, Ferreira LC (2004). "Fulminant hepatic failure in children and adolescents in ... Infected patients show extensive destruction of liver tissue, with steatosis of a particular type (microsteatosis, ... of acute nonfulminant hepatitis B cases, 74% of fulminant hepatitis B cases, and 100% of chronic hepatitis B cases. The delta ...
*  Tizanidine
... can occasionally cause acute liver failure. Clinical trials show that up to 5% of patients treated with tizanidine ... Care should be used when first beginning treatment with tizanidine with regular liver tests for the first six months of ... had elevated liver function test values, though symptoms disappeared upon withdrawal of the drug. ...
*  Trovafloxacin
... with 14 cases of acute liver failure and six deaths. The FDA had received over 100 reports of liver problems in people taking ... "Acute liver failure due to trovafloxacin: CT findings". doi:10.1007/PL00011876. Report of the Investigation Committee on the ... Trovafloxacin use is significantly restricted due to its high potential for inducing serious, sometimes fatal liver damage. In ...
*  Intracranial pressure
Papilledema at eMedicine Polson J, Lee WM (2005). "AASLD position paper: the management of acute liver failure". Hepatology. 41 ... generalized brain swelling can occur in ischemic-anoxia states, acute liver failure, hypertensive encephalopathy, hypercarbia, ... In patients who have high ICP due to an acute injury, it is particularly important to ensure adequate airway, breathing, and ... increase in venous pressure can be due to venous sinus thrombosis, heart failure, or obstruction of superior mediastinal or ...
*  Hepatitis F virus
Fagan, E. A. (1994). "Acute Liver Failure of Unknown Pathogenesis: The Hidden Agenda". Hepatology. 19 (5): 1307-12. doi:10.1002 ...
*  Traditional Chinese medicine
Chinese herbal medicine has been a major cause of acute liver failure in China. Acupuncture is the insertion of needles into ... "Causes and Outcomes of Acute Liver Failure in China". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e80991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080991. PMC 3838343 ... calming the liver and expelling wind or liver-calming and wind-extinguishingl orifice-openingl supplementing which includes qi- ... For example: "Upflaming Liver fire" (肝火上炎, pinyin: gānhuǒ shàng yán): Headache, red face, reddened eyes, dry mouth, nosebleeds ...
*  OGDH
"Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: implications for primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology. 46 (5): 1436-42. ... although some may live into adolescence or adulthood. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective ...
*  Munir Pirmohamed
Syn, WK; Naisbitt, DJ; Holt, AP; Pirmohamed, M; Mutimer, DJ (August 2005). "Carbamazepine-induced acute liver failure as part ... of the T-cell response in a patient with phenindione hypersensitivity Carbamazepine-induced acute liver failure as part of the ... Constable, S; Ham, A; Pirmohamed, M (February 2007). "Herbal medicines and acute medical emergency admissions to hospital". ... "Tacrine-induced liver damage: an analysis of 19 candidate genes". Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. 17 (12): 1091-100. doi:10.1097 ...
*  Self-experimentation in medicine
Carbon tetrachloride has since been found to cause acute liver failure. In 1925, Hall ingested tetrachloroethylene (once the ... Carrión developed an acute form of bartonellosis now known as Carrion's disease or Oroya fever. This is a rare disease found ... Likewise, a single failure does not absolutely prove that a procedure is worthless. Psychological issues such as confirmation ... He kept detailed notes of his condition and succeeded in showing through this self-experiment that the chronic and acute forms ...
*  LECT2
2005). "Serum LECT2 level as a prognostic indicator in acute liver failure". Transplant. Proc. 36 (8): 2359-61. doi:10.1016/j. ... 2005). "Changes in serum LECT 2 levels during the early period of liver regeneration after adult living related donor liver ... The liver hepatocyte is considered to be the source of the LECT2 circulating in blood. However, its expression in these cells ... mRNA for LECT2 is highly expressed in liver tissue and expressed at far lower levels in a wide range of other tssues. Human ...
*  Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex
This enzyme is an autoantigen recognized in primary biliary cirrhosis, a form of acute liver failure. These antibodies appear ... 2007). "Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: Implications for primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology. 46 (5): ... Heffelfinger SC, Sewell ET, Danner DJ (1983). "Identification of specific subunits of highly purified bovine liver branched- ... structure of the dihydrolipoyl transacylase component of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex from bovine liver ...
*  Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex
2-Oxo-glutarate dehydrogrenase is an autoantigen recognized in primary biliary cirrhosis, a form of acute liver failure. These ... 2007). "Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: Implications for primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology. 46 (5): ... allowing an increased level of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity to compensate for the acute stress exposure. Acute exposures ... The up-regulation response that occurs after acute exposure can become exhausted if the inhibition of the enzyme complex ...
*  RRM2B
It has been associated with some cases of pediatric acute liver failure. Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause ... "Deep Sequencing Reveals Novel Genetic Variants in Children with Acute Liver Failure and Tissue Evidence of Impaired Energy ... MDDS is fatal, with death occurring from respiratory failure in early childhood. ...
*  Liver support systems
A sudden onset of life-threatening hepatic insufficiency is known as acute liver failure (ALF). In hyperacute and acute liver ... "Artificial liver support system in acute liver failure patients waiting liver transplantation". Hepato-gastroenterology. 56 (90 ... "Molecular adsorbent recirculating system for acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure: a meta-analysis". Liver Transplantation ... 2005). "Outcome from molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS) liver dialysis following drug-induced liver failure". Liver ...
*  Anti-mitochondrial antibody
In acute liver failure AMA are found against all major liver antigens. Pyruvate dehydrogenase, E2 subunits 2-Oxo-glutarate ... 2007). "Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: Implications for primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology. 46 (5): ... of acute liver failure patients were found to have elevated AMA, although a larger proportion (57%) had anti-transglutaminase ... primarily the mitochondria in cells of the liver. The presence of AMA in the blood or serum of a person may be indicative of ...
*  Rocky Mountain spotted fever
In fact, failure to respond to a tetracycline argues against a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Severely ill patients ... His hypothesis was that the sheep would eat the tall grasses where ticks lived and bred. Past Assistant Surgeon R.R. Spencer of ... Long-term health problems following acute Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection include partial paralysis of the lower ... or elevated liver enzyme levels. Serology testing and skin biopsy are considered to be the best methods of diagnosis. Although ...
*  Pyruvate dehydrogenase
Some of these inflammatory responses could be related to gluten sensitivity as over 50% of the acute liver failure patients in ... 2007). "Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: Implications for primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology. 46 (5): ...