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*  Limb bud
The upper limb bud appears in the third week of development and the lower limb bud appears four days later. Limb buds form from ... The lower limb buds, which will become hindlimbs (legs in humans), form a few days after the upper limb buds near the lumbar ... The limb bud is a structure formed early in limb development. As a result of interactions between the ectoderm and underlying ... Determines where limb buds will form, and what limbs will develop there. Gilbert, Scott F. "Developmental Biology". 9th ed., ...
*  HOXD9
"Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID 2568311 ... Deletions that removed the entire HOXD gene cluster or 5' end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital ... "Monodactylous limbs and abnormal genitalia are associated with hemizygosity for the human 2q31 region that includes the HOXD ...
*  HOXD8
1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... 1999). "Monodactylous limbs and abnormal genitalia are associated with hemizygosity for the human 2q31 region that includes the ... "Entrez Gene: HOXD8 homeobox D8". Goodman FR (2003). "Limb malformations and the human HOX genes". Am. J. Med. Genet. 112 (3): ... end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital abnormalities. In addition to effects during ...
*  LBH
"Entrez Gene: LBH limb bud and heart development homolog (mouse)". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method ... a novel conserved nuclear protein expressed during early limb and heart development". Dev Biol. 233 (2): 291-304. doi:10.1006/ ...
*  Trevor disease
It is believed to affect the limb bud in early fetal life. The condition occurs mostly in the ankle or knee region and it is ... This disorder is rare, and is characterised by an asymmetrical limb deformity due to localized overgrowth of cartilage, ... always confined to a single limb. This usually involves only the lower extremities and on medial side of the epiphysis. It is ...
*  Hedgehog signaling pathway
The classic experiments of Saunders and Gasseling in 1968 on the development of the chick limb bud formed the basis of the ... It is, in a sense, the default program of limb bud cells. Hedgehog signaling remains important in the adult. Sonic hedgehog has ... They showed that identity of the digits in the chick limb was determined by a diffusible factor produced by the zone of ... For example, a homologue of the X.laevis banded hedgehog is involved in regeneration of the salamander limb. shh has undergone ...
*  Zone of polarizing activity
Eventually, the limb bud develops into bones, tendons, muscles and joints. Limb bud development relies not only on the ZPA, but ... It is now known that endogenous retinoic acid acts permissively prior to limb bud initiation to allow the budding process to ... The limb bud expresses a TF called ALX4 at the anterior part of the mesoderm, with the TF HOXB8 being expressed at the ... The clone was then used as a template to screen a cDNA library from stage 22 limb bud RNA. The group ectopically expressed the ...
*  Temporal feedback
The studies on morphogenesis of limb buds have been focused on one particular axis of limb bud. However it has long been noted ... In mouse limb patterning, limb development is regulated by linking a fast GREM1 module to the slower SSH/FGF epithelial- ... Zeller, Rolf; Javier López-Ríos; Aimée Zuniga (2009). "Vertebrate limb bud development: moving towards integrative analysis of ... Propagation phase involves the control of distal progression during limb bud development. Finally termination of signalling ...
*  GLI2
... regulatory control of human GLI2 expression in the developing neural tube and limb bud". Developmental Dynamics. 244: 681-692. ... and a hopping gait as well as an extra postaxial nubbin on the limbs. Gli2-/- and Gli3-/- double homozygous transgenic mice are ...
*  Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
During embryonic development, the IGF-1R pathway is involved with the developing limb buds. The IGFR signalling pathway is of ...
*  Limb development
Cells are specified for each segment in the early limb bud and this population of cells expand out as the limb bud grows. This ... forming a limb bud. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induces the formation of an organizer at the end of the limb bud, called the ... Labeled cells in different position of an early limb bud were restricted to single segments of the limb. Limbs lacking ... Grafting an early limb bud tip onto a late wing results in duplication of structures, while grafting a late wing bud tip onto ...
*  Long-toed salamander
As larvae metamorphose, they develop digits from their limb bud protrusions. A fully metamorphosed long-toed salamander has ... The male only grabs with the front limbs and never uses his hind limbs during the courtship dance as he rubs his chin side to ... Underneath the limbs, head, and body the salamander is white, pinkish, to brown with larger flecks of white and smaller flecks ... Its head is longer than it is wide, and the long outer fourth toe on the hind limb of mature larvae and adults distinguishes ...
*  GLI3
... mutant mice have many abnormalities including CNS and lung defects and limb polydactyly. In the developing mouse limb bud ... "Spatiotemporal regulation of GLI target genes in the mammalian limb bud". Dev. Biol. 406 (1): 92-103. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio. ... "Mutual genetic antagonism involving GLI3 and dHAND prepatterns the vertebrate limb bud mesenchyme prior to SHH signaling". ... There is evidence that the autosomal dominant disorder Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) that affects limb and ...
*  Gremlin (protein)
... which is essential for normal limb bud development and digit formation. Inhibition of BMPs by Grem1 in limb buds allows the ... It has been reported that a CRM acts as both a silencer and activator for Grem1 transcription in the mouse limb bud. There are ... In addition, overexpression of Grem1 in the mouse limb bud inhibits BMP signaling which can lead to digit loss as well as ... Grem1 inhibits predominantly BMP2 and BMP4 in limb buds and functions as part of a self-regulatory feedback signaling system, ...
*  FGF4
Polysyndactyly is observed when an excess of Fgf4 is expressed in limb buds of wild-type mice. In mutant limb buds that do not ... Boulet AM, Moon AM, Arenkiel BR, Capecchi MR (Sep 2004). "The roles of Fgf4 and Fgf8 in limb bud initiation and outgrowth". ... Lu P, Minowada G, Martin GR (Jan 2006). "Increasing Fgf4 expression in the mouse limb bud causes polysyndactyly and rescues the ... revealing that FGF4 and FGF8 perform similar functions in limb skeleton patterning and limb development. Studies of zebrafish ...
*  Mir-25 microRNA precursor family
"The microRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is dispensable for somite segmentation but essential for limb bud positioning". ...
*  Horse-fly
Wing and limb buds can be seen and each abdominal segment is fringed with short spines. After about two weeks, metamorphosis is ...
*  Radical Fringe gene
Radical fringe (RFNG) is a signaling enzyme involved in the arrangement of the embryonic limb buds. It is a member of the ... Grafting experiments have shown that formation of the AER comes from signals in the limb bud mesoderm. However, radical fringe ... et al.Expression of Radical fringe in limb-bud ectoderm regulates apical ectodermal ridge formation. Nature; London 386.6623 ( ... While Radical fringe may not be vital for limb formation in all species, current research suggests it plays an integral role in ...
*  Ephrin receptor
This expression is seen in the distal end of the limb buds, where cells are still undifferentiated and dividing, and appears to ... and limb bud vasculature, as would be consistent with a role in angiogenesis. Different class A Eph receptors have also been ... a cell to cell signalling receptor in developing chick limb buds". Development. 122 (4): 1147-55. PMID 8620841. Wicks IP, ... In chicks, EphA4 is expressed in the developing wing and leg buds, as well as in the feather and scale primordia. ...
*  Polydactyl cat
"Opposing functions of the ETS factor family define Shh spatial expression in limb buds and underlie polydactyly". Developmental ... An ectopic expression of Shh is seen on the anterior side of the limb. Normally Shh is expressed in an organiser region, called ... In the mutant mirroring smaller ectopic expression in a new organiser region is seen on the posterior side of the limb. This ... In addition to the study of genetic causes of polydactyly limb patterning models are used to simulate the congenital disorder ...
*  LMX1B
"Characterization of migration behavior of myogenic precursor cells in the limb bud with respect to Lmx1b expression". Anat. ... LMX1B is a LIM homeobox transcription factor which plays a central role in dorso-ventral patterning of the vertebrate limb. ...
*  Apical ectodermal ridge
... and limb development halts. When the AER from a late limb bud is transplanted to an earlier limb bud, the limb forms normally. ... the limb forms normally. The converse - transplantation of an early limb bud to a late limb bud - also results in normal limb ... The converse - transplantation of an early limb bud to a late limb bud - also results in normal limb development. However, the ... When the AER from a late limb bud is transplanted to an earlier limb bud, ...
*  TBX2
During limb bud development, Shh and FGF signaling stimulate the outgrowth of the limb. At a certain point, Tbx2 concentrations ... During limb bud development, down-regulation of Tbx2 fails to inhibit Shh/FGF4 signaling; therefore, resulting in increased ... Opposite this, when Tbx2 is over expressed or duplicated, limb buds are smaller and can have reduced digit number because of ... "Tbx2 terminates shh/fgf signaling in the developing mouse limb bud by direct repression of gremlin1". PLoS Genetics. 9 (4): ...
*  HOXD4
The protein encoded by this gene may play a role in determining positional values in developing limb buds. Alternatively ... Deletions that removed the entire HOXD gene cluster or 5' end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital ... "Monodactylous limbs and abnormal genitalia are associated with hemizygosity for the human 2q31 region that includes the HOXD ...
*  Fringe gene
The gene products of radical fringe stimulate the Apical Ectodermal Ridge in limb-bud formation. The mouse and human Fringe ...
*  Camelpox
... or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be released via budding. The incubation period of Camelpox is between 3 ... being especially concentrated on the limbs and genitalia. Without treatment, the animal will generally recover from the ...