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*  Kynurenic acid
... (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. It has been shown that kynurenic ... Conversely, increased levels of kynurenic acid have also been linked to certain pathological conditions. Kynurenic acid was ... Kynurenic acid acts in the brain as a glycine-site NMDAr antagonist, key in glutamatergic neurotransmission system, which is ... A kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia was proposed in 2007, based on its action on midbrain dopamine activity and NMDArs ...
*  7,8-dihydroxykynurenate 8,8a-dioxygenase
Seno S, Tokuyama T, Sakan T (1961). "Enzymatic degradation of kynurenic acid". Fed. Proc. 20: 3-7. PMID 13724055. Molecular and ...
*  NMDA receptor antagonist
7-Chlorokynurenic acid 4-Chlorokynurenine (AV-101) (prodrug for 7-chlorokynurenic acid) 5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid Kynurenic ... kynurenic acid, may aggravate the symptoms of schizophrenia, according to the "kynurenic hypothesis". NMDA receptor antagonists ... Khan MJ, Seidman MD, Quirk WS, Shivapuja BG (2000). "Effects of kynurenic acid as a glutamate receptor antagonist in the guinea ... "The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia". Physiol. Behav. 92 (1-2): 203-9. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.025. PMID ...
*  Kynurenine 7,8-hydroxylase
"Studies on the metabolism of kynurenic acid. III. Enzymatic formation of 7,8-dihydroxykynurenic acid from kynurenic acid". J. ... Other names in common use include kynurenic acid hydroxylase, kynurenic hydroxylase, and kynurenate 7,8-hydroxylase. This ...
*  Kynurenate-7,8-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase
"Studies on the metabolism of kynurenic acid. III. Enzymatic formation of 7,8-dihydroxykynurenic acid from kynurenic acid". J. ... Other names in common use include 7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxykynurenate dehydrogenase, and 7,8-dihydroxykynurenic acid 7,8-diol ...
*  Hypertryptophanemia
One of these kynurenines, aptly named kynurenic acid, serves as a neuroprotectant through its function as an antagonist at both ... Stone TW (April 2001). "Kynurenic acid antagonists and kynurenine pathway inhibitors". Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 10 (4): 633- ... the neuroprective abilities of kynurenic acid forming a counterbalance against this process, and the related excitotoxicity and ... Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, and is required for protein synthesis. Aside from this crucial role, the remainder of ...
*  Ligand-gated ion channel
Ligands: Agonists: Glutamate, AMPA, 5-Fluorowillardiine, Domoic acid, Quisqualic acid, etc. Antagonists: CNQX, Kynurenic acid, ... Antagonists: ketamine, PCP, dextropropoxyphene, ketobemidone, tramadol, kynurenic acid (endogenous), etc. GABA receptors are ... aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; D-cycloserine; L-aspartate; quinolinate, etc. Partial agonists : N-methyl-D-aspartic acid ( ... GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the endogenous ligand for these receptors, is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the ...
*  Xanthurenic acid
Kynurenic acid 7-Chlorokynurenic acid Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9977. Billker, O; Lindo, V; Panico, M; Etienne, AE; Paxton, T ... Xanthurenic acid is suspected to be an endogenous agonist for Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in humans. It is also ... Xanthurenic acid[permanent dead link] at Sigma-Aldrich Copeland, C. S.; Neale, S. A.; Salt, T. E. (2013). "Actions of ... Xanthurenic acid, or xanthurenate, is a chemical shown to induce gametogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that ...
*  GPR35
Wang J, Simonavicius N, Wu X, Swaminath G, Reagan J, Tian H, Ling L (2006). "Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein- ... The following list includes the most prominent examples: kynurenic acid LPA species CXCL17 cyclic guanosine monophosphate DHICA ... cromoglicic acid nedocromil pamoic acid zaprinast lodoxamide bufrolin Zaprinast is currently the gold standard in the ... "Targeting of the Orphan Receptor GPR35 by Pamoic Acid: A Potent Activator of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and - ...
*  Lodoxamide
Nedocromil Zaprinast Amlexanox Pemirolast Pamoic acid Kynurenic acid CXCL17 Avunduk, A. M.; Avunduk, M. C.; Kapicioglu, Z.; ... Like cromoglicic acid it acts as a mast cell stabilizer. In 2014 lodoxamide and bufrolin were found to be potent agonists at ...
*  Alexander Ellinger
In 1904 he isolated kynurenic acid from the urine of dogs that had been fed tryptophan. His other work included studies on the ... He is remembered for his extensive biochemical research of several amino acids, especially tryptophan. ...
*  Kynurenine pathway
... kynurenic acid, quinolinic acid, anthranilic acid, 3 -Hydroxykynurenine) have been described for a number of disorders, e.g.: ... Patients with this disorder excrete excessive amounts of xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and kynurenine ... Maria Holtze, Peter Saetre, Göran Engberg, et al.: Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid ... accumulation of kynurenine and to a shift within the tryptophan metabolic pathway towards kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. ...
*  Pesticide toxicity to bees
"Modulation of quinolinic and kynurenic acid content in the rat brain: effects of endotoxins and nicotinylalanine". J Neurochem ...
*  Kynurenine
... kynurenic acid, quinolinic acid, anthranilic acid, 3 -Hydroxykynurenine) have been described for a number of disorders, e.g.: ... of kynurenine into anthranilic acid while kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase catabolizes its conversion into kynurenic acid. ... relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls". J Psychiatry Neurosci. 37 (1): 53- ... L-Kynurenine (/kaɪˈnjʊərɪniːn/) is a metabolite of the amino acid L-tryptophan used in the production of niacin. Kynurenine is ...
*  Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase
... the neuroprotectant kynurenic acid through kynurenine amino transferases, or anthranilic acid by kynureninase. Kynurenine 3- ... Quinolinic acid is also the bioprecursor of NAD+. Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase leads to an increase of kynurenic ... 2012). "Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and ... Stone, T. W.; Perkins, M. N. (1981). "Quinolinic acid: A potent endogenous excitant at amino acid receptors in CNS". Eur. J. ...
*  GOT2
Another function of GOT2 is that it is believed to transaminate kynurenine into kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brain. The KYNA ... GOT plays a role in amino acid metabolism and the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. Also, GOT2 is a major participant in the ... Zhou SL, Gordon RE, Bradbury M, Stump D, Kiang CL, Berk PD (Apr 1998). "Ethanol up-regulates fatty acid uptake and plasma ... Virtually ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, GOT2 nucleic acid and protein sequences are highly conserved, and its 5'regulatory ...
*  Endogenous agonist
Some endogenous antagonists and inverse agonists are also known (e.g., kynurenic acid at the NMDA receptor), but these are much ...
*  N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid
... and kynurenic acid; the latter is the only known endogenous antagonist. They are commonly referred to as NMDA receptor ... N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA ...
*  Quinolinic acid
Kynurenic acid, another product of the kynurenine pathway acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Kynurenic acid thus acts as a ... kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HANA). Quinolinic acid's neuroactive and ... While quinolinic acid cannot pass the BBB, kynurenic acid, tryptophan and 3-hydroxykynurenine do and subsequently act as ... Manipulation of the kynurenine pathway away from quinolinic acid and toward kynurenic acid is therefore a major therapeutic ...
*  C10H7NO3
... α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid Kynurenic acid, a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. ...
*  BNC-210
List of investigational anxiolytics 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid Kynurenic acid http://www.bionomics.com.au/upload/investors/asx- ...
*  NMDA receptor
... dizocilpine site antagonist Kynurenic acid - endogenous glycine site antagonist Lanicemine - low-trapping dizocilpine site ... endogenous glycine site agonist Homocysteic acid - endogenous glutamate site agonist Ibotenic acid - naturally occurring ... prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid 7-Chlorokynurenic acid - glycine site antagonist Agmatine - endogenous polyamine site ... The discovery of NMDA receptors was followed by the synthesis and study of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in the 1960s by Jeff ...
*  Kainate receptor
... non-selective NS102 Kynurenic acid - endogenous ligand Tezampanel - also an AMPAR antagonist UBP-302 Theanine NMDA receptor ... 5-Iodowillardiine ATPA Domoic acid Glutamic acid (glutamate) - the endogenous agonist Kainic acid - a synthetic agonist after ... The convulsant kainic acid induces seizures, in part, by activation of kainate receptors containing the GluK2 subunit and also ... Kainate receptors, or kainic acid receptors (KARs), are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate. ...
*  Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist
Kynurenic acid Memantine Nitrous oxide Perampanel Phencyclidine Excitatory amino acid receptor agonist Excitatory amino acid ... An excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, or glutamate receptor antagonist, is a chemical substance which antagonizes one ... reuptake inhibitor N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MeSH list of agents 82018691 Excitatory amino acid antagonists at ...
*  5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid
7-Chlorokynurenic acid Kynurenic acid McNamara D, Smith EC, Calligaro DO, O'Malley PJ, McQuaid LA, Dingledine R. 5,7- ... 5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA) is a selective NMDA receptor antagonist acting at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor ... Dichlorokynurenic acid, a potent and selective competitive antagonist of the glycine site on NMDA receptors. Neuroscience ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D03)
... fusaric acid MeSH D03.066.707.523 --- picloram MeSH D03.066.707.768 --- streptonigrin MeSH D03.066.942.505 --- kynurenic acid ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 --- piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 --- 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro- ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 --- pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 --- piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 --- ... kynurenic acid MeSH D03.438.810.350.600 --- oxamniquine MeSH D03.438.810.350.625 --- oxyquinoline MeSH D03.438.810.350.625.250 ...