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*  HCN4
Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel Funny current GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138622 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... "Single-channel properties support a potential contribution of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and ... Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... "Entrez Gene: HCN4 hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4". Baruscotti M, Bucchi A, Viscomi C, ...
*  Chloride channel
For the channels, when the slow gate is closed, no ions permeate through the pore. When the slow gate is open, the fast gates ... Chloride channels are a superfamily of poorly understood ion channels specific for chloride. These channels may conduct many ... Thus, the protein could have both gates open, or both gates closed, or just one of the two gates open. Single-channel patch- ... Several families of voltage-gated channels and ligand-gated channels (e.g., the CaCC families) have been characterized in ...
*  KCNE1
Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and ... Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNE1 gene. ... Kanda VA, Lewis A, Xu X, Abbott GW (Sep 2011). "KCNE1 and KCNE2 provide a checkpoint governing voltage-gated potassium channel ... "Entrez Gene: KCNE1 potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-related family, member 1". Sanguinetti MC, Curran ME, Zou A, Shen J, ...
*  Voltage-gated calcium channel
04, January 2009, 2009 BIOTREND Chemicals AG "Voltage-Gated Ion Channels". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. ... Glutamate receptors Inositol triphosphate receptor Ion channels NMDA receptors Ryanodine receptor Voltage-gated ion channels ... High-voltage-gated calcium channels include the neural N-type channel blocked by ω-conotoxinGVIA, the R-type channel (R stands ... Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ...
*  Ligand-gated ion channel
... calcium channel Calcium-activated potassium channel Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel Acid-sensing ion channel Ryanodine ... and its role in gating ion channels represents a novel role for the molecule. In contrast to ligand-gated ion channels, there ... If these receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, a resulting conformational change opens the ion channels, which leads to a ... "Revised Recommendations for Nomenclature of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. ...
*  Calcium channel
"Voltage-Gated Ion Channels". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions. It is sometimes synonymous as voltage- ... gated calcium channel, although there are also ligand-gated calcium channels. The following tables explain gating, gene, ... "calcium channel" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Striggow F, Ehrlich BE (August 1996). "Ligand-gated calcium channels inside ...
*  Inward-rectifier potassium channel
In this regard Kir channels are PIP2 ligand-gated ion channels. Kir channels are found in multiple cell types, including ... IRK channels possess a pore domain, homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels, and flanking transmembrane segments (TMSs ... "Inwardly Recifying Potassium Channels". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... Bertil Hille (2001). Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes 3rd ed. (Sinauer: Sunderland, MA), p. 151. ISBN 0-87893-321-2. Hille, ...
*  Light-gated ion channel
... ligand-gated ion channels, mechanosensitive ion channels, and temperature-gated ion channels. Most light-gated ion channels ... Light-gated ion channels are a family of ion channels regulated by electromagnetic radiation. Other gating mechanisms for ion ... Other types of gated ion channels, ligand-gated and voltage-gated, have been synthesized with a light-gated component in an ... Light-gated ion channels function in a similar manner to other gated ion channels. Such transmembrane proteins form pores ...
*  Voltage-gated ion channel
... voltage-gated ion channels directionally propagate electrical signals. Voltage-gated ion-channels are usually ion-specific, and ... DB Voltage-gated ion channel subunits The IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-gated Ion Channels 2005 Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels ... Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the ... polycystin cation channels, glutamate-gated ion channels, calcium-dependent chloride channels, monovalent cation:proton ...
*  G protein-gated ion channel
G protein-gated ion channels are a family of transmembrane ion channels in neurons and atrial myocytes that are directly gated ... Generally, G protein-gated ion channels are specific ion channels located in the plasma membrane of cells that are directly ... G protein-gated ion channels are associated with a specific type of G protein-coupled receptor. These ion channels are ... G proteins can also directly gate certain calcium ion channels in neuronal cell membranes. Although membrane ion channels and ...
*  Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel
Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic ... Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha-subunits include Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel ... Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel beta 1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel beta 3 The structure of the pore is similar to other ion ... alpha 2 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 3 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 4 Cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta- ...
*  Acetylcholine receptor
The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels, and, like other members of the "cys-loop" ligand-gated ion channel superfamily, are ... "Structural changes during ion channel gating". Trends Neurosci. 27 (6): 298-302. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2004.04.004. PMID 15165732 ... The nicotine ACh receptor is also a Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ion channel. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR, also known as " ... In contrast, the mAChRs are not ion channels, but belong instead to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors that ...
*  Two-state trajectory
Kienker, P. (1989). "Equivalence of Aggregated Markov Models of Ion-Channel Gating". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: ... Since the ion channel is either opened or closed, when recording the number of ions that go through the channel when time ... "Using independent open-to-closed transitions to simplify aggregated Markov models of ion channel gating kinetics". Proceedings ... Colquhoun, D.; Hawkes, A. G. (1982). "On the Stochastic Properties of Bursts of Single Ion Channel Openings and of Clusters of ...
*  5-HT3 antagonist
Yoshida S, Watanabe T, Sato Y (May 2007). "Regulatory molecules for the 5-HT3 receptor ion channel gating system". Bioorganic ... substituents have little to do with ligand binding but play a big role in ion channel gating. Sterically bulky substituents ... a model ligand-gated ion channel (review)". Molecular Membrane Biology. 19 (1): 11-26. doi:10.1080/09687680110110048. PMID ... show a greater interaction with the gating amino acid residues and favor the open conformation af the ion channel because of ...
*  Gating (electrophysiology)
... gating modifiers' of voltage-gated ion channels by changing the kinetics of gating. The voltage-gated ion channels of the ... voltage-gated ion channels), drugs or hormones interacting with the ion channel (ligand-gated ion channels), changes in ... In a model of an ion channel that has two gates (an activation gate and an inactivation gate) that must both be open for ions ... The name 'gating' derives from the idea that an ion channel protein includes a pore that is guarded by a gate or several gates ...
*  Lipid bilayer
Garcia ML (July 2004). "Ion channels: gate expectations". Nature. 430 (6996): 153-5. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..153G. doi:10.1038/ ... ion channels and ion pumps. Both pumps and channels are integral membrane proteins that pass through the bilayer, but their ... In contrast to ion pumps, ion channels do not build chemical gradients but rather dissipate them in order to perform work or ... All ion pumps have some sort of trigger or "gating" mechanism. In the previous example it was electrical bias, but other ...
*  Lipid bilayer mechanics
M. L. Garcia."Ion channels: Gate expectations." Nature. 430. (2004) 153-155. T. J. McIntosh and S. A. Simon."Roles of Bilayer ... Bilayer mechanical properties have also been shown to alter the function of mechanically activated ion channels. Since lipid ... "Bilayer-dependent inhibition of mechanosensitive channels by neuroactive peptide enantiomers." Nature. 6996. (2004) 235-240. D ...
*  Remote control animal
The central component of the remote control system is a Ligand-gated ion channel gated by ATP. When ATP is applied, uptake of ...
*  Cangitoxin
Catterall, WA; Cestele, S; Yarov-Yarovoy, V; Yu, FH; Konoki, K; Scheuer, T (2007). "Voltage-gated ion channels and gating ... which most likely acts by prolonging the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV channels). Cangitoxin is a ... Sea anemone toxins act on voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.4, NaV1.5, NaV1.6, NaV1.7) and depending on their ... According to its sequence homology, it is likely that cangitoxin prolongs the inactivation of the voltage-gated sodium channels ...
*  Lq2
Catterall WA, Cestèle S, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Yu FH, Konoki K, Scheuer T (February 2007). "Voltage-gated ion channels and gating ... Since all potassium channels share the same ion conducting outer pore structure, Lq2 binds to all three potassium channel types ... It blocks various potassium channels, among others the inward-rectifier potassium ion channel ROMK1. Lq2 is also known as ... of the ROMK1 ion channel. It blocks the channel, binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with its β-sheet. Potential use of Lq2 ...
*  AETX
"Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins". Toxicon. 49 (2): 124-41. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.09.022. PMID ... It is classified into Type I voltage-gated sodium channel neurotoxins. As reported by Norton et al., this group consists of ... AETX refers to a group of polypeptide neurotoxins isolated from the sea anemone Anemonia erythraea that target ion channels, ... sea anemone sodium channel inhibitory subfamily 1 and binds to the neurotoxin receptor site 3 of voltage-gated sodium channels ...
*  TsIV
"Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins". Toxicon. 49 (2): 124-41. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.09.022. PMID ... January 1989). "Modification of Na channel gating by an alpha scorpion toxin from Tityus serrulatus". J. Gen. Physiol. 93 (1): ... located on domain IV of the sodium channel, and thereby slow the inactivation of sodium channels. This toxin is active against ... does not discriminate between tissue-specific sodium channel subtypes and has been found to effect sodium channels from rat ...
*  Poneratoxin
"Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins". Toxicon. 49 (2): 124-141. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.09.022. Duval, ... act upon sodium channels via binding to the channels' receptor site 3, which normally affects the channels' ability to ... The combination of poneratoxin binding to a cell membrane (in order to act upon a voltage-gated sodium channel) and the ... It prevents inactivation of voltage gated sodium channels and therefore blocks the synaptic transmission in the central nervous ...
*  Kaliotoxin
2008 May;16(5):747-54 3. Catterall WA et al., Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins. Toxicon. 2007 Feb;49(2): ... KTX binds to the Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel and the Calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels). (Lange A et ... through the Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel and calcium-activated potassium channels by physically blocking the channel- ... Computational simulations of interactions of scorpion toxins with the voltage-gated potassium ion channel. Biophys J. 2004 Jun; ...
*  Bukatoxin
Voltage-gated ion channels and gating modifier toxins. Toxicon, 49(2), 124-141, Goudeta C., Chib C.-W., Tytgat J. (2002). An ... By blocking the inactivation of sodium ion channels, α-scorpion toxins prolong action potentials. Bukatoxin (short names: ... Other residues that could contribute to the binding of bukatoxin to the neurotoxin receptor site 3 of the sodium channels are ... It can be further categorized as a polypeptide gating modifier toxin that belongs to the α-subfamily of scorpion neurotoxins. ...
*  GRIK5
... as the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system through activation of ligand-gated ion channels and G ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the glutamate-gated ionic channel family. Glutamate functions ... The protein encoded by this gene forms functional heteromeric kainate-preferring ionic channels with the subunits encoded by ...
*  Cation channel superfamily
"Voltage-gated Ion Channels". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Cao Y, Pan Y, Huang H, Jin X, Levin EJ, Kloss B, Zhou M (April 2013). "Gating of the TrkH ion channel by its associated RCK ... There are commonly additional regulatory domains which serve to regulate ion conduction and channel gating. The pores may also ... The transmembrane cation channel superfamily was defined in InterPro and Pfam as the family of tetrameric ion channels. These ...