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*  Brain natriuretic peptide
Removal of the 25-residue N-terminal signal peptide generates the prohormone, proBNP, which is stored intracellularly as an O- ... Activates adipocyte plasma membrane type A guanylyl cyclase receptors NPR-A Increases intracellular cGMP levels that induce the ... phosphorylation of a hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin A via the activation of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase-I (cGK-I) ... Other terms for BNP include B-type natriuretic peptide, ventricular natriuretic peptide and natriuretic peptide B') C-type ...
*  Formyl peptide receptor 1
Rivière S, Challet L, Fluegge D, Spehr M, Rodriguez I (May 2009). "Formyl peptide receptor-like proteins are a novel family of ... Jesaitis AJ, Naemura JR, Painter RG, Sklar LA, Cochrane CG (Dec 1982). "Intracellular localization of N-formyl chemotactic ... chemotatic factors and their receptors are important chemotactic factor receptors that act respectively as signaling and signal ... Bennett TA, Maestas DC, Prossnitz ER (Aug 2000). "Arrestin binding to the G protein-coupled N-formyl peptide receptor is ...
*  Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. Of the latter, types include: ... which was a general EC number for any enzyme that phosphorylates proteins while converting ATP to ADP (i.e., ATP:protein ... A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.1) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ... Protein phosphorylation in particular plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes and is a very important ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776.476)
This is a sub-part (intracellular signaling peptides and proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the ... smad1 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.200 -- smad2 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.500.300 -- smad3 protein MeSH D12.776. ... smad proteins, inhibitory MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.600 -- smad6 protein MeSH D12.776.476.024.417.249.700 -- smad7 protein ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.776.476.375.100.200 -- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ...
*  Protein kinase C
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". BBA ... Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Signal transduction Yasutomi Nishizuka, discovered protein kinase C Wilson CH, Ali ES ... membrane-bound receptor for activated protein kinase C proteins). The protein kinase C enzymes are known for their long-term ... Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 2.7.11.13), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in ...
*  Neurofibromatosis type II
The Schwannomin-peptide consists of 595 amino acids. Comparison of Schwannomin with other proteins shows similarities to ... Stamenkovic, I; Yu, Q (2010). "Merlin, a "magic" linker between extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that ... This peptide is thought to have a tumor-suppressive function. In a normal cell, the concentrations of active (dephosphorylated ... Mutations of NF II is presumed to result in either a failure to synthesize Merlin or the production of a defective peptide that ...
*  Pepducin
... are cell-penetrating peptides that act as intracellular modulators of signal transference from receptors to G proteins. ... A pepducin molecule consists of a short peptide derived from a GPCR intracellular loop tethered to a hydrophobic moiety. This ... employ lipidated fragments of intracellular G protein-coupled receptor loops to modulate GPCR action in targeted cell-signaling ... December 2006). "Distinct activity of peptide mimetic intracellular ligands (pepducins) for proteinase-activated receptor-1 in ...
*  SH2 domain
... conserved protein domain contained within the Src oncoprotein and in many other intracellular signal-transducing proteins. SH2 ... Modular domains, which are the subunits of a protein, moderate these protein interactions by identifying short peptide ... These peptide sequences determine the binding partners of each protein. One of the more prominent domains is the SH2 domain. ... SH2 domains typically bind a phosphorylated tyrosine residue in the context of a longer peptide motif within a target protein, ...
*  Endothelin 2
... is a member of the endothelin protein family of secretory vasoconstrictive peptides. The preproprotein is ... processed to a short mature form which functions as a ligand for the endothelin receptors that initiate intracellular signaling ... Endothelin 2, also known as ET-2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EDN2 gene. ... "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". American Journal of ...
*  N-terminus
It often contains signal peptide sequences, "intracellular postal codes" that direct delivery of the protein to the proper ... signal peptides target proteins to the thylakoids. The N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide (mtTP) allows the protein to ... The signal peptide is typically removed at the destination by a signal peptidase. The N-terminal amino acid of a protein is an ... The N-terminal signal peptide is recognized by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and results in the targeting of the ...
*  Peptidylprolyl isomerase A
... where it partakes in intracellular signaling, protein transport, and transcription regulation. In hemopoietic cells, ... PPIases catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides and accelerate protein folding. ... The protein can also interact with several HIV proteins, including p55 gag, Vpr, and capsid protein, and has been shown to be ... PPIA may also activate Akt and NF-κB signaling, resulting in the upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and thus ...
*  Phosphoproteomics
Intracellular signal transduction is primarily mediated by the reversible phosphorylation of various signalling molecules by ... Peptides are sequenced and analyzed. The analysis of the entire complement of phosphorylated proteins in a cell is certainly a ... Therefore, even though phosphorylation dependent protein-protein interactions are very important, it is important to remember ... degradation of proteins and therefore cell signalling networks. With all of these modification results, it is estimated that ...
*  C8orf46
... does not contain any transmembrane domains or signal peptides suggesting that it is an intracellular protein. C8orf46 ... The isoelectric point of the protein is 10.42 which indicates the pH of the protein is basic. The protein of C8orf46 does ... C8orf46 is predicted to be a nuclear protein, given the classical nuclear localization signal found at amino acids Lys191 to ... The secondary and tertiary structure of this protein is not well known. The protein derived from C8orf46 is considered rich in ...
*  Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
... and Signal Transduction Core, to assist research involving intracellular Ca2+ measurements and protein-protein interactions. " ... for protein and peptide sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis; ... a therapy for people suffering from a rare and life-threatening blood disorder known as protein C deficiency. Research at OMRF ...
*  Steatosis
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". BBA ... Protein malnutrition, such as that seen in kwashiorkor, results in a lack of precursor apoproteins within the cell, therefore ... or a signal proportional to the water minus the fat contingent. These signal intensities are then algebraically combined into a ... Other intracellular accumulations, such as water or glycogen, can also appear as clear vacuoles, therefore it becomes necessary ...
*  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
"The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca2+ signalling in steatotic hepatocytes". BBA ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... cAMP receptor protein), a transcription activator protein. The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site ... GeneGlobe -> GHRH Signaling[permanent dead link] Retrieved on May 31, 2009 Bos, Johannes L. (December 2006). "Epac proteins: ...
*  MAPK networks
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) networks are the pathways and signaling of MAPK, which is a protein kinase that ... These receptors induce intracellular signal pathways within the plant cells, while also resulting in PAMP-triggered immunity. ... The flagellin, a peptide of flg22, triggers a rapid and strong activation of MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6. MPK4 and MPK6 can be ... MPK3 and MPK6 are very similar proteins and have a function as regulators in abscission, stomatal development, signaling ...
*  Transforming growth factor beta superfamily
... and generate intracellular signals using a conserved family of proteins called SMADs. They play fundamental roles in the ... TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, ... Proteins from the TGF-beta family are only active as homo- or heterodimer; the two chains being linked by a single disulfide ...
*  C-peptide
... at nanomolar concentrations to a receptor that is likely G-protein-coupled. The signal activates Ca2+-dependent intracellular ... a C-peptide, a B-chain, and a signal sequence. The signal sequence is cleaved from the N-terminus of the peptide by a signal ... Hills CE, Brunskill NJ (2008). "Intracellular signalling by C-peptide". Exp Diabetes Res. 2008: 635158. doi:10.1155/2008/635158 ... "C-peptide - Creative Peptides -". AdisInsight. Retrieved 22 October 2016. "C-peptide - Eli Lilly". AdisInsight. Retrieved 22 ...
*  Signal transduction
... eventually propagating the signal through the cytoplasm. In eukaryotic cells, most intracellular proteins activated by a ligand ... Produced mRNA needs to be translated, and the produced protein/peptide can undergo Posttranslational_modification (PMT)) ... Other activated proteins interact with adaptor proteins that facilitate signaling protein interactions and coordination of ... Signal transduction by a GPCR begins with an inactive G protein coupled to the receptor; the G protein exists as a heterotrimer ...
*  TANGO2
Casey PJ (1995). "Protein lipidation in cell signaling". Science. 268 (5208): 221-5. doi:10.1126/science.7716512. PMID 7716512 ... and Intracellular Signaling Molecules". Science STKE. 2006 (359): 14. doi:10.1126/stke.3592006re14. PMID 17077383. Draper JM, ... Xia Z, Smith CD (Aug 2007). "Cellular palmitoylation and trafficking of lipated peptides". NIH Public Access. 48 (8): 1873-1884 ... C22orf25 is also xenologous to T10 like proteins in the Fowlpox Virus and Canarypox Virus. The gene coding for C22orf25 is ...
*  Cell signaling
... authoritative information about signaling pathways in human cells. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins at the US ... In intracrine signaling, once inside the cell, a signaling molecule can bind to intracellular receptors, other elements, or ... Bu Z, Callaway DJ (2011). "Proteins MOVE! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling". Advances in Protein ... signaling pathway cAMP-dependent pathway Protein dynamics Signal transduction Systems biology Lipid signaling Redox signaling ...
*  Clinical neurochemistry
... both necrotic and apoptotic processes utilize a similar intracellular signaling cascade which uses caspase proteins to induce ... In fact, Senile plaques are dense, protein deposits composed of amyloid β peptide. The two types of senile plaques are diffuse ... In addition to the amyloid, the microtubule-associated Tau protein has also been in involved with Alzheimer's Disease and a ... In some rare forms, protein aggregation of alpha-synuclein and parkin can elicit symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. For a variety ...
*  Natural product
These signaling molecules include hormones and growth factors in turn are composed of peptides, biogenic amines, steroid ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... Cellular receptors in turn activate second messengers are used to relay the extracellular message to intracellular targets. ... A more recent example is the N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide analgesic which is based on a cyclic peptide cone snail ...
*  C12orf42
... is an intracellular protein. This is known by the lack of transmembrane domains or signal peptides. This suggests that ... Phosphorylation affects proteins-protein interaction and the stability of the protein. Acetylation promotes protein folding and ... The protein released by this gene is known as uncharacterized protein C12orf42. There are three isoforms for this protein ... C12orf42 protein is a soluble. Proteins that are soluble have a hydrophilic outside and hydrophobic interior . Proteins with ...
*  TENM3
The proline-rich stretches are typical binding sites for SH3 proteins, which can regulate intracellular teneurin signalling ... The peptide cleaved from the C terminal of Ten-m3, TCAP-3, stimulates the production of cAMP and the proliferation of neurons. ... A conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Developmental Biology. ... The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ...
*  PDZD2
They have also been shown to bind to other PDZ domain proteins and could possibly be involved in intracellular signalling. The ... encoded protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is thought to be cleaved by a caspase to produce a secreted peptide ... PDZ domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDZD2 gene. Proteins containing PDZ domains have ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2002). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ...