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*  Cell signaling
... authoritative information about signaling pathways in human cells. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins at the US ... Bu Z, Callaway DJ (2011). "Proteins MOVE! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling". Advances in Protein ... signaling pathway cAMP-dependent pathway Protein dynamics Signal transduction Systems biology Lipid signaling Redox signaling ... Biochemical signals are the biochemical molecules such as proteins, lipids, ions and gases. These signals can be categorized ...
*  Guanylate cyclase
... is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ... cGMP is an important second messenger that internalizes the message carried by intercellular messengers such as peptide ... Scholten A, Koch K (2011). "Differential calcium signaling by cone specific guanylate cyclase-activing proteins from the ... Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP), a ...
*  WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1
... associated signaling proteins (CCN intercellular signaling protein). The CCN family of proteins shares a common molecular ... protein structure, characterized by an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four distinct domains with homologies to ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1), also known as CCN4, is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: WISP1 WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1". Chen CC, Lau LF (Apr 2009). "Functions and mechanisms of action ...
*  WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2
CCN intercellular signaling protein) of secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling matricellular proteins. The ... CCN proteins characteristically contain an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2, or WISP-2 (also named CCN5) is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by ... These proteins, together with WISP1/CCN4, WISP2 (CCN5, this gene), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in ...
*  Neuroproteomics
... "signal transduction" proteins, while NGF resulted in an increase in proteins associated with the ribosome and synthesis of ... Protein differentiation was measured in each cell sample with and without treatment by NGF and JNJ460. A peptide mixture was ... JNJ460 also resulted in more structural proteins associated with intercellular growth, such as actin, myosin, and troponin. ... These receptor proteins are unable to initiate the intracellular signaling processes that enable the neuron to live, and ...
*  NOV (gene)
... associated signaling proteins (see also CCN intercellular signaling protein). The CCN acronym is derived from the first three ... The human NOV protein contains 357 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... protein associates with Notch1 extracellular domain and inhibits myoblast differentiation via Notch signaling pathway". The ... These proteins, together with WISP1 (CCN4), WISP2 (CCN5), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in vertebrates ...
*  WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 3
CCN intercellular signaling protein) of secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated signaling matricellular proteins. The ... CCN proteins characteristically contain an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains ... WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP3, also named CCN6) is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Huang W, Pal A, Kleer CG (March 2012). "On how CCN6 suppresses breast cancer growth and invasion". J Cell Commun Signal. 6 (1 ...
*  Major intrinsic proteins
Drosophila neurogenic protein 'big brain' (bib). This protein may mediate intercellular communication; it may functions by ... These proteins may allow the diffusion of water, amino acids and/or peptides from the tonoplast interior to the cytoplasm. ... allowing the transport of certain molecules(s) and thereby sending a signal for an exodermal cell to become an epidermoblast ... Aquaporins Integral membrane protein Transporter Classification Database Protein Superfamily Protein family Fu D, Libson A, ...
*  CYR61
... associated signaling protein of the CCN family (CCN intercellular signaling protein). CYR61 is capable of regulating a broad ... Full-length CYR61 protein contains 381 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... Other highly conserved homologs were later identified to comprise the CCN protein family (CCN intercellular signaling protein ... CCN proteins function as matricellular proteins, which are extracellular matrix proteins that play regulatory roles, ...
*  Cathepsin B
... is synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum as a preproenzyme of 339 amino acid with a signal peptide of 17 ... Klein DM, Felsenstein KM, Brenneman DE (March 2009). "Cathepsins B and L differentially regulate amyloid precursor protein ... intercellular communication disruption, and reduced protease inhibitor expression. It is also involved in autophagy and ... Yin M, Soikkeli J, Jahkola T, Virolainen S, Saksela O, Hölttä E (December 2012). "TGF-β signaling, activated stromal ...
*  Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor
Subsequently, it was suggested that EDHF is a sulfur signal that results in activation of K channels via sulfhydration of a ... Endothelium-derived CNP has been proposed to act as an EDHF via specific C-subtype of natriuretic peptide receptor, however the ... The generation of animals that lack both Endothelium Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1, a protein that ... An alternative explanation for the EDHF phenomenon is that direct intercellular communication via gap junctions allows passive ...
*  Nanoparticle
These affinity baits allow the nanoparticles to isolate and remove undesirable proteins while enhancing the target analytes. ... Common address tags are monoclonal antibodies, aptamers, streptavidin or peptides. These targeting agents should ideally be ... Multivalent nanoparticles, bearing multiple targeting groups, can cluster receptors, which can activate cellular signaling ... endoplasmic reticulum or other internal cellular components due to the particle size and intercellular agglomeration. A recent ...
*  CCL2
The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The ... Basophils and mast cells that are treated with CCL2 release their granules to the intercellular space. This effect can be also ... "Induction of brain natriuretic peptide and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression by oxidized low-density lipoprotein: ... "Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat ...
*  Polysome
The three forms differ by the poly(A) and non-poly(A) protein binding sequence. Cambra, Kris (Spring 2017). "Paul M. Knopf, PhD ... They act as a platform for signalling molecules to get involved in the emergence of polypeptides and ribosomes, and aid the ... The simultaneous analysis of the polysome with all the peptides it produces under given conditions (the translatome) lead to a ... better insight of the complexity of how mutations, extracellular stimuli, intercellular cues, growth conditions, and stress ...
*  Circadian clock
Through intercellular signalling mechanisms such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, the SCN signals other hypothalamic nuclei ... Methylation of a protein structure adds a methyl group and regulates the protein function or gene expression and in histone ... It is not, however, clear precisely what signal (or signals) enacts principal entrainment to the many biochemical clocks ... Reversible phosphorylation regulates important processes such as nuclear entry, formation of protein complexes and protein ...
*  WIF domain
Wnt proteins constitute a large family of secreted molecules that are involved in intercellular signalling during development. ... but they share the following features characteristics of secretory proteins: a signal peptide, several potential N- ... The Wnt proteins seem to adhere to the plasma membrane of the secreting cells and are therefore likely to signal over only few ... In molecular biology, the protein domain, WIF N-terminal refers to the N terminal domain of the protein, WIF. It stands for, ...
*  Meristem
CLV1 has been shown to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins that are most likely involved in downstream signalling. For ... CLE peptide signalling, and KAPP interaction, similar to that seen in the CLV1,2,3 system. LjKLAVIER also exhibits a nodule ... Meristematic cells are packed closely together without intercellular cavities. The cell wall is a very thin primary cell wall. ... These proteins may act as an intermediate between the CLV complex and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is often ...
*  Tunneling nanotube
... understanding intercellular protein trafficking". Genes Dev. 19 (2): 189-95. doi:10.1101/gad.1271005. PMID 15655108. Köhler RH ... and nucleic acid-binding peptides provide novel mechanisms of intercellular communication in eukaryotic cells: implications in ... TNT mediated signaling has shown to produce spreading in target cells, similar to the lamellipodia produced when DC cells are ... A similar structure called a cytoneme enables exchanges between signalling centres. Two types of structures have been called ...
*  Arginine
... an important signaling molecule which can act as a second messenger as well as an intercellular messenger which regulates ... The aliphatic part of the side chain sometimes remains below the surface of the protein. Arginine residues in proteins can be ... "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & ... Kleanthous, Colin (2000). Protein-protein Recognition. Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780199637607. Griffiths, John R.; ...
*  Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences
... one of the crucial intercellular signaling systems in development, cancer and stem cell biology. Yoshinori Ohsumi, Tokyo ... for elucidating the unfolded protein response, a cellular quality-control system that detects disease-causing unfolded proteins ... linking accumulation of APP-derived beta-amyloid peptide to Alzheimer's pathogenesis and inspiring new strategies for disease ... Hans Clevers (Hubrecht Institute), for describing the role of Wnt signaling in tissue stem cells and cancer. Titia de Lange ( ...
*  Endocrine system
Juxtacrine signaling is a type of intercellular communication that is transmitted via oligosaccharide, lipid, or protein ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... Autocrine signaling is a form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent ... The typical mode of cell signaling in the endocrine system is endocrine signaling, that is, using the circulatory system to ...
*  TENM3
A conserved family of transmembrane proteins involved in intercellular signaling during development". Developmental Biology. ... The peptide cleaved from the C terminal of Ten-m3, TCAP-3, stimulates the production of cAMP and the proliferation of neurons. ... The proline-rich stretches are typical binding sites for SH3 proteins, which can regulate intracellular teneurin signalling ... The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ...
*  ICAM-1
... (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is ... The reticular nature of signaling cascades necessitates that the downstream effectors of ICAM-1 mediated signaling through ... and beta-LFA-1 peptides on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction". Peptides. 22 (12): 1955-62. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00546-0. PMID ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type of intercellular adhesion molecule continuously present in low concentrations in the ...
*  CD11a
... intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. CD11a is one of the ... and beta-LFA-1 peptides on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction". Peptides. 22 (12): 1955-62. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00546-0. PMID ... Chirmule N, Oyaizu N, Saxinger C, Pahwa S (1994). "Nef protein of HIV-1 has B-cell stimulatory activity". AIDS. 8 (6): 733-4. ... It is involved in cellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling. It is the target of the drug efalizumab. ITGAL encodes the ...
*  Neurokinin A
Chemical signals therefore are an important component of paracrine, autocrine and endocrine signaling. Neurokinin A was shown ... Each receptor demonstrates a specific affinity for either neurkinin A or substance P peptides. Both peptides, however, can act ... Either of these scenarios can result in calcium overload, protein degradation, the unfolded protein response or an accumulation ... "Molecular Mechanisms Of Intercellular Communication In The Hormonal And Neural Systems." IUBMB Life 58.5/6 (2006): 349-357 pre- ...
*  Index of biochemistry articles
... signal peptide - signal recognition particle - signal sequence - signal transduction - sincalide - skeleton - skin - smooth ER ... insect protein - Insulin - insulin receptor - insulin-like growth factor I - Integral membrane protein - intein - intercellular ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... peptide - peptide bond - peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - peptide fragment - peptide initiation ...