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*  Glucose tolerance test
Insulin levels are sometimes measured to detect insulin resistance or deficiency. The GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) is of ... for measuring insulin resistance), or the insulin tolerance test, but is technically less difficult. Neither of the two ... The OGTT does not distinguish between insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and reduced capacity of the pancreas beta-cells ... HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment) is a convenient way of measuring insulin resistance in normal subjects, which can be ...
*  Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome
The higher CHD risk in this population may be related in part to a higher prevalence of insulin resistance, the metabolic ... migration from rural to urban areas and a higher susceptibility to accumulate abdominal fat and develop more insulin resistance ... Insulin resistance and pre-diabetes. Available at http://www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed November 9, 2012. DeFronzo RA and ...
*  Diet-induced obesity model
High levels of leptin and insulin are produced; at the same time, the body becomes resistant to both. Insulin resistance in ... Wang, Chao-Yung; Liao, James K. (2012-01-01). "A Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance". Methods in ... In this experiment, it was found that a high-fat diet caused insulin resistance, contributing to cardiovascular disease, cancer ... One such characteristic is insulin resistance, which comes with diet-induced obesity in both rats and humans. Additionally, ...
*  Lifestyle causes of diabetes mellitus type 2
It secretes RBP4 which increases insulin resistance by blocking the action of insulin in muscle and liver. Fat cells also ... Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB (July 2006). "Inflammation and insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 116 (7 ... and are thus prone to insulin resistance.[unreliable medical source?] Fat tissue has also been shown to be involved in managing ... chronic obesity leads to increased insulin resistance that can develop into type 2 diabetes, most likely because adipose tissue ...
*  Insulin resistance
... at Curlie (based on DMOZ) "The National Insulin Resistance Council". US. "Insulin resistance". Diabetes. US ... Insulin resistance normally refers to reduced glucose-lowering effects of insulin. However, other functions of insulin can also ... Once established, insulin resistance would result in increased circulating levels of insulin. Since insulin is the primary ... This link seems to exist under diverse causes of insulin resistance. It also is based on the finding that insulin resistance ...
*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Endocrine Disorders: Pancreas: Insulin Resistance
Insulin receptors in the cells become less sensitive and decrease in number, frequently resulting in overproduction of insulin ... Insulin resistance is a pre-diabetic condition wherein the cells of the body become less able to respond to insulin and process ... Insulin resistance is a pre-diabetic condition wherein the cells of the body become less able to respond to insulin and process ... "Health ... Insulin Resistance" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - Yippy ...
*  Congenital generalized lipodystrophy
Leptin can also be used to reverse insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, to cause reduced food intake, and decrease blood ... May 2002). "Leptin reverses insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in patients with severe lipodystrophy". Journal of ... Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which manifests with insulin resistance, ... insulin resistance; and high serum levels of triglycerides. Genetic testing can also confirm the disease, as mutations in the ...
*  Familial partial lipodystrophy
Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia occur. Calf muscular hypertrophy may occur. Type 5 is due to mutations in the AKT2 ... Complications include hypertension, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. The gene causing this condition is not yet ... Insulin resistance is common. Other conditions associated with this condition include acanthosis nigricans, fatty liver, ... The patients also suffered from hypertension, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. Type 6 due to mutations in the CIDEC ...
*  Downregulation and upregulation
Wilcox, Gisela (2016-11-20). "Insulin and Insulin Resistance". Clinical Biochemist Reviews. 26 (2): 19-39. ISSN 0159-8090. PMC ... This is the more common process of insulin resistance, which leads to adult-onset diabetes. Another example can be seen in ... Elevated levels of the hormone insulin in the blood trigger downregulation of the associated receptors. When insulin binds to ... This process is illustrated by the insulin receptor sites on target cells in a person with type 2 diabetes. Due to the elevated ...
*  Diglyceride
"Insulin receptor Thr1160 phosphorylation mediates lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation ... Similarly, activation of PKCε by diacyglycerol may cause insulin resistance in the liver. Dietary sources of fatty acids, their ... Activation of PKC-θ by diacylglycerol may cause insulin resistance in muscle by decreasing IRS1-associated PI3K activity. ... ISBN 0-7167-8724-5. [page needed] Erion DM, Shulman GI (2010). "Diacylglycerol-mediated insulin resistance". Nature Medicine. ...
*  Adipocyte
... leading to the development of insulin resistance. Fat production in adipocytes is strongly stimulated by insulin. By ... This seems to help compensate for the anti-lipogenic effects of insulin resistance and thus preserve adipocyte fat storage ... Kahn BB, Flier JS (August 2000). "Obesity and insulin resistance". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 106 (4): 473-81. doi: ... Clinical studies have repeatedly shown that even though insulin resistance is usually associated with obesity, the membrane ...
*  Inflammation
Higher than normal Angptl2 level in fat tissues develop inflammation as well as insulin and leptin resistance. Stored fat ... Angptl2 is an adipocyte-derived inflammatory mediator linking obesity to systemic insulin resistance. It is possible that, as ... The association of systemic inflammation with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis is the subject of intense research. In the ... Shoelson, SE; Lee, J; Goldfine, AB (July 2006). "Inflammation and insulin resistance". The Journal of Clinical Investigation ( ...
*  Obesity
Increases in body fat alter the body's response to insulin, potentially leading to insulin resistance. Increased fat also ... Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB (July 2006). "Inflammation and insulin resistance". J. Clin. Invest. 116 (7): 1793-801. doi: ... Shoelson SE, Herrero L, Naaz A (May 2007). "Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance". Gastroenterology. 132 (6): 2169-80 ... and insulin resistance". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Review). 87 (4): 801-9. PMID 18400700. Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor DH, Moser BK, ...
*  Neuropeptide Y
Wilcox G (May 2005). "Insulin and insulin resistance". The Clinical Biochemist. Reviews. 26 (2): 19-39. PMC 1204764 . PMID ... Meanwhile, obesity-induced insulin resistance and the mutation of the leptin receptor (ObRb) results in the abolition of ... In the case of obesity, which researchers speculate to have a strong genetic and a dietary basis, insulin resistance prevents ... insensitivity or resistance to insulin; mutation of leptin receptor; and an increase in NPY mRNA and NPY release. In obesity ...
*  Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Patients with MODY less often suffer from obesity and insulin resistance than those with ordinary type 2 diabetes (for whom ... Insulin may not be necessary and it may be possible to switch a person from insulin injections to oral agents without loss of ... In MODY1 and MODY3, insulin may be more effective than drugs to increase insulin sensitivity. Sulfonylureas are effective in ... Insulin resistance very rarely happens. Cystic kidney disease in patient or close relatives. Non-transient neonatal diabetes, ...
*  Epinephrine
Szablewski, Leszek (2011). Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance. Bentham Science Publishers. p. 68. ISBN 9781608051892. ... Beta blockade with propranolol causes a rebound in airway resistance after exercise in normal subjects over the same time ... The reduction in airway resistance during exercise reduces the work of breathing. Every emotional response has a behavioral ... Kindermann W, Schnabel A, Schmitt WM, Biro G, Hippchen M (May 1982). "[Catecholamines, GH, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, and sex ...
*  Vagus nerve
Pagotto, U. (2009). "Where does insulin resistance start? The brain". Diabetes Care. 32 (2): S174-S177. doi:10.2337/dc09-S305. ... Insulin signaling activates the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in the arcuate nucleus, ... The second heart slowed down without an electrical stimulation. Loewi described the substance released by the vagus nerve as ...
*  Sucrose
Another study found that rats fed sucrose-rich diets developed high triglycerides, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. A ... Ten, Svetlana; MacLaren, Noel (2004). "Insulin resistance syndrome in children". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89 (6): 2526-39. ... which induced visceral fat and ultimately resulted in insulin resistance. ... A diet rich in sucrose may lead to gout as it raises the level of insulin, which prevents excretion of uric acid from the body ...
*  Meldonium
Reflecting or Inflicting Insulin Resistance?". Diabetes. 62 (1): 1-8. doi:10.2337/db12-0466. PMID 23258903. Lippi G, Mattiuzzi ... which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Because of its inhibitory effects on L-carnitine ... WADA classes the drug as a metabolic modulator, just as it does insulin. Metabolic modulators are classified as S4 substances ...
*  Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults
... and people with LADA will eventually become insulin-dependent. People with LADA have insulin resistance similar to long-term ... Those with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes are more likely to have high levels of C-peptide due to an over production of ... Insulin resistance leads to LADA (Report). Diabetes Health. Retrieved April 10, 2010. "Family History and LADA". The PubMed. ... some studies showed that people with LADA have less insulin resistance, compared with those with type 2 diabetes; however, ...
*  Diabetes management
... may represent some combination of insufficient insulin production and insulin resistance. Some degree of insulin resistance may ... which is given through injections or an insulin pump. Insulin resistance, in contrast, can be corrected by dietary ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Zitzmann M (October 2009). "Testosterone deficiency, insulin resistance and the ... Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance". Journal of Andrology. 30 (1): 23-32. doi:10.2164/jandrol.108.005751. PMID 18772488. ...
*  Fructose
Excess fructose consumption has been hypothesized to be a cause of insulin resistance, obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol and ... As for any sugar, excessive consumption of fructose may contribute to insulin resistance, obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol and ... Isganaitis E; Lustig RH (2005). "Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc ... Basciano H, Federico L, Adeli K (2005). "Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia". Nutrition & Metabolism. 2 ( ...
*  Testosterone (medication)
Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance". Journal of Andrology. 30 (1): 23-32. doi:10.2164/jandrol.108.005751. PMID 18772488. ...
*  Android fat distribution
1999). "Insulin resistance syndrome in 8-year-old Indian children". Diabetes. 48 (12): 2422-2429. doi:10.2337/diabetes.48.12. ... McKeigue, PM; Shah, B; Marmot, MG (1991). "Relation of central obesity and insulin resistance with high diabetes prevalence and ... Ali, A; Crowther, N (2005). "Body fat distribution and insulin resistance". South African Medical Journal. 95 (11): 878-880. ... Ali, A; Nigel, C (2005). "Body fat distribution and insulin resistance". South African Medical Journal (95): 878-880. ...
*  Tetrahydrobiopterin
Wu, Guoyao; Meininger, Cynthia J. (2009). "Nitric oxide and vascular insulin resistance". BioFactors. 35 (1): 21-7. doi:10.1002 ...
*  Cushing's syndrome
... leading to high blood sugar and insulin resistance which can lead to diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is accompanied by ... and insulin resistance (especially common with ACTH production outside the pituitary), ...
*  MTORC1
This has great significance in diabetes mellitus, which is due to insulin resistance. Mitogens, such as insulin like growth ... Ye J (Mar 2013). "Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity". Frontiers of Medicine. 7 (1): 14-24. doi:10.1007/s11684-013- ... "Rapamycin-induced insulin resistance is mediated by mTORC2 loss and uncoupled from longevity". Science. 335 (6076): 1638-1643. ... how mutations can result in therapy resistance and how to overcome resistance". Oncotarget. 3 (10): 1068-111. doi:10.18632/ ...