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*  Plant virus
The chosen insect vector of a plant virus will often be the determining factor in that virus's host range: it can only infect ... Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Plant cells are surrounded ... Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a vector, most often insects such as leafhoppers. One class of viruses, the ... Propagative viruses are able to replicate in both the plant and the insect (and may have originally been insect viruses), ...
*  Jumping plant louse
... is an example of a plant pathogen that has coevolved with its insect vector, the "Asian citrus psyllid", ACP, Diaphorina citri ... referring to whether plant speciation drives insect speciation and vice versa, though most herbivorous insects probably evolved ... Insect genomics provides important information on the genetic basis of the pests biology which may be altered to suppress ... Jumping plant lice or psyllids form the family Psyllidae of small plant-feeding insects that tend to be very host-specific, i.e ...
*  Lutzomyia
The Lutzomyia sand flies are small, biting insects with a body length of up to only 3mm. They are hairy insects with their ... Lutzomyia sand flies also serve as vectors for the bacterial Carrion's disease and a number of arboviruses. The genus, named ... Therefore, it is only the females who have medical importance as vectors of disease. Both males and females require ... The existence of bartonellosis transmission in areas not inhabited by Lutzomyia verracarum suggests that secondary vectors, and ...
*  Triatoma indictiva
The Common Insects of North America Lester A. Swan, Charles S. Papp. 1972. Harper & Row. Rassi, A., Jr., A. Rassi, and J. A. ... T. indictiva is one of the main vectors of T. cruzi, the hemoflagellate protozoan that causes Chagas disease. T. cruzi is ... Swan, Lester A. and Papp, Charles S. (1972) The Common Insects of North America Harper & Row. Rassi, A., Jr., A. Rassi, and J. ... Triatoma indictiva is an arthropod in the assassin bug family of Reduviidae, and is an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. T ...
*  Acyrthosiphon pisum
Insect Mol Biol 19, 249-258 Shigenobu, S.; Wilson, A.C.C. (2011). "Genomic revelations of a mutualism: the pea aphid and its ... However, like many aphid species, A. pisum can be a vector of viral diseases to the plants it visits. Protection against pea ... Unlike other related insects, the A. pisum genome is missing genes necessary for the urea cycle. the purine salvage pathway, ... J Insect Physiol 41, 41-46 Wilson, A.C.C., et al. (2003) Heritable genetic variation and potential for adaptive evolution in ...
*  Citrus stubborn disease
One effective measure against the beet leafhopper is planting trap plants, such as sugar beets, that the insect vector favor ... Spiroplasma citri is transmissible through several insect vectors, namely the beet leafhopper. ... eliminating the insect vector and preventing the bacteria from reaching the citrus crop. Older trees are much less susceptible ... using Euscelis plebejus as a vector. Symptoms on citrus trees are variable but typically include small size with upright ...
*  Phytoplasma
... s can overwinter in insect vectors or perennial plants. Phytoplasmas can have varying effects on their insect hosts ... "Interactions between a membrane protein of a pathogen and insect microfilament complex determines insect vector specificity". ... They are transmitted from plant to plant by vectors (normally sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers) in which they both ... Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant ...
*  Pepper mild mottle virus
There are no known insect vectors; however, humans can be considered the main vector for this pathogen. This virus is ... the transmittance of this plant virus to humans has created a discussion on the viability of humans as vectors for plant ...
*  Cherry X Disease
Orchard trees are most often infected by insect vectors. In California where it was first noted, the two most important vectors ... The pathogen is vectored by mountain and cherry leafhoppers. The mountain leafhopper vectors the pathogen from wild hosts to ... During the latent period the pathogen spreads and multiplies inside the vector. Depending on temperature and the vector, the ... Because of the vectors preference for cherry trees, choke cherry which is a wild growing cherry species is the most common host ...
*  Sugarcane grassy shoot disease
Phytoplasma infection also spreads through insect vectors; it is therefore important to control them. General field observation ... Oligonucleotide as Hybridization probes to Localize Phytoplasmas in Host Plants and Insect Vectors. (1998). Phytopathology. 89 ... Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) . ... 91:1413-1418.[1]. Rao, G. P. and Ford, R. E. (2000) Vectors of virus and Phytoplasma diseases of Sugarcane: An Overview. In: ...
*  African horse sickness
This disease is spread by insect vectors. The biological vector of the virus is the Culicoides (midges) species. However, this ... AHS is not directly contagious, but is known to be spread by insect vectors. AHSV was first recorded south of the Sahara Desert ... This disease can also be prevented by destroying the insect vector habitats using insecticides. African horse sickness was ... where cyclic disease outbreaks coincide with high numbers of competent vectors. The most important vector for AHS in endemic ...
*  Alphavirus
... infections are spread by insect vectors such as mosquitoes. Once a human is bitten by the infected mosquito, the ... It seems likely that the genus evolved in the Old World from an insect-borne plant virus. Sindbis virus may have originated in ... Vector control with repellents, protective clothing, breeding site destruction, and spraying are the preventive measures of ... The stable integration of viral genes is mediated by the retroviral interiors of these vectors. There are limitations to the ...
*  Janet Hemingway
Hemingway, J.; Ranson, H. (2000). "Insecticide Resistance in Insect Vectors of Human Disease". Annual Review of Entomology. 45 ... Janet Hemingway is distinguished as the international authority on insecticide resistance in insect vectors of disease. She was ... Awarded Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for services to the Control of Tropical Disease Vectors in the ... Janet Hemingway, CBE FRS FMedSci FRCP (born 1957) is a British parasitologist, Professor of Insect Molecular Biology and ...
*  Alternaria alternata
There are no insect vectors for this disease. This means that using insecticides has no effect on the susceptibility of a ... There are no insect vectors, so applying insecticides have no effect on a plant's resistance to this disease. Cultural ...
*  White clover mosaic virus
No insect vector is known. Its major host is clover (Trifolium spp). It first reported in Trifolium repens in 1935. In the ...
*  Bamboo mosaic virus
No insect vector is known. However, it is easily mechanically transmitted on contaminated tools used for propagation or ...
*  Clover yellow mosaic virus
No insect vector is known. This virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation, sometime by seeds and by dodder (Cuscuta ...
*  Melon necrotic spot virus
Lastly, cucumber beetles act as insect vectors for MNSV. They feed on flowers of the plants, if these are available, rather ... Control of the Olipidium vector can be obtained via soil sterilization with steam or methyl bromide. Controlling pest insects ... insects, and by the root-inhabiting fungus vector Olpidium bornovanus. Symptoms vary between Curbitaceae crops, but generally ... it is transmitted through vectors. Vectors are mediums with which any pathogens are transmitted. Through seed, infection occurs ...
*  Vitellogenesis
Hurd, Hilary (2003). "Manipulation of medically important insect vectors by their parasites". Annual Review of Entomology. 48 ( ... In insects, it starts when the fat body stimulates the release of juvenile hormones and produces vitellogenin protein. It ...
*  Haemosporida
The vectors of Nycteria and Rayella are currently unknown. Bioccala also uses Nycteribiidae as its insect vector. Rayella is ... The insect vectors of Hepatocystis, Plasmodium and Polychromophilus are Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, and Nycteribiidae, ...
*  Plasmodium fairchildi
Like all Plasmodium species it has vertebrate and insect hosts. The vertebrate hosts are reptiles. The insect vector is not ...
*  Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
The nematode cannot travel outside of the wood independently; it must be transported by an insect vector. B. xylophilus has the ... Monochamus alternatus main vector in Japan. M. saltuarius, secondary vector in Japan. M. galloprovincialis, main vector in ... The pine wilt nematode is vectored by a number of bark beetles and wood borers, and is most often associated with beetles in ... Furuno, T. (1982) Studies on the Insect Damage upon the Pine-species imported in Japan : (No.7) On the Withering of the pines ...
*  Maize dwarf mosaic virus
"Insect Vectors and Their Pathogens of Maize in the Tropics". Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook. Retrieved 2015-10-18. Hallauer, ... The vector for MDMV transmission is aphids. There are 15 aphid species that can non-persistently transmit MDMV. The aphids are ...
*  Mollicutes
Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma are plant pathogens associated with insect vectors. Whereas formerly the trivial name "mycoplasma" ...
*  Verticillium dry bubble
Dry bubble follows the typical verticillium life cycle, although insect vectors play a large role in the spread of this disease ... Spread of dry bubble disease is associated with insect vectors. Mites and springtails get stuck on the dry bubbles because ... These insects fly from mushroom cap to cap and spread the conidial L. fungicola spores, which are stuck to their legs from ... Casing mixture should be prepared and stored in a clean room away from mushroom wastes, outside soil, insects, and rodents help ...
*  Camelpox
The Camelpox virus is spread in three ways: direct contact, indirect contact, and insect vectors. In direct contact infection, ...
*  Cyclaneusma needle cast
Cyclaneusma does not appear to be affected by insect vectors. When choosing a site for plantation establishment, it is ...