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*  Antigenic drift
W. M. Fitch; R. M. Bush; C. A. Bender; N. J. Cox (1997). "Long term trends in the evolution of H(3) HA1 human influenza type A ... R. M. Bush; W. M. Fitch; C. A. Bender; N. J. Cox (1999). "Positive selection on the H3 hemagglutinin gene of human influenza ... Bush, R. M.; K. Subbarao; N. J. Cox; W. M. Fitch (3 December 1999). "Predicting the evolution of human influenza A". Science. ... All influenza viruses experience some form of antigenic drift, but it is most pronounced in the influenza A virus. Antigenic ...
*  Pandemic H1N1/09 virus
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe - "an unusually ... Pigs are also known to have been infected by humans. Humans Humans have been affected since early 2009. The November 27, 2009 ... highly pathogenic avian influenza) A/H5N1 strain (media labeled "bird flu") with more human-transmissible Influenza A strains ...
*  Avian influenza
Consultation on Human Influenza (29 September 2005). "Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (13 ... Although it is possible for humans to contract the avian influenza virus from birds, human-to-human contact is much more ... Health crisis Influenza Influenzavirus A Influenza pandemic Influenza Genome Sequencing Project Influenza research Influenza ... Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first reported to have infected humans in 2013 in China. Most ...
*  Influenza A virus subtype H2N3
... a surrogate model for human influenza infection. In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused ... H2N3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its ... Bird flu Dog flu Horse flu Human flu Swine flu Richt, J. A.; Rockx, B.; Ma, W.; Feldmann, F.; Safronetz, D.; Marzi, A.; Kobasa ... "Recently Emerged Swine Influenza a Virus (H2N3) Causes Severe Pneumonia in Cynomolgus Macaques". PLoS ONE. 7 (7): e39990. doi: ...
*  Global spread of H5N1 in 2006
Test results indicate this low pathogenic avian influenza poses no threat to humans. The agencies say the ducks were sampled in ... WHO (June 30, 2006). "Epidemiology of human H5N1 cases reported to WHO". Disease Outbreak News: Avian influenza A(H5N1). ... June 23, 2006 A family in Indonesia were confirmed to have had human-to-human spread of H5N1. A mutated strain was found, but ... Iraq is the seventh country to report human H5N1 infection in the current outbreak. The first human case occurred in Viet Nam ...
*  Pig
Some strains of influenza are endemic in pigs. Pigs also can acquire human influenza.[further explanation needed] Animals ... "Pig to Human transplants". The Guardian. Herron, Alan J. (5 December 2009). "Pigs as Dermatologic Models of Human Skin Disease ... pig skin has been shown to be the most similar to human skin. Pig skin is structurally similar to human epidermal thickness and ... Biologically, pigs are very similar to humans, thus are frequently used for human medical research. The Online Etymology ...
*  2009 flu pandemic in Australia
In 2009, H1N1 Influenza 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) was the underlying cause of 77 deaths in Australia. The ABS implemented ... "Health Emergency-H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human Swine Influenza)Outbreaks". Healthemergency.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2 ... As at 18 December 2009, Australia had 37,537 confirmed cases of H1N1 Influenza 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) and 191 deaths ... "H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human Swine Flu)". 30 September 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009 ...
*  Peter Palese
Buonagurio, D. A.; Nakada, S.; Parvin, J. D.; Krystal, M.; Palese, P.; Fitch, W. M. (1986). "Evolution of human influenza a ... Fitch, W. M.; Leiter, J. M.; Li, X. Q.; Palese, P. (1991). "Positive Darwinian evolution in human influenza a viruses". ... "Human Host Factors Required for Influenza Virus Replication". Nature. 463 (7282): 813-817. doi:10.1038/nature08699. PMC 2862546 ... "The guinea pig as a transmission model for human influenza viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (26 ...
*  Antigenic variation
Bean, William (3 December 1979). "Recombination of human influenza A viruses in nature". Nature. Lyttle, D J (Jan 1994). " ... Recombination between segments that encode for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of avian and human influenza virus segments have ... These high affinity human monoclonal antibodies can be produced within a month after vaccination and because of their human ... Plasmodium falciparum, the major etiologic agent of human malaria, has a very complex life cycle that occurs in both humans and ...
*  Selective sweep
One example comes from the human influenza virus, which has been involved in an adaptive contest with humans for hundreds of ... Fu, Wenqing; Akey, Joshua M. (2013). "Selection and adaptation in the human genome". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ... "The genomic and epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus". Nature. 453: 615-619. doi:10.1038/nature06945. PMC ... presumably to the advantage of its human manipulators. Examples of selective sweeps in humans are in variants affecting lactase ...
*  Malik Peiris
After the first outbreak of avian influenza virus H5N1 in humans in Hong Kong in 1997, Professor Peiris's attention was turned ... 2002). "Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual ... 2004). "Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease". Lancet. 363 (9409): 617-9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04) ... This was later shown to correlate with high levels of cytokines in infected humans. This so-called "cytokine storm" is now ...
*  Global spread of H5N1 in 2005
"Surveillance stepped up in province where Cambodia's first human avian influenza case was detected". Vietnam and Thailand have ... September 29, 2005 David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, ... "Press Conference By UN System Senior Coordinator for Avian, Human Influenza". United Nations. September 29, 2005. "Bird flu ' ... when human cases of H5N1 avian influenza were first reported in the current outbreak, 97 cases and 53 deaths have been reported ...
*  James C. Paulson
"Preferential Recognition of Avian-Like Receptors in Human Influenza A H7N9 Viruses". sciencemag.org. "Recognition of microbial ... His work, which may have implications for the treatment of cancer, influenza, and bacterial infections, has been recognized by ... "Researchers Hope New Drug That Stops Cancer Spread In Mice Leads To One That Works On Humans" C&EN Article: "Neuraminidase ... Center of Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and Glyco-Net. "James ...
*  David Nabarro
"WHO , WHO expert to work with the UN system on avian and human influenza". www.who.int. Retrieved 2016-11-23. "High Level Task ... In September 2005, Dr Nabarro was seconded from WHO and appointed Senior UN System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza by ... and moved on to become Director of Human Development (as well as Chief Health Adviser) in 1997. Dr Nabarro joined the WHO in ... the UN system makes an effective and coordinated contribution to the global effort to control the epidemic of avian influenza ( ...
*  Edward C. Holmes
... influenza, HIV and dengue, and enabled more accurate assessments of what types of virus are most likely to emerge in human ... "The genomic and epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus". Nature. 453 (7195): 615-619. doi:10.1038/nature06945. PMC ... Gilbert, Marcus Thomas Pius (2003). An assessment of the use of human samples in ancient DNA studies. ora.ox.ac.uk (DPhil ... His work has revealed the origin, evolution and molecular epidemiology of important human pathogens including Hepatitis C, ...
*  Stanley Fields (biologist)
Fields, S.; Winter, G.; Brownlee, G. G. (1981). "Structure of the neuraminidase gene in human influenza virus A/PR/8/34". ... "Nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin gene of a human influenza virus H1 subtype". Nature. 292 (5818): 72. doi:10.1038/ ...
*  2009 flu pandemic in the United Kingdom
Maria Zampaglione (29 April 2009). "A/H1N1 influenza like human illness in Mexico and the USA: OIE statement" (Press release). ... Background information WHO's Pandemic Influenza Phases Influenza Research Database - Database of influenza genomic sequences ... "Countries able to perform PCR to diagnose influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in humans" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2 May ... "NIMR scientists discuss swine-like human influenza A H1N1". National Institute for Medical Research. 1 May 2009. Archived from ...
*  Healthcare in Indonesia
"Human Influenza A H5N1 in Indonesia: Health Care Service-Associated Delays in Treatment Initiation." BMC Public Health, 13, 571 ... Health wise, Indonesia has suffered numerous H5N1 outbreaks, with the highest number of recorded human cases of this virus in ... "Human Rights of Persons with Mental Illness in Indonesia: More than Legislation is Needed." International Journal of Mental ...
*  Hemagglutinin (influenza)
... are found in human influenza viruses. Viral neuraminidase (NA) is another protein found on the surface of influenza. Influenza ... Influenza Research Database Database of influenza protein sequences and structures 3D macromolecular structures of influenza ... Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) or haemagglutinin (British English) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza viruses. ... Suzuki Y (March 2005). "Sialobiology of influenza: molecular mechanism of host range variation of influenza viruses". Biol. ...
*  London International Model United Nations
... then Senior UN System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza. In 2007: Kieran Prendergast, former UN Under-Secretary-General ... In 2013: John Ericson, Chief of the Outreach Unit of the Office of Human Resources Management of the United Nations Secretariat ... all human beings, anywhere and everywhere, form part of one single grand community, indivisible. Nations may be of importance ... the Human Rights Council, some Crisis Committees, and the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Each of these committees is ...
*  Virology
The Medical and Scientific Conceptions of Influenza, Human Virology at Stanford Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of ... Tests in mice were followed by tests in humans, beginning in 1989. The first human studies attempted to correct the genetic ... viruses that cause serious influenza in humans probably have pigs or birds as their natural host, and HIV is thought to derive ... The strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that killed up to 50 million people during the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 was ...
*  Steven Salzberg
"Whole-Genome Analysis of Human Influenza A Virus Reveals Multiple Persistent Lineages and Reassortment among Recent H3N2 ... "Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution". Nature. 437 (7062): 1162-1166 ... He was a participant in the human genome project as well as many other genome projects, including the malaria genome ( ... Salzberg together with David Lipman started the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project in 2003, a project to sequence and make ...
*  2009 Flu pandemic in North America
Update bulletins for influenza A H1N1 2009 (human swine influenza) CBC - The Road to Rollout, Nov. 6, 2009 "Bi-weekly and ... These included one seasonal influenza A (H1N1), 13 influenza A (H3N2), 23 Influenza B, and 1, 855 2009 influenza A (H1n1) virus ... "Human Swine Influenza Investigation". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. ... with 20 confirmed to be linked to a new swine influenza strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. As of April 26 there had been ...
*  Influenzavirus B
Influenza B viruses are only known to infect humans and seals, giving them influenza. This limited host and range is apparently ... Hay AJ, Gregory V, Douglas AR, Lin YP (2001). "The evolution of human influenza viruses". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. ... Further diminishing the impact of this virus "in human, influenza B viruses evolve slower than A viruses and faster than C ... Nobusawa E, Sato K (April 2006). "Comparison of the Mutation Rates of Human Influenza A and B Viruses". J Virol. 80 (7): 3675-8 ...
*  Xenotransplantation
Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5 (2005). "Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans". New England Journal of Medicine. ... An example of such is the avian influenza, when an influenza A virus was passed from birds to humans. Xenotransplantation may ... human-to-human) or xenograft (animal-to-human), but it is helpful scientifically (for those searching or reading the scientific ... Human organs have been transplanted into animals as a powerful research technique for studying human biology without harming ...
*  Woodrow Wilson
On Being Human, 1897. The State: Elements of Historical and Practical Politics, 1898. A History of the American People, 1902. ... On April 3 Wilson fell violently ill during a conference meeting, in a narrow escape from influenza. Though his symptoms ... human being." When Roosevelt was wounded by an assassin, Wilson restricted his events to those already scheduled and limited ...
*  Jeremy Farrar
"Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia". Nature Medicine. 12 (10): ... World Health Organization International Avian Influenza Investigative Team (2004). "Avian Influenza A (H5N1) in 10 Patients in ... Farrar's research interests are in infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, Dengue, Typhoid fever, Malaria, and Influenza H5N1 ... pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis and has become the leading centre for clinical research on avian influenza. These Pivotal ...