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*  Baby food
2 to 3 meals per day for infants 6 to 8 months of age and 3 to 4 meals per day for infants 9 to 23 months of age, with 1 or 2 ... This subsequent misuse of salt and sugar was also feared to effect issues of weight and nutrition based diseases. In China and ... and higher birth-rates recorded in different regions are expected to drive the demand for baby foods in the near future. ... although the overall fat intake was lower than recommended. Micronutrient levels were typically within the recommended levels. ...
*  Complications of pregnancy
Weight Low weight: Women whose pre-pregnancy weight is less than 45.5 kilograms (100 pounds) are more likely to have ... The infant may be seriously affected and have a variety of birth defects. Many women with Hashimoto's disease develop an ... Treatment: Prophylactic treatment, e.g. with low molecular weight heparin may be indicated when there are additional risk ... Birth 2002; 29:83-94. Thompson Jane F., Roberts Christine L., Currie Marian, Ellwood David A. (2002). "Archived copy". Birth. ...
*  Pulmonary cyst
Downing GJ, Hayen LK, Kilbride HW (1993). "Acquired subglottic cysts in the low-birth-weight infant. Characteristics, treatment ...
*  First 5 Los Angeles
1995). Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants. In: The Future of Children: Low Birth Weight. Vol. 5(1):19 ... Evaluation of the Black Infant Health program has suggested that BIH clients have lower amounts of birth defects, infant ... Rates of gestational age, pre-term birth weight, and infant mortality were higher in HBI clients when compared to LA County ... Although comparisons of infant mortality and pre-term birth rates between HBI clients and the outside community were not ...
*  Analeptic
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is common in infants with low birth weight (. ... Another purpose is the management of respiratory distress and apnea, particularly in infants. Analeptics can be used to ... Analeptics can also be used as convulsants, with low doses causing patients to experience heightened awareness, restlessness ... and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. Caffeine is a weak bronchodilator, which explains the relief of the effects ...
*  Bubble CPAP
"Is chronic lung disease in low birth weight infants preventable? A survey of eight centers". Pediatrics. 79 (1): 26-30. PMID ... The nasal prongs can be secured by putting on an appropriate sized hat which rests on the lower part of the infant's ears and ... Not all infants with IRDS are candidates for initial treatment with CPAP and not all those who are given CPAP can be ... Short and wide nasal prongs allow for a low resistance to air flow. It is important that the nasal interface be applied to the ...
*  Mycoplasma
Low birth-weight, preterm infants are susceptible to Mycoplasma infections. Several species of Mycoplasma are frequently ... Jiang S, Zhang S, Langenfeld J, Lo SC, Rogers MB (May 2008). "Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces ... Tsai S, Wear DJ, Shih JW, Lo SC (October 1995). "Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis: Persistent infection and multistage malignant ... Zhang S, Tsai S, Lo SC (May 2006). "Alteration of gene expression profiles during mycoplasma-induced malignant cell ...
*  Healthcare in Nicaragua
Intimate partner abuse also contributes to low birth weight of infants. Overall decreasing national infant mortality trends ... a risk factor for low birth weight in Nicaragua". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 100 (4): 700-705. doi:10.1097/00006250-200210000- ... During this 1970s period, Nicaragua had one of the worst life expectancies at birth and one of the highest levels of infant ... A low-cost early detection alternative to PAP smears used in Nicaragua involves visual inspection of cancerous cervical legions ...
*  Pulmonary interstitial emphysema
Gaylord MS, Thieme RE, Woodall DL, Quissell BJ (1985). "Predicting mortality in low-birth-weight infants with pulmonary ... Hart SM, McNair M, Gamsu HR, Price JF (1983). "Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in very low birthweight infants". Arch Dis ... Yu VY, Wong PY, Bajuk B, Szymonowicz W (1986). "Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in infants less than 1000 g at birth". Aust ... Infants suffering from pulmonary interstitial emphysema are typically recommended for admission to a neonatal intensive care ...
*  Mexican paradox
Buekens P, Notzon F, Kotelchuck M, Wilcox A (August 2000). "Why do Mexican Americans give birth to few low-birth-weight infants ... The Mexican paradox is the observation that the Mexican people exhibit a surprisingly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW), ... Nevertheless, the medical causes of lower rates of low birth weights among birthing Mexican mothers has been called into ... This appears as an outlier in graphs correlating SES with low-birth-weight rates. It has been proposed that resistance to ...
*  Infantile Hemangioma
They occur more frequently in female, premature and low birth weight infants. Infantile hemangiomas usually appear within the ... They are more common in Caucasians, in premature children whose birth weight is less than 3 pounds (1.4 kg), in females, and in ... IH are usually absent at birth or there may be a small area of pallor, telangiectasias, or duskiness. A fully formed mass at ... Minimally proliferative IH are more common in the lower body. A precise history of the growth characteristics of the IH can be ...
*  Necrotizing enterocolitis
Diagnosis is ultimately made in 5-10% of very low-birth-weight infants (. ... The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the ... Risk factors include congenital heart disease, birth asphyxia, exchange transfusion, and prolonged rupture of membranes. The ... gestational age of the baby at birth (i.e. the earlier a baby is born, the later signs of NEC are typically seen). Initial ...
*  Neonatal nursing
Approximately 40,000 low-birth-weight infants are born annually in the United States. Because of significant medical advances ... Neonatal nursing is a subspecialty of nursing care for newborn infants up to 28 days after birth. The term neonatal comes from ... Most neonatal nurses care for infants from the time of birth until they are discharged from the hospital. ... as well as chronic-care management or lower acuity cares associated with premature infants such as feeding intolerance, ...
*  Bacterial vaginosis
"Association between Bacterial Vaginosis and Preterm Delivery of a Low-Birth-Weight Infant". New England Journal of Medicine. ... women symptomatic with BV before 22 weeks of gestation the risk of pre-term birth before 37 weeks of gestation is lower. Other ... Some steps suggested to lower the risk include: not douching, avoiding sex, or limiting the number of sex partners. One review ... Women with BV who are treated with in vitro fertilization have a lower implantation rate and higher rates of early pregnancy ...
*  Gingivitis
A risk for delivery of premature labor and low-birth-weight infants". Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine. 1 (1 ... Swollen lymph nodes Associated with premature birth and low birth weight Dentistry portal Periodontitis "Full width gingivitis ... Risk factors associated with gingivitis include the following: age osteoporosis low dental care utilization (fear, financial ...
*  Gesell Developmental Schedules
Nonhandicapped very-low-birth-weight infants at one year of age developmental profile. Pediatrics, 85, 405-410 Kaplan, R. M ... The DQ is determined according to the scores of the test and is evaluated by ascertaining whether or not the infant or child is ... Once the leading infant intelligence measure from the 1930s through the 1960s, the Gesell Developmental Schedule was nothing ... Gesell retired from Yale in 1950, Yale retained ownership of the birth to age 3 schedules and Yale continued to refine them ...
*  Patent ductus arteriosus
Recent findings from a systematic review concluded that, for closure of a PDA in preterm and/or low birth weight infants, ... "Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm and low-birth-weight infants , Cochrane". www.cochrane.org ... "Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low birth weight (or both) infants". Cochrane Database ... "Role of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants: Systematic review and ...
*  Desmosis
These are found in premature infants, associated with low birth weight. The atrophic form is more frequent. Inflammation of the ...
*  Environment and intelligence
There are two reasons for low birth weight, either premature delivery or the infant's size is just lower than average for its ... A meta analysis of low birth weight babies found that there is a significant relationship between low birth weight and impaired ... Aylward, GP; Pfeiffer SI; Wright A; Verhulst SJ (1989). "Outcome studies of low birth weight infants published in the last ... Also, low birth weights have been linked to lower intelligence scores later in lives of the children. ...
*  Trichomoniasis
... may cause a woman to deliver a low-birth-weight or premature infant. The role of trichomonas infection in ... In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear within 5 to 28 days of exposure. The human genital tract ... "Prevention of premature birth by screening and treatment for common genital tract infections: Results of a prospective ... This method is cheap but has a low sensitivity (60-70%) often due to an inadequate sample, resulting in false negatives. The ...
*  Oxygen toxicity
January 1998). "Evaluation of criteria for chronic lung disease in surviving very low birth weight infants. Newborn Lung ... of low birth weight babies developed retinopathy of prematurity, which rose to 72% in extremely low birth weight babies, ... However, severe outcomes are much less frequent: for very low birth weight babies-those less than 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) at birth-the ... Prematurity, low birth weight and a history of oxygen exposure are the principal indicators, while no hereditary factors have ...
*  Infant massage
Research in pre-term infants and low birth weight infants has found evidence that massage improves weight gain, increases bone ... "Massage for promoting growth and development of preterm and/or low birth-weight infants". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): ... to conclude there was not enough evidence to recommend widespread use of massage for pre-term or low birth weight infants. The ... A Cochrane review of studies looking at massage therapy for pre-term and low birth weight found that the evidence for benefits ...
*  Pediatric massage
Research in pre-term infants and low birth weight infants have found weak evidence that massage might improve weight gain, but ... "Massage for promoting growth and development of preterm and/or low birth-weight infants". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): ... "Massage therapy improves neurodevelopment outcome at two years corrected age for very low birth weight infants". Early Hum Dev ... Infant massage is a type of complementary and alternative treatment that uses massage therapy for human infants. This therapy ...
*  Obesity-associated morbidity
"Overweight and obesity in mothers and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight infants: systematic review and meta-analyses ... Obese women also have increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight infants. Those who are obese during pregnancy have ... Increased rates of arthritis are seen in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. Weight loss and exercise act to ... Obese individuals are twice to four times more likely to have lower back pain than their normal weight peers. In women, class ...
*  Pregnancy
Air pollution has been associated with low birth weight infants. Conditions of particular severity in pregnancy include mercury ... and preterm birth is unclear. The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. Weight gain is related to the weight ... low birthweight and preterm birth. Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and ... However, spontaneous birth after 37 weeks is considered term and is not associated with the same risks of a pre-term birth. ...
*  Obstetric ultrasonography
Several randomized controlled trials have reported no association between Doppler exposure and birth weight, Apgar scores, and ... as low as possible, preferably below 1 in accordance with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Donald, I; ... One randomized controlled trial, however, came to the result of a higher perinatal death rate of normally formed infants born ... This gives an estimate of the weight and size of the fetus and is important when doing serial ultrasounds to monitor fetal ...
*  Non-specific effect of vaccines
However, many low-income countries delay BCG vaccination for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants; this offered the opportunity to ... All of the studies were regarded as being at risk of bias, so the confidence in the findings was rated as very low according to ... In low-income countries, having a smallpox vaccine scar has been associated with reductions of more than 40% in overall ... This depends on both the vaccine and the sex of the infant. All live attenuated vaccines studied so far (BCG vaccine, measles ...