###### **Incidence** geometry

... so it is not surprising to find that some authors refer to

**incidence**structures as**incidence**geometries.**Incidence**structures ... In mathematics,**incidence**geometry is the study of**incidence**structures. A geometric structure such as the Euclidean plane is a ... When distance is considered in an**incidence**structure, it is necessary to mention how it is being defined.**Incidence**structures ... Some results of this situation can extend to more general settings since only**incidence**properties are considered. An**incidence**...###### Fiscal **incidence**

When the economic

**incidence**of taxation is combined with the economic**incidence**of government expenditures, the result is a ... This is referred to as fiscal**incidence**. Early empirical studies of fiscal**incidence**date to the 1940s. Two early studies ... In the 1990s a branch of fiscal**incidence**known as "benefit**incidence**analysis" grew in popularity. Largely pioneered by ... Fiscal**incidence**is a concept within public finance, a sub-discipline within economics, that refers to the combined overall ...###### **Incidence** matrix

The

**incidence**matrix of a signed graph is a generalization of the oriented**incidence**matrix. It is the**incidence**matrix of any ... The**incidence**matrix of an**incidence**structure C is a p × q matrix B, where p and q are the number of points and lines ... The unoriented**incidence**matrix (or simply**incidence**matrix) of an undirected graph is a n × m matrix B, where n and m are the ...**Incidence**matrices are mostly used in graph theory. In graph theory an undirected graph has two kinds of**incidence**matrices: ...###### **Incidence** structure

If an

**incidence**structure C has an**incidence**matrix M, then the dual structure C∗ has the transpose matrix MT as its**incidence**... the Fano plane is a self-dual**incidence**structure. An**incidence**figure (that is, a depiction of an**incidence**structure), is ... The**incidence**matrix of a (finite)**incidence**structure is a matrix with entries 0 or 1 that has its rows indexed by the points ...**Incidence**structures can be modelled by points and curves in the Euclidean plane with the usual geometric meaning of**incidence**...###### **Incidence** poset

In mathematics, an

**incidence**poset or**incidence**order is a type of partially ordered set that represents the**incidence**relation ... is an**incidence**poset of a path graph. Every**incidence**poset of a non-empty graph has height two. Its width equals the number ... If an**incidence**poset has high dimension then it must contain copies of the**incidence**posets of all small trees either as sub- ... The**incidence**poset of a graph G has an element for each vertex or edge in G; in this poset, there is an order relation x ≤ y ...###### **Incidence** coloring

The interval

**incidence**coloring of graph G is an**incidence**coloring of G such that the set of colors given for the**incidences**... The**incidence**chromatic number of a square mesh is 5. The**incidence**chromatic number of a hexagonal mesh is 7. The**incidence**... By definition, it is obvious that 1-tuple**incidence**k-coloring is an**incidence**k-coloring too. The fractional**incidence**... A r-tuple**incidence**k-coloring of a graph G is the assignment of r colors to each**incidence**of graph G from a set of k colors ...###### Cumulative **incidence**

... or

**incidence**proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease ... It is sometimes also referred to as the**incidence**proportion. Cumulative**incidence**is calculated by the number of new cases ... Cumulative**incidence**is defined as the probability that a particular event, such as occurrence of a particular disease, has ... It may also be calculated by the**incidence**rate multiplied by duration: C I ( t ) = 1 − e − I R ( t ) ⋅ D . {\displaystyle CI(t ...###### Benefit **incidence**

In economics, benefit

**incidence**refers to the availability of a benefit. In the United States, the benefit**incidence**is ... Benefit**incidence**, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Information Services Employee Benefits Survey, U.S. Bureau of ... calculated by the National Compensation Survey (NCS). Employee benefit National Compensation Survey Fiscal**incidence**Bureau of ...###### **Incidence** (geometry)

Menelaus theorem Ceva's theorem Concyclic

**Incidence**matrix**Incidence**algebra**Incidence**structure**Incidence**geometry Levi graph ... The most basic**incidence**relation is that between a point, P, and a line, l, sometimes denoted P I l. If P I l the pair (P, l) ...**Incidence**of a point and a line is given by containment of the one dimensional subspace in the two dimensional subspace. Fix a ... The propositions of**incidence**are derived from the following basic result on vector spaces: given subspaces U and W of a ( ...###### Expenditure **incidence**

... is the effect of government expenditure upon the distribution of private incomes. This is commonly ... K.N.Reddy (1990), "

**Incidence**of Public Expenditure in Andhra Pradhesh", Economy planning and policies, pp. 51-74, ISBN 978-81- ... 1-32, ISBN 978-0-8213-6144-3 Charles E. McClure (1972), "The Theory of Expenditure**Incidence**", Finanzarchiv, 30: 432-453 ... 445-488, ISBN 978-0-538-75446-0 Giuseppe Ruggeri (2005), "Public Expenditure**Incidence**Analysis", Public expenditure analysis, ...###### **Incidence** algebra

Graph algebra

**Incidence**coalgebra Path algebra**Incidence**algebras of locally finite posets were treated in a number of papers ... Any element of the reduced**incidence**algebra that is invertible in the larger**incidence**algebra has its inverse in the reduced ... This is a subalgebra of the**incidence**algebra, and it clearly contains the**incidence**algebra's identity element and zeta ... As a consequence, the Möbius function is always a member of the reduced**incidence**algebra. Reduced**incidence**algebras shed ...###### Tax **incidence**

... is said to "fall" upon the group that ultimately bears the burden of, or ultimately has to pay, the tax. The key ... The tax

**incidence**is thus said to fall on the employee. However, it could equally well be argued that in some cases the ... Tax**incidence**or burden does not in any way depend on where the revenue has been collected. It rather depends on the price ... In economics, tax**incidence**or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic ...###### **Incidence** (epidemiology)

... it is also known as the

**incidence**density rate or person-time**incidence**rate. In the same example as above, the**incidence**rate ...**Incidence**proportion (also known as cumulative**incidence**) is the number of new cases within a specified time period divided by ... This disease will have both high**incidence**and high prevalence in 2002, but in 2003 it will have a low**incidence**yet will ... The importance of this equation is in the relation between prevalence and**incidence**; for example, when the**incidence**increases ...###### **Incidence** (graph)

An

**incidence**coloring of a graph G {\displaystyle G} is an assignment of a color to each**incidence**of G in such a way that ... In graph theory, an**incidence**is a pair ( u , e ) {\displaystyle (u,e)} where u {\displaystyle u} is a vertex and e {\ ... displaystyle e} is an edge incident to u {\displaystyle u} . Two distinct**incidences**( u , e ) {\displaystyle (u,e)} and ( v , ... adjacent**incidences**get distinct colors. It is equivalent to a strong edge coloring of the graph obtained by subdivising once ...###### Plane of **incidence**

S-polarized light has polarization perpendicular to the plane of

**incidence**. The s in s-polarized comes from the German word ... The orientation of the incident light's polarization with respect to the plane of**incidence**has an important effect on the ... In describing reflection and refraction in optics, the plane of**incidence**(also called the meridional plane[citation needed]) ... P-polarized light is incident linearly polarized light with polarization direction lying in the plane of**incidence**. ...###### Open marriage **incidence**

The overall

**incidence**for our sample of married men of all ages appears to be basically unchanged from that of a generation ago ... The**incidence**of open marriage has remained relatively stable over the last two generations. Researchers need clear definitions ... The**incidence**of open marriage is the frequency with which open marriage occurs. Several definitional issues complicate ... As for our sample of married women, there is no evidence of any overall increase in**incidence**compared to a generation ago. ...###### Variable-**incidence** wing

A variable-

**incidence**wing has an adjustable angle of**incidence**relative to its fuselage. This allows adjustment of the wing's ... so it was given a variable-**incidence**wing. The only production aircraft to incorporate variable**incidence**was the American F-8 ... By increasing the**incidence**of the wing but not the fuselage, both high lift and good forward vision can be maintained. One of ... Without a variable-**incidence**wing (or other high-lift device), the pilot must pitch up the entire aircraft to maintain lift at ...###### Grazing **incidence** diffraction

Grazing

**incidence**X-ray and neutron diffraction (GID, GIXD, GIND), typically from a crystalline structure uses small incident ... the technique is called grazing-**incidence**small-angle scattering (GISAS, GISAXS, GISANS), and requires special methodology. X- ...###### Angle of **incidence**

... is a measure of deviation of something from "straight on" and may refer to: Angle of

**incidence**(aerodynamics ... the angle between the chord of the wing and the longitudinal axis of the fuselage Angle of**incidence**(optics), describing the ...###### Near vertical **incidence** skywave

... , or NVIS, is a skywave radio-wave propagation path that provides usable signals in the range ... 33 Antony Wedgwood, G0TJD; Goldstein, J. A. (April 2001). "Near Vertical

**Incidence**Skywave". The Vintage and Military Amateur ...###### Angle of **incidence** (optics)

**Incidence**at grazing angles is called "grazing

**incidence**". Grazing

**incidence**diffraction is used in X-ray spectroscopy and atom ... In geometric optics, the angle of

**incidence**is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the ... In the figure below, the line representing a ray makes an angle θ with the normal (dotted line). The angle of

**incidence**at ... Weisstein, Eric W. "Angle of

**incidence**". MathWorld. geometry : rebound on the strip billiards Flash animation. ...

###### Affine plane (**incidence** geometry)

Given the "line/point"

**incidence**matrix of any finite**incidence**structure, M, and any field, F the row space of M over F is a ... An**incidence**structure more general than a finite affine plane is a k-net of order n. This consists of n2 points and nk lines ... When the**incidence**structure is a finite affine plane, the codes belong to a class of codes known as geometric codes. How much ... Only the**incidence**relations are needed for this construction. An affine plane can be obtained from any projective plane by ...###### Angle of **incidence** (aerodynamics)

Angles of

**incidence**of about 6° are common on most general aviation designs. Other terms for angle of**incidence**in this context ... The use of the term "angle of**incidence**" to refer to the angle of attack occurs chiefly in British usage. Phillips, Warren F. ( ... On fixed-wing aircraft, the angle of**incidence**(sometimes referred to as the mounting angle) is the angle between the chord ... The angle of**incidence**is fixed in the design of the aircraft, and with rare exceptions, cannot be varied in flight. The term ...