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*  Genetic recombination
B cells of the immune system perform genetic recombination, called immunoglobulin class switching. It is a biological mechanism ... Indicated on the right side is a "crossover" (CO) type, where the flanking regions of the chromosomes are exchanged, and on the ... For any fixed set of genetic and environmental conditions, recombination in a particular region of a linkage structure ( ... left side, a "non-crossover" (NCO) type where the flanking regions are not exchanged. The CO type of recombination involves the ...
*  BCL3
Mills FC, Brooker JS, Camerini-Otero RD (1991). "Sequences of human immunoglobulin switch regions: implications for ... breakpoint that involves the C mu switch region". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 8 (1): 60-2. doi:10.1002/gcc.2870080110. PMID ... It is identified by its translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell leukemia. The protein encoded ...
*  DRIP-seq
Yu, K; Chedin, F; Hsieh, CL; Wilson, TE; Lieber, MR (May 2003). "R-loops at immunoglobulin class switch regions in the ... genomic regions during transcription and are known to be involved with gene expression and immunoglobulin class switching. They ... such as the function of R-loop formation at specific regions, the characterization of these regions, and the impact on gene ... Moreover, GC-rich regions tend to have low complexity by nature, which is difficult for short read aligners to produce unique ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G14)
... flanking region MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.430 --- immunoglobulin switch region MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.515 --- introns MeSH ... immunoglobulin switch region MeSH G14.340.024.340.351.310 --- genes, immunoglobulin light chain MeSH G14.340.024.340.353 --- ... locus control region MeSH G14.080.689.650 --- operator regions (genetics) MeSH G14.080.689.675 --- promoter regions (genetics) ... locus control region MeSH G14.340.024.630 --- nucleolus organizer region MeSH G14.340.024.686 --- operon MeSH G14.340.024.686. ...
*  Immunoglobulin class switching
During class switching, the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain changes but the variable regions, and therefore ... Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a ... In addition to the highly repetitive structure of the target S regions, the process of class switching needs S regions to be ... IgA2 Class switching occurs by a mechanism called class switch recombination (CSR) binding. Class switch recombination is a ...
*  Cre-Lox recombination
"Independent control of immunoglobulin switch recombination at individual switch regions evidenced through Cre-loxP-mediated ... Cre recombinase proteins bind to the first and last 13 bp regions of a lox site forming a dimer. This dimer then binds to a ... Independently, Joe Z. Tsien has pioneered the use of Cre-loxP system for cell type- and region-specific gene manipulation in ... First, the nucleotide sequence identity in the spacer region of lox site. Engineered lox variants which differ on the spacer ...
*  IGHMBP2
DNA-binding protein specific to the single-stranded guanine-rich sequence related to the immunoglobulin mu chain switch region ... "Association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 gene with immunoglobulin A ... "Entrez Gene: IGHMBP2 immunoglobulin mu binding protein 2". Grohmann K, Schuelke M, Diers A, Hoffmann K, Lucke B, Adams C, ... DNA-binding protein SMUBP-2, also known as immunoglobulin helicase μ-binding protein 2 (IGHMBP2) and cardiac transcription ...
*  Paolo Casali
Rev1 recruits Ung to switch regions and enhances dU glycosylation for immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination. Cell ... 14-3-3 adaptor proteins recruit AID to 5′-AGCT-3′-rich switch regions for class switch DNA recombination. Nature Str. Mol. Biol ... Rad52 competes with Ku70/Ku86 for binding to S-region DSB ends to modulate antibody class-switch DNA recombination. Nature ... Immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination: induction, targeting and beyond. Nature Rev. Immunol. 12:517-531. PMID 22728528 ...
*  Frederick Alt
... immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination (CSR), and somatic hypermutation in activated mature B lymphocytes. Alt ... particularly antigen receptor variable region gene assembly in developing B and T lymphocytes, ...
*  CSR
US Class switch recombination, a process that changes the constant region of an immunoglobulin Control/Status Register, a ...
*  Hypergammaglobulinemia
... and is necessary to induce immunoglobulin class switching from IgM to the other immunoglobulin types. It does this by binding ... found in the gammaglobulin region). Most hypergammaglobulinemias are caused by an excess of immunoglobulin M (IgM), because ... class switch recombination, and immunoglobulin gene conversion in B cells. When a person is homozygous for the mutation in the ... When the mutation is present, there is no signal for B cells to undergo class switching, so there is an excess of IgM and ...
*  Major sperm protein
The unique strand switches between the sheets result from two distinct kinks at cis-proline residues 13 and 57 in A. suum ... The overall structure of MSP resembles an immunoglobulin fold (Ig fold). MSP can be classified as an s-type of this fold, ... of the bacterial P-pilus associated chaperonin PapD share a high structural and topological homology in their β sheet regions. ... Both MSP and PapD can be classified to the s-type immunoglobulin fold proteins, characterized by the above-mentioned unique ...
*  Somatic hypermutation
During B cell division the immunoglobulin variable region DNA is transcribed and translated. The introduction of mutations in ... Affinity maturation Anergy Immune system V(D)J recombination Immunoglobulin class switching Janeway, C.A.; Travers, P.; Walport ... Somatic hypermutation involves a programmed process of mutation affecting the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. Unlike ... These regions correspond to the complementarity determining regions; the sites involved in antigen recognition on the ...
*  R-loop
... formation is a key step in immunoglobulin class switching, a process that allows activated B cells to modulate antibody ... These R-loops are visualized by electron microscopy and reveal intron regions of DNA by creating unbound loops at these regions ... Roy, D; Yu, K; Lieber, MR (2008). "Mechanism of R-loop formation at immunoglobulin class switch sequences". Mol Cell Biol. 28: ... DRIP-seq Ribonuclease H Immunoglobulin class switching DNA replication Thomas, M; White, RL; Davis, RW (1976). "Hybridization ...
*  Isotype (immunology)
In immunology, the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype (class) is encoded by the constant region segments of the immunoglobulin gene ... Idiotype Stavnezer, Janet (1996). "Immunoglobulin Class Switching". Current Opinion in Immunology. 8: 199-205. doi:10.1016/ ... IgA antibodies are divided into two subclasses that differ in the size of their hinge region. IgA1 has a longer hinge region ... Class-switching is mediated by the AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) enzyme and only occurs after the B cell binds an ...
*  Outline of immunology
Recombination-activating gene RAG1 RAG2 Recombination signal sequences Junctional diversity Immunoglobulin class switching ... Hypervariable region Framework region Fab Region Fc Region Polyclonal B cell response Cell-mediated immunity Innate immune ... IgA1 IgA2 Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) IgG1 IgG2 IgG3 IgG4 Immunoglobulin M (IgM) ... Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors Stimulatory CD21 CD19 CD81 Inhibitory CD22 Accessory ...
*  Germinal center
... the B cell receives critical signals to undergo isotype switching (also called immunoglobulin class switching) and to commence ... This involves pseudo-random substitutions biased towards regions encoding the antigen recognition surface of the antibodies the ... and switch the class of their antibodies (for example from IgM to IgG) during a normal immune response to an infection. They ...
*  Antibody
... involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin variable region. The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light ... Only the constant region of the antibody heavy chain changes during class switching; the variable regions, and therefore ... Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region. The constant region is identical in all ... called switch (S) regions, found in DNA upstream of each constant region gene (except in the δ-chain). The DNA strand is broken ...
*  Organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes
The class switching involves switch regions that made up of multiple copies of short repeatts(GAGCT and TGGGG). These switches ... For instance, IgM switches to IgG which switches to IgA that eventually switches to IgE From studies and predictions such as ... These include: the light chain variable region (V), joining region (J), and constant region (C) gene segments. The variable ... That is IL- 4 induces the switching of Cμ to Cγ to Cκ Ford, AM., Molgaard, HV., Greaves, MF and Gould, HJ (1983) Immunoglobulin ...
*  STAT6
... and class switch of immunoglobulins. STAT6 has been shown to interact with: CREB-binding protein, EP300, IRF4, NFKB1, Nuclear ... located at chromosomal region 12q13, have been identified in solitary fibrous tumors. Amplification STAT6 is amplified in a ... specific regulation of iepsilon transcription and immunoglobulin E switching". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (10): 7264-75 ... a region implicated in multiple solid tumors". Genomics. 52 (2): 192-200. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5436. PMID 9782085. Zhu M, John ...
*  Immunoglobulin M
... a process called Immunoglobulin class switching. IgM is the first immunoglobulin expressed in the human fetus (around 20 weeks ... Overall, the IgM constant region has a "mushroom-like" structure, where the Cµ2-Cµ3 domains are a disk analogous to the head of ... Immunodeficiency with hyper-immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin M deficiency "Immunoglobulin M". The American Heritage Dictionary ... Immunoglobulin M at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Reference ...
*  Nicholas Chiorazzi
Somatic diversification and selection of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable region genes in IgG+, CD5+ chronic ... Molecular examples of in vivo isotype class switching in IgM+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells" J Clin Invest 98: 1659-1666 ... Messmer BT, Albesiano E, Messmer D, Chiorazzi N. (2003) The pattern and distribution of immunoglobulin VH gene mutations in ... Similarities and differences between the light and heavy chain Ig variable region gene repertoires in chronic lymphocytic ...
*  IGH@
Immunoglobulin heavy locus, also known as IGH, is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains a gene for the heavy chains of ... 2002). "Internal IgH class switch region deletions are position-independent and enhanced by AID expression". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the ... Buluwela L, Rabbitts TH (1989). "A VH gene is located within 95 Kb of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region ...
*  MicroRNA
... cell-cell interactions in immune niches and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. MiRNAs influence B cell ... Individual regions within an miRNA gene face different evolutionary pressures, where regions that are vital for processing and ... A mutation in the seed region of miR-96, causes hereditary progressive hearing loss. A mutation in the seed region of miR-184, ... In contrast, animal miRNAs are able to recognize their target mRNAs by using as little as 6-8 nucleotides (the seed region) at ...
*  G-quadruplex
It has been suggested that quadruplex formation plays a role in immunoglobulin heavy chain switching. As cells have evolved ... These telomeric regions are characterized by long regions of double-stranded CCCTAA:TTAGGG repeats. The repeats end with a 3' ... Siddiqui-Jain A, Grand CL, Bearss DJ, Hurley LH (2002). "Direct evidence for a G-quadruplex in a promoter region and its ... However, a cationic porphyrin known as TMPyP4 is able to bind to the C9orf72 GGGGCC repeat region, which causes the G- ...
*  Oral candidiasis
The most common site of involvement is the commissural region of the buccal mucosa, usually on both sides of the mouth. Another ... The exact process by which Candida species switch from acting as normal oral commensals (saprophytic) state in the carrier to ... Saliva, which possesses both mechanical cleansing action and immunologic action, including salivary immunoglobulin A antibodies ... anogenital region, skin or the nails. The spread of oral candidiasis to other sites usually occurs in debilitated individuals. ...
*  IGHM
Neale GA, Kitchingman GR (1991). "mRNA transcripts initiating within the human immunoglobulin mu heavy chain enhancer region ... 2002). "Intraclonal homogeneity of clonotypic immunoglobulin M and diversity of nonclinical post-switch isotypes in multiple ... "Entrez Gene: IGHM immunoglobulin heavy constant mu". Kristensen T, Lopez R, Prydz H (1992). "An estimate of the sequencing ... Ig mu chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHM gene. It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-1. " ...