*  Immunoglobulin light chain
... heavy chains and two Ig light chains. There are two types of light chain in humans: kappa (κ) chain, encoded by the ... thus the two light chains of an individual antibody are identical. Each light chain is composed of two tandem immunoglobulin ... The immunoglobulin light chain is the small polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is composed ... Other types of light chains can be found in lower vertebrates, such as the Ig-Light-Iota chain of Chondrichthyes and Teleostei ...
*  Heavy-chain antibody
... and immunoglobulin W (IgW) as well, both types with two heavy and two light chains. The only mammals with heavy-chain (IgG-like ... A heavy-chain antibody is an antibody which consists only of two heavy chains and lacks the two light chains usually found in ... the antigen binding region consists of the variable domains of the heavy and light chains (VH and VL). Heavy-chain antibodies ... The immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR) of cartilaginous fishes (for example sharks) is a heavy-chain antibody. IgNAR ...
*  Signal peptidase
The key observation by César Milstein and colleagues was that immunoglobulin light chains were produced in a higher molecular ... I. Presence of proteolytically processed and unprocessed nascent immunoglobulin light chains on membrane-bound ribosomes of ... "A possible precursor of immunoglobulin light chains". Nature New Biology. 239 (91): 117-20. doi:10.1038/newbio239117a0. PMID ...
*  Signal recognition particle
The function of SRP was discovered by the study of processed and unprocessed immunoglobulin light chains; newly synthesized ... I. Presence of proteolytically processed and unprocessed nascent immunoglobulin light chains on membrane-bound ribosomes of ... "A possible precursor of immunoglobulin light chains". Nature New Biology. 239 (91): 117-20. doi:10.1038/newbio239117a0. PMID ... SRP then targets this entire complex (the ribosome-nascent chain complex) to the protein-conducting channel, also known as the ...
*  Protein L
Binding of mouse immunoglobulins is restricted to those having VκI light chains. Given these specific requirements for ... In humans and mice, most antibody molecules contain kappa (κ) light chains and the remainder have lambda (λ) light chains. ... Akerström B, Björck L (November 1989). "Protein L: an immunoglobulin light chain-binding bacterial protein. Characterization of ... were found to be responsible for the interaction with Ig light chains.[2] In addition to Protein L, other immunoglobulin- ...
*  Cyclophosphamide
Brenner and Rector's The Kidney: Volume 8 Gertz (Dec 2014). "Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: 2014 update on diagnosis, ...
*  Large B-cell lymphoma arising in HHV8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease
These plasmablasts express IgM-immunoglobulin light chains, most often of lambda subtype. These plasmablasts can give rise to a ... It has variable CD20 expression and unmutated immunoglobulin variable region genes. Castleman disease (CD) is a ... The plasmablasts do not show rearranged immunoglobulin genes, and typically lack EBV infection. The disease predominantly ...
*  Cyclofosfamide/dexamethasone
Gertz MA (2014). "Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: 2014 update on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment". Am J Hematol. 89 ...
*  Birefringence
Modified proteins such as immunoglobulin light chains abnormally accumulate between cells, forming fibrils. Multiple folds of ... Similarly, light modulators modulate the intensity of light through electrically induced birefringence of polarized light ... Light whose polarization is perpendicular to the optic axis is governed by a refractive index no (for "ordinary"). Light whose ... Unpolarized light consists of equal amounts of energy in any two orthogonal polarizations, and even polarized light (except in ...
*  Bence Jones protein
The light chains can be immunoglobulin fragments or single homogeneous immunoglobulins. They are found in urine as a result of ... The proteins are immunoglobulin light chains (paraproteins) and are produced by neoplastic plasma cells. They can be kappa ( ... A Bence Jones protein is a monoclonal globulin protein or immunoglobulin light chain found in the urine, with a molecular ... "Outcome in systemic AL amyloidosis in relation to changes in concentration of circulating free immunoglobulin light chains ...
*  B1 domain
"Structure of peptostreptococcal protein L and identification of a repeated immunoglobulin light chain-binding domain". J. Biol ... These repeats have been found to be responsible for the interaction of protein L with Ig light chains. N-terminus domain ... light chain-binding properties. It contains a number of homologous b1 repeats towards the N terminus. ... In molecular biology, the protein domain b1 refers to the domain b1 of Protein L. L is a bacterial protein with immunoglobulin ...
*  Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2
B-cells from LMP2A transgenic E line undergo immunoglobulin light chain rearrangements, but not heavy chain rearrangement. This ... indicates that LMP2A signaling bypasses the requirement for immunoglobulin recombination and allows immunoglobulin M-negative ...
*  VPREB3
"Binding of free immunoglobulin light chains to VpreB3 inhibits their maturation and secretion in chicken B cells". J Biol Chem ... 1993). "The surrogate light chain in B-cell development". Immunol. Today. 14 (2): 60-8. doi:10.1016/0167-5699(93)90060-X. PMID ... Ohnishi K, Takemori T (1994). "Molecular components and assembly of mu.surrogate light chain complexes in pre-B cell lines". J ... The precise function of VPREB3 is not known, but it may contribute to mu chain transport in pre-B cells. In humans, besides the ...
*  IGKC
Immunoglobulin kappa constant, also known as IGKC, is a human gene that encodes the constant domain of kappa-type light chains ... Klobeck HG, Combriato G, Zachau HG (1984). "Immunoglobulin genes of the kappa light chain type from two human lymphoid cell ... 2001). "Both the environment and somatic mutations govern the aggregation pathway of pathogenic immunoglobulin light chain". J ... kappa IV immunoglobulin light chain". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 245 (3): 713-6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8515. PMID 9588180. ...
*  Signal peptide
I. Presence of proteolytically processed and unprocessed nascent immunoglobulin light chains on membrane-bound ribosomes of ...
*  PCBP2
"Immunoglobulin light chain variable (V) region genes influence clinical presentation and outcome in light chain-associated ...
*  Plasma cell
Primary amyloidosis (AL) is caused by the deposition of excess immunoglobulin light chains which are secreted from plasma cells ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ... However, continued exposure to antigen through those low levels of immunoglobulin is important, as it partly determines the ... Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light ...
*  Serum free light-chain measurement
Immunoglobulin light chains that are circulating in serum in a free (unbound) state are called free light chains (FLCs). ... There is approximately 40% excess immunoglobulin light-chain production over immunoglobulin heavy-chain synthesis. Possibly ... so under normal conditions no light chains pass beyond the proximal tubules. If immunoglobulin light chains are produced in ... "Correlation of serum immunoglobulin free light chain quantification with urinary Bence Jones protein in light chain myeloma". ...
*  [email protected]
... light chains of antibodies (or immunoglobulins). In humans the κ chain is coded for by V (variable), J (joining) and C ( ... The immunoglobulin kappa locus contains the following genes: IGKC: immunoglobulin kappa constant [email protected]: immunoglobulin kappa ... "Four primordial immunoglobulin light chain isotypes, including lambda and kappa, identified in the most primitive living jawed ... Immunoglobulin kappa locus, also known as [email protected], is a region on human chromosome 2 that contains genes for the kappa (κ) ...
*  [email protected]
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two classes of ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain ... Hieter PA, Korsmeyer SJ, Waldmann TA, Leder P (1981). "Human immunoglobulin kappa light-chain genes are deleted or rearranged ... 1982). "Chromosomal location of human kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain constant region genes". J. Exp. Med. 155 (5 ...
*  Plasma cell dyscrasia
... immunoglobulin light chain. For diagnosis, the κ and λ free light chains are quantified by immunological methods and the ratio ... κ or λ light chain; c) a free κ chain in great excess of a λ chain or a free λ chain in great excess of a κ chain; and d) free ... of κ to λ light chains is use to detect unbalanced light chain synthesis that is indicative of a monoclonal light chain plasma ... www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-immunoglobulin-light-chain-al-amyloidosis-and-light-and-heavy-chain-deposition- ...
*  E-box
In 1990, another E-protein, ITF-2A (later renamed E2-2Alt) was discovered that can bind to immunoglobulin light chain enhancers ... Depending upon PER protein levels, the enhancer drove high levels of mRNA transcription in both LD (light-dark) and DD ( ... between Susumu Tonegawa's and Walter Gilbert's laboratories in 1985 as a control element in immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer ... Ephrussi, A; Church, GM; Tonegawa, S; Gilbert, W (1985). "B lineage-specific interactions of an immunoglobulin enhancer with ...
*  MDX-1097
... targets kappa free immunoglobulin light chains which are found on the surface of some kappa light chain-restricted ... "Characterization of a unique conformational epitope on free immunoglobulin kappa light chains that is recognized by an antibody ... Hutchinson, A. T.; Jones, D. R.; Raison, R. L. (2015). "Preclinical and clinical development of an anti-kappa free light chain ... "Free Ig light chains interact with sphingomyelin and are found on the surface of myeloma plasma cells in an aggregated form". ...
*  V(D)J recombination
... chains of the immunoglobulin light chain loci rearrange in a very similar way, except that the light chains lack a D segment. ... containing the gene segments for the remainder of the immunoglobulin light chain. Each heavy chain and light chain gene ... containing the gene segments for part of the immunoglobulin light chain. The immunoglobulin lambda (λ) locus ([email protected]) on ... chain of the TCR follows β chain rearrangement, and resembles V-to-J rearrangement described for Ig light chains (see above). ...
*  Amyloid cardiomyopathy
... especially immunoglobulin light chain or transthyretin (TTR). It can be characterized by the extracellular deposition of ...
*  Elizabeth Press
... provided the first evidence that immunoglobulin heavy chains had variable regions similar to those observed in light chains, ... The structural studies on antibodies were essential in the chain of scientific discoveries which led to the development of ... Her studies on antibodies were important in determining the chain structure, and particularly the observation that more than ... FLEISCHMAN, JB; PORTER, RR; PRESS, EM (August 1963). "THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE PEPTIDE CHAINS IN GAMMA-GLOBULIN". The Biochemical ...