*Herd immunity

... (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect ... Tetanus, for example, is infectious but not contagious, so herd immunity does not apply. The term herd immunity was first used ... When a critical proportion of the population becomes immune, called the herd immunity threshold (HIT) or herd immunity level ( ... from herd immunity and spread more easily. At the molecular level, viruses escape from herd immunity through antigenic drift, ...

*Targeted immunization strategies

"Community Immunity ("Herd" Immunity)". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 7 April 2014. Bazin, ... John, T. Jacob; Samuel, Reuben (2000-07-01). "Herd immunity and herd effect: new insights and definitions". European Journal of ... The success of vaccines and anti-virus software in preventing major outbreaks relies on the mechanism of herd immunity, also ... Often however these vaccine programmes require the immunization of a large majority of the population to provide herd immunity ...

*Vaccine controversies

Herd immunity lessens this vulnerability if all the children are vaccinated. Increasing herd immunity during an outbreak or ... thus obtaining herd immunity, when a new vaccine is introduced. Herd immunity also decreases risk to people who have a ... gaining the benefits of herd immunity without vaccination, vaccination levels may drop to a level where herd immunity ceases to ... Herd immunity decreases this risk. Commonly used vaccines are a cost-effective and preventive way of promoting health, compared ...

*Super-spreader

Herd immunity, or herd effect, refers to the indirect protection that immunized community members provide to non-immunized ... Herd Immunity:A Rough Guide. Clinical Infectious Dis. (2011) 52 (7). 911-916. "How SARS changed the world in less than six ... In epidemiology, herd immunity is known as a dependent happening because it influences transmission over time. As a pathogen ... The proportion of immune individuals in a population above which a disease may no longer persist is the herd immunity threshold ...

*Breakthrough infection

The measles vaccine fails to provide immunity to 2% of children that receive the vaccine. However, if herd immunity exists, it ... Accordingly, herd immunity reduces the number of breakthrough infections in a population. The varicella vaccine is 85% ... doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(11)70295-x. Fine, P.; Eames, K.; Heymann, D. L. (2011-04-01). ""Herd Immunity": A Rough Guide". Clinical ... Vaccines may fail to provide immunity if the vaccine is of poor quality when administered. A vaccine loses potency if it is ...

*Vaccine

This effect is called herd immunity. Polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is targeted by an extensive eradication ... However, even a partial, late, or weak immunity, such as a one resulting from cross-immunity to a strain other than the target ... Even if the host does develop antibodies, protection might not be adequate; immunity might develop too slowly to be effective ... Recombinant Vector - by combining the physiology of one micro-organism and the DNA of the other, immunity can be created ...

*Cocooning (immunization)

Ring vaccination Herd immunity Healy, C. M.; Rench, M. A.; Baker, C. J. (2010). "Implementation of Cocooning against Pertussis ...

*Vaccine-naive

Garnett, G. P. (2005). "Role of Herd Immunity in Determining the Effect of Vaccines against Sexually Transmitted Disease". The ... Fewer individuals available to transmit the disease, reduce the incidence of it, creating herd immunity. Immune system Outbreak ... Vaccine-naïve persons threaten what epidemiologists call herd immunity. This is because vaccinations provide not just ... Vaccine-naïve is a lack of immunity, or immunologic memory, to a disease because the person has not been vaccinated. There are ...

*Ring vaccination

Vaccination Cocooning (immunization) Pulse vaccination strategy Herd immunity "ring vaccination". Retrieved 2015-07-31. ...

*Mathematical modelling of infectious disease

The WHO is carrying out a similar vaccination campaign to eradicate polio.[citation needed] The herd immunity level will be ... where upon recovery there is no immunity (SIS model), where immunity lasts only for a short period of time (SIRS), where there ... role and identification of infection reservoirs If the proportion of the population that is immune exceeds the herd immunity ... and where infants can be born with immunity (MSIR). Mathematical models need to integrate the increasing volume of data being ...

*Robert Sears (physician)

... on the herd immunity created by others. His position has been criticized: "Such free-riding is immoral...because it ... or more to achieve herd immunity, and we can't do this with choice." On September 8, 2016, the Medical Board of California ...

*Premunity

Babesiosis Malaria Onchocerca volvulus Trichomonas Herd immunity Adaptive immune system "Effects of impregnated bednets". ... Premunity is a term used to signify progressive development of immunity in individuals exposed to an infective agent, mainly ... Fiennes, RN (Jun 14, 1947). "Immunity and premunity in cattle trypanosomiasis". The Veterinary record. 59 (22): 291-2. PMID ...

*Viral phylodynamics

These sweeps were driven by herd immunity and acted to constrain viral genetic diversity. Instead of modeling the genotypes of ... They showed that under strain-specific immunity alone (with partial cross-immunity between strains based on their amino acid ... Often, the degree of cross-immunity between virus strains is assumed to be related to their sequence distance. In general, in ... In these cases, it is thought that short host lifespans prevent the build-up of host immunity necessary to effectively drive ...

*Virus

Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease. The Journal of Infectious ... confer immunity. Such viruses are called attenuated. Live vaccines can be dangerous when given to people with a weak immunity ( ... Its role in immunity is complex; it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by killing the infected cell and its close ... IgG antibody is measured when tests for immunity are carried out. Antibodies can continue to be an effective defence mechanism ...

*MenAfriVac

Vaccinating the 70% of the population in that age group is enough to create "herd immunity". During the 2012 meningitis season ... The tetanus toxoid protein used in the vaccine increased the share of people with long-term tetanus immunity from 20% to 59%, ...

*Attack rate

Compartmental models in epidemiology Herd immunity Risk assessment in public health Vaccine-naive Anthony N. Glaser. High-Yield ... An at risk population is defined as one that has no immunity to the attacking pathogen which can be either a novel pathogen or ...

*Cholera vaccine

The administration of the vaccine to adults confers additional indirect protection (herd immunity) to children. The World ... Although the protection observed has been described as "moderate", herd immunity can multiply the effectiveness of vaccination ... known as herd immunity). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of cholera vaccines in combination with other ... However, since it does not provide 100 percent immunity from the disease, food hygiene precautions should also be taken into ...

*Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge

... and avian flu containment using herd immunity models. In 2008, the activities centered on NASA-themed challenges. Finalists met ...

*Rubella

Universal immunisation producing a high level of herd immunity is important in the control of epidemics of rubella. In the UK, ... Testing is available that can verify immunity. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine. ... Pregnant women are usually tested for immunity to rubella early on. Women found to be susceptible are not vaccinated until ... more women might make it to childbearing age without developing immunity by infection or vaccination and CRS rates could ...

*Bovine herpesvirus 1

Vaccination provides herd immunity, which lowers the likelihood of an animal coming into contact with an infected animal. Both ... In a small, vaccinated herd BoHV-1 can be eradicated within one or two decades, whereas in a large herds eradication is ... "Neospora caninum in Estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and ... immune systems involved in both innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The virus degrades interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 ...

*Your Baby's Best Shot

Chapter 3 discusses the biological mechanisms by which vaccines work, as well as the concept of herd immunity. Chapter 4 ...

*Cholera

If people are immunized broadly, herd immunity results, with a decrease in the amount of contamination in the environment. An ... Persons with lowered immunity, such as persons with AIDS or malnourished children, are more likely to experience a severe case ...

*Ebola vaccine

The trial will continue to assess whether the vaccine is effective in creating herd immunity to Ebola virus infection. In ... "Chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine generates acute and durable protective immunity against ebolavirus challenge". Nature Medicine. ...

*Influenza vaccine

This is in contrast with the high herd immunity strategies for other Infectious diseases such as polio and measles. This is ... Because of the lack of previous exposure to this virus, dogs have no natural immunity to this virus. However, a vaccine is now[ ...

*Antiviral drug

... resulting in adaptive immunity. Vaccination in a population results in herd immunity and greatly improved population health, ... Low vaccine-preventable disease rates as a result of herd immunity also make vaccines seem unnecessary and leave many ... Parents can also cite religious reasons to avoid public school vaccination mandates, but this reduces herd immunity and ...

*Camelpox

It is believed that the reported cases of Camelpox infection in humans is low due to an immunity gained from exposure to camels ... Therefore, a significant proportion of Iraq's population would be immune to Camelpox, while troops from non-Camel herding ...