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*  Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus
During NREM sleep, the VLPO area neurons start inhibiting the orexin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Consequently, the ... Nauta W (1946). "Hypothalamic regulation of sleep in rats". Journal of Neurophysiology. 9: 285-314. McGinty D (1968). "Sleep ... area, and the orexin/hypocretin system (Chapters 6 and 7). ... The VLPO area of the anterior hypothalamus consists mainly of ... At the end of NREM sleep, the VLPO area neurons directly inhibit the REM-off cells, which completely disinhibits the REM-on ...
*  Lateral hypothalamus
The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area, contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the ... Orexin neurons with cell bodies in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH) project throughout the ... The histaminergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic nuclei which the lateral hypothalamic orexin ... Two of the most commonly noted functions of orexin peptides in the lateral hypothalamus are the promotion of feeding behavior ...
*  Leptin
"Leptin differentially regulates NPY and POMC neurons projecting to the lateral hypothalamic area". Neuron. 23 (4): 775-86. doi: ... In regard to the hormone leptin, central vs peripheral refers to the hypothalamic portion of the brain vs non-hypothalamic ... Thus some leptin receptors in the brain are classified as central (hypothalamic) and some as peripheral (non-hypothalamic). As ... Non-hypothalamic targets of leptin are referred to as peripheral targets. There is a different relative importance of central ...
*  Gigantocellular reticular nucleus
... lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus. Retrograde studies have shown that the deep mesencephalic ... This nucleus receives connections from the periaqueductal gray, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central nucleus of ...
*  Nucleus raphe pallidus
... lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus. Also, the nucleus raphe pallidus receives afferents from the ... When the preoptic area receives immune signals from the body, the inhibition stops and the rostral portion of the nucleus raphe ... medial preoptic area, median preoptic nucleus and lateral paragigantocellular reticular nuclei. The nucleus raphe pallidus has ... It has been implied that the preoptic area is constantly inhibiting the raphe pallidus, especially the rostral portion, with ...
*  Arcuate nucleus
... the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH, and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Populations of neurons connect to the ... "The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: A key site for mediating leptin's effects on glucose homeostasis and locomotor activity". ... These neurons, in the most ventromedial part of the nucleus, project strongly to the lateral hypothalamus and to the ... Medial neurons utilize NPY peptides as neurotransmitters to stimulate appetite, and lateral neurons utilize POMC/CART to ...
*  Nucleus raphe magnus
... lateral hypothalamic area, parvocellular reticular nucleus and the prelimbic, infralimbic, medial and lateral precentral ... All of these brain areas influence the main function of the nucleus raphe magnus. The main function of the nucleus raphe magnus ... The periaqueductal grey matter, an area of the brain involved in mediating analgesia, sends efferent connections to the nucleus ... The nucleus raphe magnus receives descending afferents from the periaqueductal grey matter, the paraventricular hypothalamic ...
*  Edinger-Westphal nucleus
... lateral septal nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area and the central nucleus of the amygdala, among other regions Unlike the ... Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent ( ... sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Kozicz T, Bittencourt JC, May PJ, Reiner A, Gamlin PD, ...
*  Narcolepsy
Orexin neurons with cell bodies in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH) project throughout the ... Part of the mechanism involves the loss of orexin-releasing neurons within the lateral hypothalamus. In up to 10% of cases ... The primary genetic factor that has been strongly implicated in the development of narcolepsy involves an area of chromosome 6 ... In narcoleptic individuals, these systems are all associated with impairments due to a greatly reduced number of hypothalamic ...
*  Setmelanotide
... of the hypothalamus and in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), areas involved in the regulation of appetite, and this action ...
*  Nesfatin-1
... lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and zona incerta in rats. Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was also found in the brainstem nuclei ... Nesfatin-1 is expressed in the hypothalamus, in other areas of the brain, and in pancreatic islets, gastric endocrine cells and ... Nesfatin-1 was co-expressed with melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) in tuberal hypothalamic neurons. Nesfatin-1 co-expressed ... Nesfatin/NUCB2 is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei such as paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus ...
*  Parabrachial nuclei
... including the lateral hypothalamic area, ventromedial, dorsomedial, and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei, the median and lateral ... external and extreme lateral subnuclei; the lateral crescent and subparabrachial nucleus (Kolliker-Fuse nucleus) along the ... The lateral parabrachial nucleus is one of three main parabrachial nuclei, located at the junction of the midbrain and pons. It ... The medial parabrachial nucleus is one of the three main nuclei in the parabrachial area at the junction of the midbrain and ...
*  Medial forebrain bundle
"Dopamine and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area of rat following lateral hypothalamic self- ... including the ventral tegmental area. The MFB passes through the lateral hypothalamus and the basal forebrain in a rostral- ... ICSS targets the MFB at the level of the lateral hypothalamus and elicits a range of responses from the subject through ... The mesolimbic pathway, which is a collection of dopaminergic neurons that projects from the ventral tegmental area to the ...
*  Mesolimbic pathway
"Dopamine and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area of rat following lateral hypothalamic self- ... The pathway connects the ventral tegmental area, which is located in the midbrain, to the nucleus accumbens and olfactory ... neurons that project from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the ventral striatum, which includes the nucleus accumbens (NAcc ... that rats learn to self-administer various drugs into the mesolimbic dopamine structures-the posterior ventral tegmental area, ...
*  Reward system
"Dopamine and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area of rat following lateral hypothalamic self- ... The lateral hypothalamus and medial forebrain bundle has been the most-frequently-studied brain-stimulation reward site, ... Regions include the lateral hypothalamus and medial forebrain bundles, which are especially effective. Stimulation there ... For opiates, the lowest-threshold site for reward effects involves actions on GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, ...
*  Hippocampus anatomy
... the lateral preoptic and lateral hypothalamic areas, the supramammillary and retromammillary regions, the ventral tegmental ... After CA1 comes an area called the subiculum. After this comes a pair of ill-defined areas called the presubiculum and ... The CA areas are all filled with densely packed Pyramidal cells similar to those found in the neocortex. ... Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3, then a very small zone ...
*  List of MeSH codes (A08)
... hypothalamic area, lateral MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342 --- hypothalamus, anterior MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.063 ... paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.450 --- preoptic area MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357. ... area postrema MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.406.574 --- olivary nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.406.750 --- solitary nucleus MeSH ... lateral MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.507 --- raphe nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.132.931 --- trigeminal nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.132. ...
*  Ventral tegmental area
... and lateral hypothalamic and preoptic areas. GABAergic inputs to the VTA include the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ... The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ... Almost all areas receiving projections from the VTA project back to it. Thus, the ventral tegmental area is reciprocally ... Originally, the ventral tegmental area was designated as a 'nucleus', but over time 'area' became the more appropriate term ...
*  Retinohypothalamic tract
... anterior hypothalamic area, retrochiasmatic area, and lateral hypothalamus. However, a major portion of the RHT ends in the SCN ...
*  Vasopressin receptor 1A
... anterior hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus, lateral habenula, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra (pars compacta), ... Avpr1a is present in the lateral septum, neocortical layer IV, hippocampal formation, amygdalostriatal area, bed nucleus of the ... medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, and lateral septum. Although the Avpr1a coding region is 99% identical between ... projecting to the lateral septum and ventral pallidum), while vasopressin binding sites in humans are in the lateral septum, ...
*  PGRMC1
... hypothalamic area, circumventricular organs, ependymal cells of the lateral ventricles, meninges, including regions known to ...
*  Stria terminalis
... hypothalamic, and thalamic areas of the brain. It also carries fibers projecting from these areas back to the amygdala. The ... Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. Human brain left dissected midsagittal view Somerville L, Whalen P, Kelley ... The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral ... It is thought to act as a relay site within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and regulate its activity in response to ...
*  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the central nucleus, which ... Anatomical connections between brain areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus facilitate ... Other major neuroendocrine systems Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis Hypothalamic- ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ...
*  List of regions in the human brain
Anterior hypothalamic nucleus Lateral area Parts of preoptic area Lateral preoptic nucleus Anterior part of Lateral nucleus ... area Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus Ventromedial nucleus Arcuate nucleus Lateral area Tuberal part of Lateral nucleus Lateral ... Cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) Cornu ammonis area 2 (CA2) Cornu ammonis area 3 (CA3) Cornu ammonis area 4 (CA4) Amygdala (limbic ... Posterior nucleus Lateral area Posterior part of Lateral nucleus Optic chiasm Subfornical organ Periventricular nucleus ...
*  Orexin
These cells were first thought to reside and work only within the lateral hypothalamus area, but immunocytochemistry tactics ... Orexigenic Hypothalamic Peptides Behavior and Feeding - 24.5 Orexin". In Preedy VR, Watson RR, Martin CR. Handbook of Behavior ... Neurotransmitters found in this area were oddly similar to the gut hormone, secretin, a member of the incretin family, so they ... Although these peptides are produced by a very small population of cells in the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, they send ...
*  Vagotomy
The circuit begins with an area of the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus, that has outputs to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ... ISBN 0-7216-3256-4. Lustig, Robert H (November 2011). "Hypothalamic obesity after craniopharyngioma: mechanisms, diagnosis, and ... parietal cell-containing areas) of the stomach (also called parietal cell vagotomy). It preserves the nerve supply of the ... "Octreotide therapy of pediatric hypothalamic obesity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Journal of Clinical ...
*  Bioenergetics
This is an active area of biological research that includes the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms and ... Experiments in the 1940s and 1950s showed that lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) reduced food intake; hence, the normal ... but also the PVN and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), increased food intake; hence, the normal role of these regions is ... role of this brain area is to stimulate feeding and decrease energy utilization. In contrast, lesions of the medial ...