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*  Hydroxylation
The hydroxylation process involves conversion of a CH group into a COH group. Hydroxylation is an oxidative process. The oxygen ... In biochemistry, hydroxylation reactions are often facilitated by enzymes called hydroxylases. Hydroxylation is the first step ... Proline hydroxylation is also a vital component of hypoxia response via hypoxia inducible factors. In some cases, proline may ... Hydroxylation occurs at the γ-C atom, forming hydroxyproline (Hyp), which stabilizes the secondary structure of collagen due to ...
*  Flavin-containing monooxygenase
Badieyan S, Bach RD, Sobrado P (Feb 2015). "Mechanism of N-hydroxylation catalyzed by flavin-dependent monooxygenases". Journal ... Quantum mechanics simulations showed the N-hydroxylation catalyzed by flavin-containing monooxygenases initiated by homolysis ...
*  Milas hydroxylation
The Milas hydroxylation is an organic reaction converting an alkene to a vicinal diol, and was developed by Nicholas A. Milas ... The Use of Vanadium Pentoxide and Chromium Trioxide as Catalysts of Hydroxylation". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... Milas, Nicholas A.; Sussman, Sidney (July 1936). "The Hydroxylation of the Double Bond". Journal of the American Chemical ... "Milas Hydroxylation". Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions and Reagents. 437: 1948-1951. 2010. doi:10.1002/9780470638859. ...
*  Hydroxylation of estradiol
The hydroxylation of estradiol is one of the major routes of metabolism of the estrogen steroid hormone estradiol. It is ... Whereas 4-hydroxylation constitutes the minor pathway in the liver, the greater proportion of CYP1B1 expression in extrahepatic ... Extrahepatic 2-hydroxylation is chiefly mediated by CYP1A1 and CYP3A4. 2-Hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) can experience three ... The enzyme most responsible for estradiol 4-hydroxylation is CYP1B1. In humans, CYP1B1 mRNA and protein exhibit constitutive ...
*  Woodward cis-hydroxylation
The Woodward cis-hydroxylation (also known as the Woodward reaction) is the chemical reaction of alkenes with iodine and silver ... Mangoni, L.; Dovinola, V. (1969). "The stereochemistry of woodward cis-hydroxylation in some steroidal olefins". Tetrahedron ... "cis-Hydroxylation of a Synthetic Steroid Intermediate with Iodine, Silver Acetate and Wet Acetic Acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80 (1 ...
*  Heavy metals
... hydroxylation); vanadium and manganese (enzyme regulation or functioning); chromium (glucose utilisation); nickel (cell growth ...
*  Cortisol
I 18-hydroxylation and 18hydroxy dehydrogenation. II beta-hydroxylation". Acta Endocrin. Copenh. 69: I 701-717, II 718-730. ...
*  Prévost reaction
This outcome is the opposite of that of the related Woodward cis-hydroxylation which gives syn addition. Charles Prévost (1933 ...
*  William D. Emmons
The Hydroxylation of Olefins". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76 (13): 3472-3474. doi:10.1021/ja01642a031. Freeman, Jeremiah P. (November 14 ...
*  Trifluoroperacetic acid
The Hydroxylation of Olefins". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76 (13): 3472-3474. doi:10.1021/ja01642a031. Emmons, William D.; Pagano, ... Treiber, Alexander (2002). "Mechanism of the Aromatic Hydroxylation of Thiophene by Acid-Catalyzed Peracid Oxidation". J. Org. ...
*  Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation
Minato, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Tsuji, J. (1990). "Osmium tetraoxide catalyzed vicinal hydroxylation of higher olefins by using ... Asymmetric catalytic oxidation Milas hydroxylation Upjohn dihydroxylation Sharpless aminohydroxylation Jacobsen, E. N.; Marko, ... "Enantioselective vicinal hydroxylation of terminal and E-1,2-disubstituted olefins by a chiral complex of osmium tetroxide. An ... see the Milas hydroxylation. Drawbacks of peroxides include chemoselectivity issues. Trialkylammonium N-oxides, such as NMO-as ...
*  NNK
These enzymes catalyze hydroxylation reactions. Beside the CYP family NNK can also be activated by metabolic genes, like ... In the oxidative metabolism NNK undergoes an α-hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450. This reaction can be done by two ...
*  Unspecific monooxygenase
3. Enzymic hydroxylation by rat-liver microsomes". Biochem. J. 66 (1): 73-8. PMC 1199967 . PMID 13426111. Fujita T, Mannering ... Role of the cytochrome P-450 and P-448 fractions in drug and steroid hydroxylations". J. Biol. Chem. 247 (6): 1727-34. PMID ... MITOMA C, POSNER HS, REITZ HC, UDENFRIEND S (1956). "Enzymatic hydroxylation of aromatic compounds". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 61 ... Evidence for several monooxygenases catalyzing omega- and omega-1-hydroxylation". J. Biol. Chem. 254 (20): 10405-14. PMID ...
*  E)-Stilbene
Collective Volume, 9, p. 383 Atta-ur-Rahman; Shah, Zahir (1993). "Asymmetric Hydroxylations". Stereoselectove Synthesis in ...
*  Progesterone 11alpha-monooxygenase
Shibahara M, Moody JA, Smith LL (1970). "Microbial hydroxylations. V. 11-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone by cell-free ...
*  Cunninghamella echinulata
Hydroxylation of biphenyl oxide has been studied in C. echinulata. Webster, John (1980). Introduction to Fungi. Cambridge: ... "Biphenyl oxide hydroxylation by Cunninghamella echinulata". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 39 (2): 428. doi: ... The presence of an active monooxygenase system allows this species to perform oxidative demethylation and hydroxylation. The ...
*  Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase
Ortiz de Montellano PR (February 2010). "Hydrocarbon hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 enzymes". Chemical Reviews. 110 (2): 932- ... anchoring the hydroxylation site (C-24, C-25) near the catalytic center of the enzyme (5.7Å from the iron core of the heme ... function of catalyzing the hydroxylation of cholesterol for cholesterol-elimination from the eye. Genetic cloning of encoding ... molecule to allow oxyferryl intermediates to perform the cholesterol hydroxylation). A loop region, known as the B'-C loop, has ...
*  Zvi HaCohen
1976-07-01). "Hydroxylation with ozone on silica gel. The synthesis of 1.alpha.,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3". The Journal of Organic ... Cohen, Z; Keinan, E; Mazur, Y; Varkony, T.H. (1975). "Method for stereoselective hydroxylation of saturated compounds on silica ...
*  Perhexiline
Sørensen, L. B., Sørensen, R. N., Miners, J. O., et al., Polymorphic hydroxylation of perhexiline in vitro. British Journal of ... The major route of perhexiline metabolism in humans is hydroxylation by microsomal CYP2D6. The two main metabolites of ...
*  Steviol
Then steviol is produced by hydroxylation. The steviol is subsequently glycosylated in the cytoplasm. Bridel, M.; Lavieille, R ...
*  NIH shift
Bassan, A.; Blomberg, M.R.A.; Siegbahn, P.E.M. (2003). "Mechanism of Aromatic Hydroxylation by an Activated FeIV=O Core in ... Guroff, G.; Daly, J.W.; Jerina, D.M.; Renson, J.; Witkop, B.; Udenfriend, S. (1967). "Hydroxylation-induced migration: the NIH ... Recent experiments reveal an unexpected and general result of enzymatic hydroxylation of aromatic compounds". Science. 157 ( ... rearrangement where a hydrogen atom on an aromatic ring undergoes an intramolecular migration primarily during a hydroxylation ...
*  Phenylalanine hydroxylase
Hydroxylation of phenylalanine by ferryl oxo intermediate. Because the mechanism involves a Fe(IV)=O (as opposed to a ... Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) (EC 1.14.16.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of ... Bassan A, Blomberg MR, Siegbahn PE (Sep 2003). "Mechanism of aromatic hydroxylation by an activated FeIV=O core in ... Fitzpatrick PF (Dec 2003). "Mechanism of aromatic amino acid hydroxylation". Biochemistry. 42 (48): 14083-91. doi:10.1021/ ...
*  Pyrimidine-deoxynucleoside 2'-dioxygenase
Bankel L, Lindstedt G, Lindstedt S (1972). "Thymidine 2'-hydroxylation in Neurospora crassa". J. Biol. Chem. 247 (19): 6128-34 ... of two alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in extracts of Rhodotorula glutinis catalyzing deoxyuridine hydroxylation". J ...
*  Transition metal oxo complex
Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R. (2010). "Hydrocarbon Hydroxylation by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes". Chemical Reviews. 110 (2): 932-948 ... which use a heme cofactor that is capable of hydroxylation of saturated C-H bonds, epoxidation of olefins, and oxidation of ...
*  Medrogestone
Metabolism is most importantly by hydroxylation. Medrogestone, also known as 6,17α-dimethyl-6-dehydroprogesterone or as 6,17α- ...