The increased use of social media as a data source for researchers has led to new uncertainties regarding the definition of human subject research. Privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent are key concerns, yet it is unclear when social media users qualify as human subjects. Moreno et al. conclude that if access to the social media content is public, information is identifiable but not private, and information gathering requires no interaction with the person who posted it online, then the research is unlikely to qualify as human subjects research.[23] Defining features of human subject research, according to federal regulations, are that the researchers interact directly with the subject or obtain identifiable private information about the subject.[2] Social media research may or may not meet this definition. A research institution's institutional review board (IRB) is often responsible for reviewing potential research on ...
Unethical human experimentation in the United States has been practiced in the United States for a long time prior to creation of the OHRP.[citation needed] A major characteristic of experimentation done during this time was the disregard for suffering inflicted on patients. In the 1840s, J. Marion Sims performed hundreds of surgical operations on enslaved African women without using anesthesia.[4] Robert Bartholow applied electric currents into the exposed brain matter of patients. One egregious example was in 1874 when a lady came in for treatment of a cancerous ulcer on her skull that made a 2-inch hole. Bartholow inserted electrodes into her brain and caused her great distress. The lady went into a coma and died 4 days later.[5] Another theme of human experimentation in the 19th and early 20th century was the unjust treatment of ethnic minority patients. At the turn of the 20th century, US Army doctors infected 34 ...
... describes numerous experiments performed on human test subjects in the United States that have been considered unethical, and were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects. Such tests have occurred throughout American history, but particularly in the 20th century. The experiments include: the exposure of people to chemical and biological weapons (including infection of people with deadly or debilitating diseases), human radiation experiments, injection of people with toxic and radioactive chemicals, surgical experiments, interrogation and torture experiments, tests involving mind-altering substances, and a wide variety of others. Many of these tests were performed on children, the sick, and mentally disabled individuals, often under the guise of "medical treatment". In many of the studies, a large portion of the subjects were poor, racial minorities, or prisoners[citation needed]. ...
The Doctors' trial (officially United States of America v. Karl Brandt, et al.) was the first of 12 trials for war crimes of German doctors that the United States authorities held in their occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany, after the end of World War II. These trials were held before US military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice. The trials are collectively known as the "Subsequent Nuremberg trials", formally the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals" (NMT).[1] Twenty of the twenty-three defendants were medical doctors (Viktor Brack, Rudolf Brandt, and Wolfram Sievers were Nazi officials), and were accused of having been involved in Nazi human experimentation and mass murder under the guise of euthanasia. Josef Mengele, one of the leading Nazi doctors, had evaded capture. The judges, heard before Military Tribunal I, were Walter B. Beals (presiding judge) from ...
The psychoactive properties of LSD were discovered in 1943 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann when he accidentally ingested a small dose through the skin while studying the compound. Controlled research on human subjects began soon after and Hofmann's colleague Werner Stoll published his findings about the basic effects of LSD on human subjects in 1947.[3]. After the earliest European and American research efforts investigated whether LSD could reliably induce psychotic disorders, some began to evaluate the potential for LSD to assist in traditional Freudian psychotherapy in the 1950s. Studies into the effects of LSD on human creativity and spirituality were also conducted during this period. The next major development in the history of psychedelic research was the rediscovery of psilocybin by Western society due to the appearance of an article in a 1957 issue of Life magazine written by R. Gordon Wasson detailing his experiences ingesting psilocybin mushrooms ...
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.[138] Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical.[139] This strategy is made possible by the common descent of all living organisms, and the conservation of metabolic and developmental pathways and genetic material over the course of evolution.[140] Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken when extrapolating from one organism to another.[141]. In researching human disease, model organisms allow for better understanding the disease process without the added risk of harming a human. The species chosen will usually meet a determined taxonomic equivalency ...
Scepticism about technological determinism emerged alongside increased pessimism about techno-science in the mid-20th century, in particular around the use of nuclear energy in the production of nuclear weapons, Nazi human experimentation during World War II, and the problems of economic development in the third world. As a direct consequence, desire for greater control of the course of development of technology gave rise to disenchantment with the model of technological determinism in academia.. Modern theorists of technology and society no longer consider technological determinism to be a very accurate view of the way in which we interact with technology, even though determinist assumptions and language fairly saturate the writings of many boosters of technology, the business pages of many popular magazines, and much reporting on technology[citation needed]. Instead, research in science and technology studies, social construction of technology and related fields have ...
The Official NASA-TLX can be administered using a paper and pencil version, or using the Official NASA TLX for Apple iOS App.[9] There are also numerous unofficial computerized implementations of the NASA TLX. It should be noted that these unofficial versions may collect Personally Identifiable Information (PII), which is a violation of NASA Human Subject Research Guidelines for the Collection of PII[10] as set down by the NASA Independent Review Board (IRB).[11] If a participant is required to answer the TLX questions multiple times, they only need to answer the 15 pairwise comparisons once per task type.[3] If a participant's workload needs to be measured for intrinsically different tasks, then revisiting the pairwise comparisons may be required. In every case, the subject should answer all 6 subjective rating subscales. It is these successive ratings that are then scored using the original pairwise questions as weighting factors, that leads to an understanding of the overall workload ...
Cruelty free cosmetic is a cosmetic which has a certification ensuring that the product has not been tested on animals, it means the final product nor the ingredients that compose it must not have been tested on animals. Moreover, manufacturers must provide an attestation affirming that they do not practice the animal experimentation. Finally, the brand accept to be controlled at any moment by an independent organism. Under the impulse of the public shocked by the conditions of experimentation on animals and the suffering that engenders, a collective consciousness around the world has gradually immersed and many actors of this movement have emerged in the industry to avoid use animal testing and look for new alternatives. Since 2004, animal testing for finished products is banned in the European Union. Since 2009, the ingredients of cosmetics are no longer the subject of animal experiments. In 2013 and 2016, the EU banned the import of cosmetic products tested on animals in ...
In computational biology, gene prediction or gene finding refers to the process of identifying the regions of genomic DNA that encode genes. This includes protein-coding genes as well as RNA genes, but may also include prediction of other functional elements such as regulatory regions. Gene finding is one of the first and most important steps in understanding the genome of a species once it has been sequenced. In its earliest days, "gene finding" was based on painstaking experimentation on living cells and organisms. Statistical analysis of the rates of homologous recombination of several different genes could determine their order on a certain chromosome, and information from many such experiments could be combined to create a genetic map specifying the rough location of known genes relative to each other. Today, with comprehensive genome sequence and powerful computational resources at the disposal of the research community, gene finding has been redefined as a largely computational ...
The convention was convened on March 1 with Richard Ellis as president.[4] The delegates selected a committee of five to draft a declaration of independence; the committee was led by George Childress and also included Edward Conrad, James Gaines, Bailey Hardeman, and Collin McKinney. The committee submitted its draft within a mere 24 hours, leading historians to speculate that Childress had written much of it before his arrival at the Convention.[5] The declaration was approved on March 2 with no debate. Based primarily on the writings of John Locke and Thomas Jefferson, the declaration proclaimed that the Mexican government "ceased to protect the lives, liberty, and property of the people, from whom its legitimate powers are derived"[6] and complained about "arbitrary acts of oppression and tyranny".[7] Throughout the declaration are numerous references to the United States laws, rights, and customs. Omitted from the declaration was the fact that the author and many of the signatories were ...
The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability, created for and by presidents of institutions of higher learning. Jean Mayer, Tufts University president, convened a conference of 22 universities in 1990 in Talloires, France. This document is a declaration that institutions of higher learning will be world leaders in developing, creating, supporting and maintaining sustainability. The registrar for the declaration is the Washington, DC-based ULSF organization, or University Leaders for a Sustainable Future. As of 1 February, 2017, 502 college and university presidents have signed the declaration. These span 55 countries on five continents, with 170 in the United States alone. University Presidents for a Sustainable Future We, the presidents, rectors, and vice chancellors of universities from all regions of the world are deeply concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and ...
Friedrich Sertürner (1783-1841) first isolated morphine from opium in 1804;[61] he named it morphine after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams.[62][full citation needed][63][full citation needed]. Henry Hill Hickman (1800-1830) experimented with the use of carbon dioxide as an anesthetic in the 1820s. He would make the animal insensible, effectively via almost suffocating it with carbon dioxide, then determine the effects of the gas by amputating one of its limbs. In 1824, Hickman submitted the results of his research to the Royal Society in a short treatise titled Letter on suspended animation: with the view of ascertaining its probable utility in surgical operations on human subjects. The response was an 1826 article in The Lancet titled 'Surgical Humbug' that ruthlessly criticised his work. Hickman died four years later at age 30. Though he was unappreciated at the time of his death, his work has since been positively reappraised and he is now recognised as one of the fathers of ...