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*  Discovery and development of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
HIV is a retrovirus and has two major serotypes, HIV-1 and HIV-2. The pandemic mostly involves HIV-1 while HIV-2 has lower ... HIV). NNRTIs inhibit reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of HIV. RT is ... Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of HIV and other retroviruses. ... nucleoside/nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors ( ...
*  Reverse-transcriptase inhibitor
... s (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection or AIDS, and in some ... NNRTIs are therefore classified as non-competitive inhibitors of reverse transcriptase. Nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase ... When HIV infects a cell, reverse transcriptase copies the viral single stranded RNA genome into a double-stranded viral DNA. ... Nucleotide analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NtARTIs or NtRTIs) Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs ...
*  Zidovudine
AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA. ... Their research efforts were focused in part on the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase. Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that ... It works by inhibiting the enzyme reverse transcriptase that HIV uses to make DNA and therefore decreases replication of the ... Prolonged AZT treatment can lead to HIV developing resistance to AZT by mutation of its reverse transcriptase. To slow the ...
*  Elvucitabine
... of HIV drugs called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTIs block an HIV enzyme called reverse transcriptase ... By blocking reverse transcriptase, NRTIs prevent HIV from multiplying and can reduce the amount of HIV in the body. ... Elvucitabine is an experimental nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), developed by Achillion Pharmaceuticals, Inc ... for the treatment of HIV infection. Elvucitabine belongs to a class (group) ...
*  Xiaowei Zhuang
"Dynamic binding orientations direct activity of HIV reverse transcriptase". Nature. 453: 184-189. Bibcode:2008Natur.453..184A. ...
*  Portmanteau inhibitor
"Rationally Designed Dual Inhibitors of HIV Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 50 (15): 3416- ... was coined in 2007 by University of Minnesota researchers who designed and synthesized a combination HIV reverse transcriptase ... "U of M researchers announce advance in treatment of HIV". 25 July 2007. Retrieved 25 July 2007. "Researchers Discover New ... "Design and synthesis of caffeoyl-anilides as portmanteau inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase and CCR5". Bioorganic & Medicinal ...
*  DNA
For example, HIV reverse transcriptase is an enzyme for AIDS virus replication. Telomerase is an unusual polymerase because it ... Tarrago-Litvak L, Andréola ML, Nevinsky GA, Sarih-Cottin L, Litvak S (May 1994). "The reverse transcriptase of HIV-1: from ... They include reverse transcriptase, which is a viral enzyme involved in the infection of cells by retroviruses, and telomerase ... Nugent CI, Lundblad V (April 1998). "The telomerase reverse transcriptase: components and regulation". Genes & Development. 12 ...
*  Hydrolysable tannin
1990). "Anti-AIDS agents, 2: Inhibitory effects of tannins on HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte ... Two compounds, punicalin and punicacortein C, inhibited purified HIV reverse transcriptase. Hydrolysable tannins have shown ... HPLC determination Tannins, including gallo and ellagic acid (epigallitannins), are inhibitors of HIV replication. 1,3,4-Tri-O- ... galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloyl-shikimic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylshikimic acid, punicalin, punicalagin inhibited HIV ...
*  Nucleoside triphosphate
Menéndez-Arias L (June 2008). "Mechanisms of resistance to nucleoside analogue inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase". ... For example, azidothymidine (AZT) is a nucleoside analogue used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. The term nucleoside refers to a ... For example, azidothymidine is used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Some less selective nucleoside analogues can be used as ... This is common in nucleoside analogues used to treat HIV/AIDS. Biology Chromosome Gene Genetics Nucleic acid sequence ...
*  Diarylpyrimidines
They show great potency in inhibiting the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase. Several compounds in this class are non- ... nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors used clinically in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, notably etravirine and rilpivirine. ... dimensional infrared spectra reveal relaxation of the nonnucleoside inhibitor TMC278 complexed with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase ... non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that are highly potent and effective against wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 ...
*  Ribonuclease H
"Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase". Virus Research. 134 (1-2 ... "Crystal structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with a polypurine tract RNA:DNA". The EMBO Journal. 20 (6): 1449- ... "Crystal structure of the ribonuclease H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase". Science. 252 (5002): 88-95. doi:10.1126/science ... Reverse-transcriptase inhibitors that specifically inhibit the polymerase function of RT are in widespread clinical use, but ...
*  Atevirdine
Ateviridine is non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been studied for the treatment of HIV. Preparation of ... 1. A Novel Class of Non-Nucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 37 (7): 999. doi: ... of the resulting amine with the imidazolide derivative of 5-Methoxy-3-indoleacetic acid affords the amide reverse transcriptase ... January 2000). "Concentration-targeted phase I trials of atevirdine mesylate in patients with HIV infection: dosage ...
*  Virus latency
HIV uses reverse transcriptase to create a DNA copy of its RNA genome. HIV latency allows the virus to largely avoid the immune ... This latent reservoir of HIV may explain the inability of antiretroviral treatment to cure HIV infection. Viruses portal Slow ... In the field of HIV research, proviral latency in specific long-lived cell types is the basis for the concept of one or more ... Unfortunately, HIV in proviral latency is nearly impossible to target with antiretroviral drugs. Both proviral and episomal ...
*  Anisotropic Network Model
HIV-1 reverse transcriptase complexed with different inhibitors, by Temiz and Bahar, 2002. - HIV-1 protease, by Micheletti et ...
*  Graph theory in enzymatic kinetics
1993). "Steady-state kinetic studies with the non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor U-87201E". The Journal of ... Later, they have been utilized to investigate the kinetic mechanisms of drugs inhibiting HIV-reverse transcriptase, and ... 1993). "Kinetic studies with the non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor U-88204E". Biochemistry. 32 (26): 6548-54 ...
*  Trifluoromethyl
Some notable drugs containing trifluoromethyl groups include efavirenz (Sustiva), an HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor; ...
*  Stavudine
... triphosphate inhibits HIV's reverse transcriptase by competing with the natural substrate, thymidine triphosphate. ... Reverse transcriptase is the enzyme the virus uses to make a DNA copy of its RNA in order to insert its genetic material into ... Stavudine is in the nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class of medication. Stavudine was first described ... It is always used in combination with other HIV medications for the better control of the infection and a reduction in HIV ...
*  PSMB8
"IFN-gamma exposes a cryptic cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase". Journal of Immunology. 162 (12): ... Seeger M, Ferrell K, Frank R, Dubiel W (Mar 1997). "HIV-1 tat inhibits the 20 S proteasome and its 11 S regulator-mediated ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Simon JH, Gaddis NC, Fouchier RA, Malim MH (Dec 1998). "Evidence for a newly discovered cellular anti-HIV-1 phenotype". Nature ...
*  PIK3C2A
2000). "HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is phosphorylated in vitro and in a cellular system". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 31 (12): ... 1998). "HIV-1 Tat induces tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and its association with phosphoinositide 3-kinase in PC12 cells ... 1998). "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3- and Akt/PKB kinases in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid Jurkat ... 2001). "HIV-1 Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a ...
*  Hooke's law
"Complete conformational space of the potential HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors d4U and d4C. A quantum chemical study". ...
*  Efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir
... of HIV-1. Emtricitabine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) of HIV-1.Tenofovir is a nucleotide reverse ... These three drugs work in combination to target the HIV reverse transcriptase protein in three ways, which reduces the virus's ... "HIV Medication List - AIDS Drugs:". AIDS Drugs HIV Reference. aidsdrugsonline. 2009. Archived from the original on December 26 ... Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) ...
*  Retroviral ribonuclease H
"Crystal structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with a polypurine tract RNA:DNA". The EMBO Journal. 20 (6): 1449- ... "Structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with the inhibitor beta-Thujaplicinol bound at the RNase H active site". Structure. 17 ... Fu, Tie-Bo; John taylor (27 March 1992). "When retroviral reverse transcriptases reach the end of their RNA templates". Journal ... The retroviral ribonuclease H (retroviral RNase H) is a catalytic domain of the retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. ...
*  Multicopy single-stranded DNA
Further research discovered similarities between HIV-encoded reverse transcriptase and an open reading frame (ORF) found in the ... Inouye S.; Inouye M. (1993). "Bacterial Reverse Transcriptase". In Goff, Stephen and Anna M. Skalka. Reverse transcriptase. ... "Crystal structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with a polypurine tract RNA:DNA". The EMBO Journal. 20 (6): 1449-61 ... Lampson BC, Sun J, Hsu MY, Vallejo-Ramirez J, Inouye S, Inouye M (February 1989). "Reverse transcriptase in a clinical strain ...
*  Discovery and development of integrase inhibitors
Raltegravir Elvitegravir Integrase Integrase inhibitor HIV Reverse transcriptase MK-2048 Dolutegravir Johnson, Dee Unglaub ... HIV). Two closely related types of HIV have been identified, HIV-1 and HIV-2. While HIV-2 is spreading in India and West Africa ... The viral genome is reversely transcribed into the DNA of the infected cell by viral reverse transcriptase, the DNA is then ... and structure-activity relationships of integrase inhibition within a dual inhibitor scaffold of HIV reverse transcriptase and ...
*  4′-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine
"The Crystal Structure of EFdA‐Resistant HIV‐1 Reverse Transcriptase Reveals Structural Changes in the Polymerase Active Site" ( ... EFdA is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that unlike other such inhibitors, inhibits HIV through multiple ... Inhibits HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase with Multiple Mechanisms". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (35): 24533-48. doi: ... EFdA has activity against HIV in animal models, and is being studied clinically for HIV treatment and prophylaxis. ...
*  List of DuPont Experimental Station inventions
... antagonist to treat hypertension Sustiva Efavirenz reverse transcriptase inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus HIV ...