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*  CD154
The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... Kornbluth RS (October 2002). "An expanding role for CD40L and other tumor necrosis factor superfamily ligands in HIV infection ... As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ...
*  Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies
... (bNAbs) are neutralizing antibodies which neutralize multiple HIV-1 viral strains. bNAbs ... Database of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies (bNAbs) LANL Antibody Database. ... The following table shows the characteristics of various HIV-1 bNAbs Recent years have seen an increase in HIV-1 bNAb discovery ... database of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Nucleic Acids Research Database issue Volume 42 Issue D1 1 January 2014 PubMed ...
*  Flow-through test
Bernard B (2003). "Point-of-Care Rapid Tests for HIV Antibody". J Lab Med. 27: 288-295. Archived from the original on May 3, ... In practice they are mostly applied to detect the interaction of an antibody, as from a sample of the test subject's blood, ... They exhibit good sensitivity to antibodies, but their detection of antigens is generally less sensitive than lateral flow ... usually a specific antibody, in a sample such as blood. They are a type of point of care test, a test designed to be used by a ...
*  Consideration of future consequences
Dorr, N., Krueckeburg, S., Strathman, A. & Wood, A. (1999). Psychosocial correlates of voluntary HIV antibody testing in ... and are more likely to seek out HIV-testing. People high in CFC have also been found to have more regular sleep schedules. ... are more likely to use alternate methods of reducing exposure to HIV (e.g. inquiring about partner's sexual history, delaying ...
*  HIV and pregnancy
HIV testing begins with a screening test. The most common screening test is the rapid HIV antibody test which tests for HIV ... Usual antibody based testing is unreliable in infants due to the transmission of maternal antibodies. A qualitative HIV DNA PCR ... HIV antibodies are only produced if an individual is infected with the disease. Therefore, presence of the antibodies is ... Another screening test that is more specific is the HIV antigen/antibody test. This is a newer blood test that can detect HIV ...
*  Autotransplantation
Autologous blood is not routinely tested for infectious diseases markers such as HIV antibodies. In the United States, ... If only autologous blood is used during surgery the risk of exposure to infectious disease such as hepatitis or HIV from blood ... even with a rare blood type or antibody type. ...
*  Bioassay
HIV test also uses indirect ELISA to detect HIV antibody caused by infection. Assay Immunoassay Hoskins, W. M.; Craig, R. (1962 ... quantitative analytical method that measures absorbance of color change from antigen-antibody reaction (ex. Direct, indirect, ...
*  Seroconversion
The word seroconversion is often used in reference to blood testing for anti-HIV antibodies. In particular, "seroconverted" has ... Serology (testing for antibodies) is used to determine if specific antibodies are in an organism's blood. Serostatus is a term ... During seroconversion, the antibody is present but not yet detectable. Any time after seroconversion, the antibodies can be ... After seroconversion, there is more antibody than antigen, so there is a detectable amount of free antibody, while all the ...
*  Saliva testing
The accuracy of saliva anti-HIV antibody testing has been confirmed by many additional studies, leading to approval of this ... The second study, conducted by Pascoe, et al., compared saliva antibody testing to serum antibody testing using ELISA followed ... The accuracy of saliva anti-HIV antibody testing has been demonstrated in numerous studies; two recent large-scale studies ... and compared saliva antibody testing and serum antibody testing using ELISA technique in 820 individuals. ...
*  Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS
HIV antibody tests are highly sensitive, meaning they react preferentially with HIV antibodies, but not all positive or ... such as HIV-I GAG, HIV-II GAG, HIV-env, or the HIV-pol. Since these tests are relatively expensive, the blood is screened by ... If antibodies to HIV are present in the serum, they may bind to these HIV antigens. The plate is then washed to remove all ... If no antibodies to HIV are detected, this does not mean the person has not been infected with HIV. It may take several months ...
*  ELISA
For the detection of HIV antibodies, the wells of microtiter plate are coated with the HIV antigen. Two specific antibodies are ... the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV antibodies. These antibodies ... If antibodies to HIV are present in the serum, they may bind to these HIV antigens. The plate is then washed to remove all ... Enzyme-linked secondary antibodies are applied as detection antibodies that also bind specifically to the antibody's Fc region ...
*  Pamela J. Bjorkman
... and are developing improved antibodies that can neutralize a broader spectrum of HIV variants (PDB entry 3U7Y). Bjorkman is ... "Increasing the potency and breadth of an HIV antibody by using structure-based rational design". Science. 334 (6060): 1289-93. ... academy-sciences-491 Researchers have isolated a protein receptor in chickens responsible for transferring antibodies from ...
*  1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case definition
The main change from the Bangui definition is the addition of an HIV test for HIV antibody. If this test gives a positive ... not known to be due to a condition unrelated to HIV infection (for example, trauma, or cerebrovascular accident). candidiasis ... not known to be due to a condition unrelated to HIV infection. cryptococcal meningitis pulmonary or extra-pulmonary ... Organization AIDS case definition came around through the developments in the understanding of the spectrum of severe HIV- ...
*  Barton Haynes
Verkoczy, Laurent (May 9, 2014). "AIDS/HIV. Host controls of HIV neutralizing antibodies". Science. 344 (6184): 588-589. doi: ... the isolation of rare broad neutralizing HIV antibodies and their ancestor antibodies; and 8) the development of a new strategy ... "Maturation Pathway from Germline to Broad HIV-1 Neutralizer of a CD4-Mimic Antibody". Cell. 165 (2): 449-63. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... the discovery of host tolerance mechanisms that limit the induction of broad neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection; 3) the ...
*  Virology
Tests detecting HIV infection by detecting the presence of HIV antibody were developed. Subsequent tremendous research efforts ... Vaccinations protect against viral diseases, in part, by eliciting the production of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, ... Antibody presence in blood serum is often used to determine whether a person has been exposed to a given virus in the past, ... When the immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it may produce specific antibodies which bind to the virus and ...
*  Viral load monitoring for HIV
An HIV antibody test usually detects the HIV antibodies within two to eight weeks, but can have a valid negative result for a ... the FDA approved the first diagnostic test capable of detecting HIV antigens and HIV antibodies. The Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab ... "Dynamics of HIV viremia and antibody seroconversion in plasma donors: Implications for diagnosis and staging of primary HIV ... is highly infectious during this time yet may test negative for HIV using tests that detect anti-HIV antibodies only. Although ...
*  WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease in Children
This staging system also requires the presence of HIV infection: HIV antibody for children aged 18 months or more; virological ... The current staging system for HIV infection in children was developed in 2005 and builds upon the staging system in place ... TB Severe recurrent presumed bacterial pneumonia Conditions where confirmatory diagnostic testing is necessary Chronic HIV- ...
*  Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS
Diagnosis of infection using antibody testing is a well-established technique in medicine. HIV antibody tests exceed the ... "Comparison of the sensitivity of four rapid assays for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1/HIV-2 during seroconversion". Clin ... these direct testing techniques have confirmed the validity of the antibody tests. Positive HIV antibody tests are usually ... are not caused by HIV, but rather result from the immunosuppression caused by HIV disease. As the immune system of an HIV- ...
*  Narayan Medical College and Hospital
HIV antibodies etc., Sterilisation and washing room; Refreshment room, and Store and Records room. The equipment and ...
*  A Place for Annie
Next day at home, a doctor comes and informs Susan that Annie is no longer testing for the HIV antibodies. Apparently Annie ... only contracted the HIV antibodies from Linda when she was born but not the virus in and of itself. The doctors thought she had ... Susan then revisits Linda and tells her that Annie doesn't have HIV and is going to do all the things that any other child can ... Nurse Susan cares for six week old Annie, an HIV positive baby. Rather than seeing her being left at Treemont Centre where she ...
*  Criminal transmission of HIV
France began testing blood products for HIV antibodies in June 1985, Canada in November 1985, and Switzerland in May 1986. ... Criminal Transmission of HIV - list of notable cases HIV and the criminal law (International resource from NAM) Criminal HIV ... "HIV accused Glenn Mills found dead in cell". GayNZ.com. 30 November 2009. "Men jailed for spreading HIV at sex orgies". ... Criminal transmission of HIV is the intentional or reckless infection of a person with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...
*  Paul Gann
... before uniform HIV-antibody blood-screening was in effect. He later tested positive on an HIV test. Ten days after breaking his ...
*  Transgender HIV/Aids Prevention Program
It was estimated that in 1992 up to 17,000 people were HIV-antibody positive in the state of Minnesota. The organizers realized ... The first part of the workshop focused on the impact of HIV/AIDS, and included a panel of transgender persons living with HIV/ ... There were three main concerns regarding HIV/AIDS within the transgender community at this time. The first concern was HIV/AIDS ... The Transgender HIV/Aids Prevention Program was launched by The Department of Family Practice and The Community Health Medical ...
*  John Frank (epidemiologist)
Frank JW, Goel V, Harvey B, Coates RA, Schiralli V. A critical look at HIV antibody tests: 1. How accurate are they? Canadian ... Frank JW, Harvey B. Goel V. Coates RA, Schiralli V. A critical look at HIV antibody tests: 2. Risks, benefits and clinical use ... Quantitative measures of HIV-specific antibodies predict progression to AIDS. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995; 172:1375-9. ... Frank JW, Coates RA, Brant R, Garbutt J. Sample sizes for needles in a haystack: the case of HIV seroprevalence surveys. ...
*  Immune network theory
... and was designed to induce the production of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. A suitable anti-anti-HIV antibody ... This monoclonal antibody binds to all of six well characterized broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. A vaccine concept ... The vaccine concept comprised complexes of an anti-anti-HIV antibody and an HIV antigen, ... Once this happens, anti-HIV antibodies can bind to and kill most of the host's T suppressor cell population. This results in ...
*  Phage display
... of human antibody Fab that bound tetanus toxin and the method was then extended to rapidly clone human anti-HIV-1 antibodies ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...
*  1985 World Health Organization AIDS surveillance case definition
It was developed to provide surveiling case definition of AIDS for use in countries where testing for HIV antibodies was not ... The 1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case definition was introduced in 1994 to incorporate the statement that HIV ... Source:HIV infection and AIDS in the developing world. ...