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*  Viral hepatitis
National Library of Medicine » Medical Subject Headings »Virus Diseases (C02) » Hepatitis, Viral, Human (C02.440) » Scope Note ... The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, ... In 2013 about 1.5 million people died from viral hepatitis. Most deaths are due to hepatitis B and hepatitis C. East Asia is ... Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis B virus, a hepadnavirus that can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis ...
*  Hepatitis B virus precore mutant
Desk Encyclopedia of Human and Medical Virology. Boston: Academic Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-12-375147-0. Wei Y, Neuveut C, Tiollais ... The precore region is not necessary for viral replication. Precore mutants can replicate. They are readily detectable by HBV ... doi:10.1002/hep.25636. PMID 22307831. Cleveland Clinic CME hepatitis B Retrieved 15 March 2013 Tacke F, Gehrke C, Luedde T, ... A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are ...
*  Groundhog
... the virus and its effects on the liver make the woodchuck the best available animal for the study of viral hepatitis in humans ... similar to human hepatitis B virus. Humans do not receive hepatitis from woodchucks with WHV but ... The only other animal model for hepatitis B virus studies is the chimpanzee, an endangered species. Groundhog burrows have been ... A percentage of the woodchuck population is infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), ...
*  Mir-196 microRNA precursor family
"MicroRNA-196 represses Bach1 protein and hepatitis C virus gene expression in human hepatoma cells expressing hepatitis C viral ... doi:10.1002/hep.23401. PMC 2862129 . PMID 20127796. McGlinn E, Yekta S, Mansfield JH, Soutschek J, Bartel DP, Tabin CJ (2009 ... miR-196 is a non-coding RNA called a microRNA that has been shown to be expressed in human (MI0000238, MI0000279) and mouse ( ... Lagos-Quintana M, Rauhut R, Meyer J, Borkhardt A, Tuschl T (2003). "New microRNAs from mouse and human". RNA. 9 (2): 175-9. doi ...
*  Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin
There is also a very low risk of the spread of infections such as viral hepatitis and HIV/AIDS with the human version. Use ... It is made from either human or horse blood plasma. Use of the horse version became common in the 1910s while the human version ... The human version may be unavailable in the developing world. In the United States a course of treatment costs about 100 to 200 ... The wholesale cost in the developing world for the horse version is about 0.90 to 3.60 USD per 1500iu vial while the human ...
*  Michael Houghton (virologist)
"Use of a signature nucleotide sequence of hepatitis C virus for detection of viral RNA in human serum and plasma". J. Clin. ... He also co-discovered the Hepatitis D genome in 1986. The discovery of Hepatitis C led to the rapid development of diagnostic ... non-B viral hepatitis genome". Science. 244 (4902): 359-62. doi:10.1126/science.2523562. PMID 2523562. Wang, KS; Choo, QL; ... "An assay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non-A, non-B hepatitis". Science. 244: 362-364. doi: ...
*  Primate
... the Marburg virus and viral hepatitis can be transmitted to humans; in some cases the viruses produce potentially fatal ... Many non-human primates have the vocal anatomy to produce human speech but lack the proper brain wiring. Vowel-like vocal ... Only humans are recognized as persons and protected in law by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The ... Close interactions between humans and non-human primates (NHPs) can create pathways for the transmission of zoonotic diseases. ...
*  Hepatitis E
Liu, Dongyou (2010-11-23). Molecular Detection of Human Viral Pathogens. CRC Press. p. 102. ISBN 9781439812372. "Hepatitis E ... Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus. It is one of ... Food and Rural Affairs said that the number of human hepatitis E cases increased by 39% between 2011 and 2012. Hepatitis E is ... The lifecycle of hepatitis E virus is unknown; the capsid protein obtains viral entry by binding to a cellular receptor. ORF2 ( ...
*  Women's reproductive health in the United States
Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention and Treatment" (PDF). Retrieved 25 October 2014. Yu, Jingbo; Henry Hu (2013). " ... The Department of Health and Human Services has developed a definition for sexual health in the United States based on the ... Sexual health is an intrinsic element of human health and is based on positive, equitable, and respectful approach to sexuality ... The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has identified national reproductive health goals including reducing the level ...
*  Gene silencing
RNAi has been used to target genes in several viral diseases, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis. In ... In hepatitis B, siRNA silencing was used to target the surface antigen on the hepatitis B virus and led to a decrease in the ... Although the Tulane virus is species-specific and does not affect humans, it has been shown to be closely related to the human ... estimate that >45,000 miRNA target sites within human mRNA 3'UTRs are conserved above background levels, and >60% of human ...
*  Viral arthritis (disambiguation)
Humans Viral arthritis in Humans (also see: arthralgia) can be caused by: Parvovirus, especially parvovirus B19 Hepatitis B ... Hepatitis C Rubella Alphaviruses Non-Humans Viral arthritis (poultry), an infectious conditions seen chicken and turkeys. ...
*  Hepatitis A vaccine
Hepatitis A virus H2 strain is produced in human deploid cells. This vaccine can induce human body to generate antibody to ... Inactivated hepatitis A virus produced in MRC-5 cells. Each adult dose contains 1440 ELISA units of viral antigen adsorbed on ... Twinrix is a vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Vivaxim is a vaccine against hepatitis A and typhoid. "WHO position ... A few formulations combine hepatitis A with either hepatitis B or typhoid vaccine. The first hepatitis A vaccine was approved ...
*  Universal precautions
Barrier nursing Body substance isolation Viral hemorrhagic fever Hepatitis B CDC. Update: universal precautions for prevention ... Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other ... of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. ... It is speculated that this differential approach to care stems from stigma towards HIV and hepatitis C, rooted largely in fears ...
*  Natural killer cell
... or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells or whether other ... and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human. The mouse and human work was carried out under the ... As these are stress molecules released by cells upon viral infection, they serve to signal to the NK cell the presence of viral ... The human data were confirmed, for the most part, by West et al. using similar techniques and the same erythroleukemic target ...
*  Hepadnaviridae
Etymology - portmanteau of hepa (liver: reference to Hepatitis B the primary human member) DNA virus. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. ... Bat hepatitis virus Ground squirrel hepatitis virus Hepatitis B virus Woodchuck hepatitis virus Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus ... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ... This is true not only of the human pathogen Hepatitis B Virus but also the hepadnaviruses that infect other organisms. The " ...
*  Expression vector
... in clotting factor VIII isolated from human blood that resulted in the transmission of viral diseases such as hepatitis and ... Non-viral promoter, such as the elongation factor (EF)-1 promoter, is also known. E. coli cell lysate containing the cellular ... Viral vectors are generally used but other nonviral methods of delivery are being developed. The treatment is still a risky ... The protein may be expressed as a fusion to the coat protein of the virus and is displayed on the surface of assembled viral ...
*  Ribavirin
Viramidine is in phase III human trials and may one day be used in place of ribavirin, at least against certain kinds of viral ... Ribavirin is used primarily to treat hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fevers (which is an orphan indication in most countries ... Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C, and viral hemorrhagic ... It is a guanosine (ribonucleic) analog used to stop viral RNA synthesis and viral mRNA capping, thus, it is a nucleoside ...
*  Neopterin
... viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C bacterial infections by ... It is synthesised by human macrophages upon stimulation with the cytokine interferon-gamma and is indicative of a pro- ... in rat and human plasma, cell extracts and tissue homogenates (a protocol) Metabolism portal. ... cerebrospinal fluid or urine provides information about activation of cellular immune activation in humans under the control of ...
*  National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
... and programs to prevent and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS ... In March 2007, the center was renamed to the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) ... The National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), formerly the National Center for HIV, STD ... National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention - Official Site NCHHSTP Annual Report Fiscal Year 2010 ...
*  Ronald C. Kennedy
Kennedy has also helped to develop hepatitis B vaccines for chimpanzees and proposed their use in humans in a 1986 study. His ... Kennedy, R.; Eichberg, J.; Lanford, R.; Dreesman, G. (1986). "Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in ... Some of Kennedy's other research focused on the immune response to viral hepatitis. ...
*  Stuart C. Ray
... concentrating in particular on complex RNA viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). He ... Ray researches the influence of viral evolution on viral pathogenesis, ... "High-programmed death-1 levels on hepatitis C virus-specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral ... "Human immunodeficiency virus-related microbial translocation and progression of hepatitis C". Gastroenterology. 135 (1): 226- ...
*  Viral envelope
Classes of enveloped viruses that contain human pathogens: Herpesviruses Poxviruses Hepadnaviruses Flavivirus Togavirus ... Coronavirus Hepatitis D Orthomyxovirus Paramyxovirus Rhabdovirus Bunyavirus Filovirus Retroviruses Classes of nonenveloped ... The viral envelope then fuses with the host's membrane, allowing the capsid and viral genome to enter and infect the host. The ... Some viruses (e.g. influenza and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids. The ...
*  Viral transformation
... such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and T-cell Leukemia virus type I. Hepatitis B and C are also the result of natural viral ... Human immunodeficiency virus is a viral infection that targets the lymph nodes. HIV binds to the immune CD4 cell and reverse ... The Hepatitis B viral protein X is believed to cause hepatocellular carcinoma through transformation, typically of liver cells ... Some such viruses that are commonly recognized include HPV, T-cell Leukemia virus type I, and hepatitis B. Viral oncogenesis ...
*  Cord blood bank
Before the cord blood is stored for later use, it undergoes viral testing, including tests for HIV and Hepatitis B and C, and ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration regulates cord blood under the category of "Human Cells, Tissues, and ... known as their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. Bone marrow transplants require a complete match on six key antigens, which ... "Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue Based-Products." The Code of Federal Regulations under which the FDA regulates ...
*  DDX6
... in human hepatocytes from patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis and its implication in hepatocellular ... carcinogenesis". J. Viral Hepat. 10 (4): 241-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2893.2003.00447.x. PMID 12823589. Matsui T, Hogetsu K, Akao ... Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DDX6 gene. DEAD box proteins, ... 1999). "Expression of two dead box genes (DDX1 and DDX6) is independent of that of MYCN in human neuroblastoma cell lines". ...
*  Interferon
... such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8). Viral proteins proven to ... Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C are treated with IFN-α, often in combination with other antiviral drugs. Some of those treated ... The superinduced human beta interferon messenger RNA was prepared by Tan's lab for Cetus corp. to clone the human beta ... Large amounts of human beta interferon were made by superinducing the beta interferon gene in human fibroblast cells. Cantell's ...
*  Chiaho Shih
Viral hepatitis and Hepatoma, and Cancer. He is best known for his discovery of the first human oncogene Ras in 1982 while as a ... Shih, C.; Weinberg, R.A. (1982). "Isolation of a transforming sequence from a human bladder carcinoma cell line". Cell. 29 (1 ...