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*  Joseph DeLee
2012). Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1. ISBN 1451171706. Rothman, Barbara Katz (1993). ... With a maternal mortality rate about one-quarter of the national average, DeLee's Chicago Lying-In Hospital became well- ...
*  Obstetric ultrasonography
"Fetal Keepsake Videos". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-21. "Statement on Measurement of the Fetal Heart Rate ... When attempting to obtain fetal heart rate with a diagnostic ultrasound system, the AIUM recommends using M-mode at first ... fetal heart function, volume evaluation, fetal lung maturity, and general fetus well being. Second-trimester ultrasound ... Fetal number, including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Fetal cardiac activity Fetal ...
*  Smoking and pregnancy
"The effect of cigarette smoking on fetal heart rate characteristics". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 99 (5 Pt 1): 751-5. doi: ... particularly congenital heart defects (structural defects in the heart of an infant that can hinder blood flow) than women who ... This increase in body fat may result from the effect smoking during pregnancy, which is thought to impact fetal genetic ... any affliction related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build-up). Studies indicate ...
*  Drugs in pregnancy
"The effect of cigarette smoking on fetal heart rate characteristics". Obstet Gynecol. 99 (5 Pt 1): 751-5. doi:10.1016/S0029- ... Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol ... From the third month to the end of nine months is the period of fetal maturation. Intake of drugs during this period may modify ... Pregnancy and fetal development progress through various changes. The period of one week from fertilisation to implantation of ...
*  Nonstress test
... is defined as the presence of two or more fetal heart rate accelerations within a 20-minute period, with or without fetal ... A cardiotocograph is used to monitor the fetal heart rate. The premise of the NST is that a well-oxygenated, non-acidemic fetus ... Nonreactive is defined as the presence of less than two fetal heart rate accelerations within a 20-minute period over a 40- ... A normal nonstress test will show a baseline fetal heart rate between 110-160 beats per minute with moderate variability (5-25 ...
*  Biophysical profile
The NST evaluates fetal heart rate and response to fetal movement. The five discrete biophysical variables: Fetal heart rate ... By comparison, a compromised fetus typically exhibits loss of accelerations of the fetal heart rate (FHR), decreased body ... Fetal breathing Fetal movement Fetal tone Amniotic fluid volume Use of vibroacoustic stimulation to accelerate evaluation has ... A BPP normally is not performed before the second half of a pregnancy, since fetal movements do not occur in the first half[ ...
*  Cardiotocography
... one above the fetal heart, to monitor heart rate and the other at the fundus of the uterus to measure frequency of contractions ... Moderate baseline fetal heart rate variability reflects the delivery of oxygen to the fetal central nervous system. Its ... or Sinusoidal fetal heart rate FIGO has recently modified the guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring, proposing following ... The fetal heart rate and the activity of the uterine muscle are detected by two transducers placed on the mother's abdomen ( ...
*  Partogram
Fetal heart rate: It is recorded at an interval of thirty minutes. State of membranes and colour of liquor: "I" designates ... Relevant measurements might include statistics such as cervical dilation, fetal heart rate, duration of labour and vital signs ... Pulse rate: It is also recorded in vertical lines at an interval of 30 minutes. Oxytocin: Concentration is noted down in upper ... A partogram or partograph is a composite graphical record of key data (maternal and fetal) during labour entered against time ...
*  List of South African inventions and discoveries
2008 Freeplay foetal heart rate monitor, a power-free foetal heart monitor. http://www.rooibostea.com/history-of-rooibos-tea. ... designtoimprovelife.dk/free-play-fetal-heart-rate-monitor/. ... Christiaan Barnard completed the world's first successful heart ... His invention has transformed cryosurgery (the use of extreme cold produced by liquid nitrogen) for gynaecology, lung, heart, ... 1999 Smartlock Safety syringe, a three part single use syringe credited with dramatically reducing HIV infection rates in South ...
*  Boris Petrikovsky
Fetal intensive care. J Sov Med 1980; 8:14-17. •Petrikovsky B.M and Vintzileos AM. Fetal heart rate monitoring during ... Journal of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Journal of Perinatology, Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine etc. Dr. Petrikovsky ... Petrikovsky B.M. Fetal Disorders Diagnosis and Management. New York: J.Wiley and Sons, Inc., translated into Polish by DW ... Fetal Diagn Ther 8 1993; (Suppl 2), 50. •Petrikovsky B.M. Endoscopic assessment of the integrity of the uterine wall prior to ...
*  Roberto Caldeyro-Barcia
The pair referred to the typical abnormal response of the fetal heart rate during labor as "type II DIP"; the term was later ... They defined normal and abnormal responses of the fetus through the continuous monitoring of fetal heart rate. ... Blander, Charles L. (December 2006). "Intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and the prevention of perinatal brain ... Caldeyro-Barcia and Alvarez developed a method to measure the effect of uterine contractions on fetal heart rate, which would ...
*  Doppler fetal monitor
Heart rate display: some Dopplers automatically display the heart rate on a built-in LCD; for others the fetal heart rate must ... Most practitioners can find the heart rate with either probe. A 3-MHz probe is recommended to detect a heart rate in early ... Ultrasonic sensor Cardiotocograph Nonstress test Roger K. Freeman, Thomas J. Garite, Michael P. Nageotte, Fetal Heart Rate ... It uses the Doppler effect to provide an audible simulation of the heart beat. Some models also display the heart rate in beats ...
*  Uterine hyperstimulation
... may result in fetal heart rate abnormalities, uterine rupture, or placental abruption. It is usually ...
*  Polyvagal theory
Reed, S. F., Ohel, G., David, R., & Porges, S. W. (1999). A neural explanation of fetal heart rate patterns: A test of the ... Healthy human fetuses have a high variability in heart rate, which is mediated by the vagus. On the other hand, heart rate ... a baseline or resting heart rate is produced. In other words, the vagus acts as a restraint, or brake, limiting heart rate. ... RSA is the widely used measure of the amplitude of heart rate rhythm associated with rate of spontaneous breathing. Research ...
*  Uterine tachysystole
Uterine hyperstimulation is when either condition leads to a nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern. Uterine tachysystole has ... Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 23 (7): 736-741. doi:10.3109/14767050903300951. PMID 19895350. Sheiner E, Biderman-Madar T, Katz M, Levy ... A, Hadar A, Mazor M (September 2004). "Higher rates of tachysystole among patients with clinically apparent uterine leiomyomas ...
*  Premature rupture of membranes
... fast maternal heart rate (>100 beats per minute), fast fetal heart rate (>160 beats per minute), or foul smelling amniotic ... Monitoring for infection: signs of infection include a fever in the mother, fetal tachycardia (fast heart rate of the fetus, > ... This can be done with ultrasound, electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, and uterine activity monitoring. This will also show ... increases the rates of both fetal death and maternal death, unless the source of instability is an intrauterine infection. In ...
*  Atosiban
... heart rate and bloodflow". J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 22 (6): 485-90. doi:10.1080/14767050802702349. Shim JY, Park YW, YoonBH ... a gestational age from 24 until 33 completed weeks a normal foetal heart rate Atosiban is useful in improving the pregnancy ... demonstrated for the first time the direct effects of atosiban on fetal movement, heart rate, and blood flow. Tocolysis with ... De Heus, R; Mulder, EJ; Derks, JB; Visser, GH (Jun 2009). "The effects of thetocolytics atosiban and nifedipine on fetal ...
*  Vibroacoustic stimulation
"Vibroacoustic stimulation for fetal assessment in labour in the presence of a nonreassuring fetal heart rate trace". The ... fetal heart rate) accelerations. The presence of FHR accelerations reliably predicts the absence of fetal metabolic acidemia. ... Fetal Heart Monitoring: Principles and Practices (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-7575-6234-1. ... "Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing". The Cochrane Library. 12: CD002963. doi:10.1002/ ...
*  Childbirth positions
There is also a 54% decreased incidence of foetal heart rate abnormalities when the mother is upright. These birthing positions ... Different positions may be associated with different rates of perineal injury. The squatting position gives a greater increase ...
*  EPAS1
Catecholamine production in the embryo is related to control of cardiac output by increasing the fetal heart rate. Tibetans ... homeostatic conditions so that both the delicate fetal heart and the adult heart do not overexert themselves and induce heart ... EPAS 1 is involved in the development of the embryonic heart and is expressed in the endothelial cells that line the walls of ... It is also important in the development of the heart, and maintaining catecholamine balance required for protection of the ...
*  Pinard horn
Doppler ultrasound Fetal heart rate Fetoscopy The term "fetoscope" now refers to the fetal endoscope used in fetoscopy. Robbie ... A midwife in Mexico describes using the Pinard horn: Sometimes we listen to the fetal heart rate with the Pinard, but if the ... A Pinard horn must be pressed to a location very close to the fetal heart in order to detect it, providing a more accurate ... A Pinard horn, formerly called a fetoscope, is a type of stethoscope used to listen the heart rate of a fetus during pregnancy ...
*  ST segment
"Fetal ST segment heart rate analysis in labor: Improvement of intervention criteria using interpolated base deficit". Journal ... This measure has a false positive rate of 15-20% (which is slightly higher in women than men) and a false negative rate of 20- ... In fetal electrocardiography, ST waveform analysis (sometimes abbreviated STAN) is used to get an indication of increasing ... levels of fetal base deficit. Sabatine MS (2000). Pocket Medicine (Pocket Notebook). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817 ...
*  Fetal scalp stimulation test
An acceleration of the fetal heart rate of 15 bpm lasting at least 15 seconds is suggestive of normal fetal outcome. Fetal ... Fetal scalp stimulation test is a diagnostic test used to detect fetal metabolic acidemia. It can be used as a non-invasive ... A firm digital pressure on head or a gentle pinch of fetal head with atraumatic clamp is used for stimulation. ... Skupski, DW; Rosenberg, CR; Eglinton, GS (January 2002). "Intrapartum fetal stimulation tests: a meta-analysis". Obstetrics and ...
*  Umbilical cord prolapse
Whenever there is a sudden decrease in fetal heart rate or abnormal fetal heart tracing, umbilical cord prolapse should be ... The first sign of umbilical cord prolapse is usually a sudden decrease in fetal heart rate that is severe and does not ... On a fetal heart tracing, this would usually look like moderate to severe variable decelerations. Occasionally, the cord can be ... spontaneous factors: fetal malpresentation: abnormal fetal lie tends to result in space below the fetus in the maternal pelvis ...
*  Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling
Fetal bradycardia, low heart rate, is another complication that may occur. Most cases of fetal bradycardia are self-resolved ... Also, if the fetus is viable, fetal heart rate is monitored post-procedure for one to two hours. After the blood samples are ... A documented case of puncturing a single umbilical artery during PUBS resulted in a decrease in the heart rate of the fetus ... Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). Berry SM, Stone J, Norton ME, Johnson D, Berghella V (2013). "Fetal blood sampling ...
*  Childbirth
... fetal heart rate abnormalities. Left untreated, severe complications include death of mother and/or baby, and genitovaginal ... More invasive monitoring can involve a fetal scalp electrode to give an additional measure of fetal heart activity, and/or ... similar to a Doppler fetal monitor, that continuously emits ultrasound and detects motion of the fetal heart by the ... This definition is based on Friedman's Curve, which plots the typical rate of cervical dilation and fetal descent during active ...