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*  Sensory systems in fish
The mechanoreceptors are hair cells, the same mechanoreceptors for vestibular sense and hearing. It is used primarily for ... These hair cells are embedded in a jelly-like protrusion called cupula. The hair cells therefore can not be seen and do not ... The sensory cells within neuromasts are polarized hair cells contained within a gelatinous cupula. The cupula, and the ... The receptors of the electrical sense are modified hair cells of the lateral line system. Fish and some aquatic amphibians ...
*  Ribbon synapse
... s are found in retinal photoreceptor cells, vestibular organ receptors, cochlear hair cells, retinal bipolar ... Postsynaptic structures differ for cochlear cells and photoreceptor cells. Hair cells is capable of one action potential ... did not affect inner hair cell ribbon synapse exocytosis in mice. Additionally, no neuronal SNAREs were observed in hair cells ... The hair cell ribbon synapse experiences spontaneous activity in the absence of stimuli, under conditions of a constant hair ...
*  Righting reflex
Vestibular afferent signals are carried by type I or type II hair cells, which are distinguished by a larger amount of ... stereocilia per cell in type I cells than in type II cells. Nerve fibers attached to these hair cells carry signals to the ... Input from the vestibular system is received by sensory receptors in the hair cells of the semicircular canals and the otoliths ... that houses specialized sensory hair cells. Fluid in these canals surrounds the hair cells, and moves across them as the head ...
*  Stimulus (physiology)
Neurons of the adjacent vestibular ganglia monitor the hair cells in these ducts. These sensory fibers form the vestibular ... Gustatory cells form on taste buds, specialized epithelial cells, and are generally turned over every ten days. From each cell ... Hair cells in these parts of the ear protrude kinocilia and stereocilia into a gelatinous material that lines the ducts of this ... Hair cells in the cochlear duct, specifically the organ of Corti, are deflected as waves of fluid and membrane motion travel ...
*  Sense
The mechanoreceptors are hair cells, the same mechanoreceptors for vestibular sense and hearing. It is used primarily for ... The vestibular nerve also conducts information from the utricle and the saccule, which contain hair-like sensory receptors that ... The receptors of the electrical sense are modified hair cells of the lateral line system. Polarized light direction/detection ... plants interpret and respond to these stimuli by a variety of hormonal and cell-to-cell communication pathways that result in ...
*  Olivocochlear system
... a determinant of nicotinic cholinergic receptor function in mammalian vestibular and cochlear mechanosensory hair cells". Proc ... an acetylcholine receptor with novel pharmacological properties expressed in rat cochlear hair cells". Cell. 79 (4): 705-15. ... The MOCS gives rise to a frequency-specific innervation of the cochlea, in that MOC fibres terminate on the outer hair cells at ... This enhancement may be caused by the activity of the MOCS on the outer hair cells resulting in antimasking. Although Scharf et ...
*  Hair cell
Slow adaptation is most prominent in vestibular hair cells that sense spatial movement and less in cochlear hair cells that ... The human cochlea contains on the order of 3,500 inner hair cells and 12,000 outer hair cells at birth. The outer hair cells ... Nerve fiber innervation is much denser for inner hair cells than for outer hair cells. A single inner hair cell is innervated ... and inner hair cells. Damage to these hair cells results in decreased hearing sensitivity, and because the inner ear hair cells ...
*  Stereocilia (inner ear)
Hair cells in the vestibular system are slightly different from those in the auditory system, in that vestibular hair cells ... In other vertebrates, if the hair cell is harmed, supporting cells will divide and replace the damaged hair cells. The ... Ohmori, H. (1985). "Mechano-electrical transduction currents in isolated vestibular hair cells of the chick". The Journal of ... Cations from the endolymph flow into the cell, depolarizing the hair cell and triggering the release of neurotransmitters to ...
*  MYO15A
"The motor and tail regions of myosin XV are critical for normal structure and function of auditory and vestibular hair cells". ... Studies in mice suggest that this protein is necessary for actin organization in the hair cells of the cochlea. Mutations in ...
*  Vestibular evoked myogenic potential
Each hair cell has about 70 stereocilia (short rod-like hair cells) and one kinocilium (long hair cell). Bickford et al. (1964 ... This includes ~7,000 hair cells from each of the semicircular canals located within the crista ampullaris, ~30,000 hair cells ... Located within the membranous labyrinthine walls of the vestibular system are approximately 67,000 hair cells in total. ... The VsEP is commonly divided into two sections: angular vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPA) and linear vestibular evoked ...
*  Saccule
The structures that enable the saccule to gather this vestibular information are the hair cells. The 2 by 3 mm patch of hair ... Within the macula are hair cells, each having a hair bundle on the apical aspect. The hair bundle is composed of a single ... Supporting cells interdigitate between hair cells and secrete the otolithic membrane, a thick, gelatinous layer of glycoprotein ... cells and supporting cells are called a macula. Each hair cell of a macula has 40 to 70 stereocilia and one true cilium called ...
*  Vestibular ganglion
... of the bipolar primary afferent neurons whose peripheral processes form synaptic contact with hair cells of the vestibular ... The vestibular ganglion (also called Scarpa's ganglion) is the ganglion of the vestibular nerve. It is located inside the ...
*  Utricle (ear)
The macula of utricle is a thickening in the wall of the utricle where the epithelium contains vestibular hair cells that ... The bottom layer is made of sensory hair cells which are embedded in the bottom of a gelatinous layer. Each hair cells consists ... The kinocilium is the only sensory aspect of the hair cell and is what causes hair cell polarization. The tips of these ... The macula of utricle, which lies horizontally on the floor of the utricle, contains the hair cells. These hair cells are ...
*  Vestibular nerve
In humans the vestibular nerve transmits sensory information transmitted by vestibular hair cells located in the two otolith ... It arises from bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion, ganglion of Scarpa, which is situated in the upper part of the outer ... Axons of the vestibular nerve synapse in the vestibular nucleus are found on the lateral floor and wall of the fourth ventricle ... The primary role of the vestibular nerve is to transform vestibular information (related to balance) into an egocentric frame ...
*  Endolymph
Inner ear illustration showing semicircular canal, hair cells, ampulla, cupula, vestibular nerve, & fluid Dark cell Perilymph ... Because the hair cells are at a negative potential of about -50 mV, the potential difference from endolymph to hair cell is on ... It is mainly this electrical potential difference that allows potassium ions to flow into the hair cells during mechanical ... is carried as the de-polarizing electric current in the hair cells. This is known as the mechano-electric transduction (MET) ...
*  Lateral line
This use of mechanosensitive hairs is homologous to the functioning of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, ... The receptive hair cells are modified epithelial cells and typically possess bundles of 40-50 microvilli "hairs" which function ... Each neuromast consists of receptive hair cells whose tips are covered by a flexible and jellylike cupula. Hair cells typically ... Hair cells utilize a system of transduction that uses rate coding in order to transmit the directionality of a stimulus. Hair ...
*  Vestibulospinal tract
The vestibular system is able to respond correctly by recording sensory information from hairs cells in the labyrinth of the ... The vestibulospinal tract is part of the vestibular system in the CNS. The primary role of the vestibular system is to maintain ... Vestibular compensation after unilateral or bilateral vestibular system damage can be accomplished by sensory addition and ... This movement stimulates the vestibular nerve as well as the vestibular nucleus. These impulses are transmitted down both the ...
*  Mechanoreceptor
Other mechanoreceptors than cutaneous ones include the hair cells, which are sensory receptors in the vestibular system of the ... Indeed, the most sensitive mechanoreceptors in humans are the hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear (no relation to the ... There are also mechanoreceptors in hairy skin, and the hair cells in thoreceptors of primates like rhesus monkeys and other ... Receptors in hair follicles sense when a hair changes position. ... The cell, however, will soon "adapt" to a constant or static ...
*  List of MeSH codes (A09)
... hair cells, vestibular MeSH A09.246.631.909.625.125.680 --- otolithic membrane MeSH A09.246.631.909.957 --- vestibular aqueduct ... hair cells MeSH A09.246.631.246.577.325.315 --- hair cells, inner MeSH A09.246.631.246.577.325.380 --- hair cells, outer MeSH ... hair cells, vestibular MeSH A09.246.631.909 --- vestibule of the ear MeSH A09.246.631.909.551 --- oval window MeSH A09.246. ... retinal bipolar cells MeSH A09.371.729.765 --- retinal ganglion cells MeSH A09.371.729.775 --- retinal horizontal cells MeSH ...
*  Gentamicin
First, damage of the inner ear hair cells can result in irreversible hearing loss. Second, damage to inner ear vestibular ... Gentamicin is also used in molecular biology research as an antibacterial agent in tissue and cell culture, to prevent ... Use cautiously in persons with renal, auditory, vestibular, or neuromuscular dysfunction. Gentamicin may not be appropriate to ...
*  Sensory nervous system
While mechanoreceptors are present in hair cells and play an integral role in the vestibular and auditory systems, the majority ... The receptive field is the area of the body or environment to which a receptor organ and receptor cells respond. For instance, ... "Vestibular cortex: its locations, functions, and disorders.". Vertigo. Springer. pp. 219-231. McKeeff, T. J., & Tong, F. (2007 ... in Histochemistry and Cell Biology, Vol 129:6 "eye, human." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference ...
*  Otolithic membrane
Ultimately, variations in hair cell polarity within the otolith organs produce patterns of vestibular nerve fiber activity that ... specifically small patches of hair cells. Overlying the hair cells and their hair bundles is a gelatinous layer and above that ... The mechanical coupling of the otoconia to the hair cell sensory sterocilia at the surface of the vestibular sensory epithelium ... This displacement of the hair bundles generates a receptor potential in the hair cells. In addition to aiding in the sensing of ...
*  Otic vesicle
... gives rise to the support cells and hair cells while the neurogenic sub-domain gives rise to the auditory neuron and vestibular ... Neural crest cells will migrate rostral and caudal to the placode. The general sequence in formation of the otic vesicle is ... Sensory epithelial cells and neurons are derived from the proneurosensory domain. This domain can be further sub-categorized ... The vestibular extremity subsequently constricts to form the canalis reuniens. The central part of the otic vesicle represents ...
*  Ear
The cochlea consists of three fluid-filled spaces: the vestibular duct, the cochlear duct, and the tympanic duct. Hair cells ... The microscopic "hairs" of these cells are structural protein filaments that project out into the fluid. The hair cells are ... The hollow channels of the inner ear are filled with liquid, and contain a sensory epithelium that is studded with hair cells. ... Inner ear There are two principal damage mechanisms to the inner ear in industrialised society, and both injure hair cells. The ...
*  Vestibulocochlear nerve
The other two sensory organs supplied by the vestibular neurons are the maculae of the saccule and utricle. Hair cells of the ... The vestibular nerve travels from the vestibular system of the inner ear. The vestibular ganglion houses the cell bodies of the ... This is the nerve along which the sensory cells (the hair cells) of the inner ear transmit information to the brain. It ... It is the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti that are responsible for activation of afferent receptors in response to ...
*  Peripheral neuropathy
... not all nerve cells are affected in any particular case. In distal axonopathy, one common pattern is that the cell bodies of ... hair, and nails. Additionally, motor neuropathy may cause impaired balance and coordination or, most commonly, muscle weakness ... Brachial neuritis Cranial neuritis such as Bell's palsy Optic neuritis Vestibular neuritis Wartenberg's migratory sensory ... In cases of polyneuropathy, many nerve cells in various parts of the body are affected, without regard to the nerve through ...