*  KCNB1
... auditory outer hair cells, stem cells, the retina, and organs such as the heart and pancreas. Modulation of K+ channel activity ... In human pancreatic ß cells, KCNB1, which mediates potassium efflux, produces a downstroke of the action potential in the cell ... These neuronal modifications may explain the atrophy of cell layer volume and late stage cell death observed in HAD disease. ... Yang SN, Shi Y, Yang G, Li Y, Yu J, Berggren PO (November 2014). "Ionic mechanisms in pancreatic β cell signaling". Cellular ...
*  Auditory system
Efferent synapses occur on outer hair cells and on afferent (towards the brain) dendrites under inner hair cells The cochlear ... Outer hair cells are a motor structure. Sound energy causes changes in the shape of these cells, which serves to amplify sound ... which is what elicits the hair cells' electrical responses. Inner hair cells, like the photoreceptor cells of the eye, show a ... There are far fewer inner hair cells in the cochlea than afferent nerve fibers - many auditory nerve fibers innervate each hair ...
*  Hair cell
Stauffer, E. A.; Holt, J. R. (2007). "Sensory transduction and adaptation in inner and outer hair cells of the mouse auditory ... The human cochlea contains on the order of 3,500 inner hair cells and 12,000 outer hair cells at birth. The outer hair cells ... Nerve fiber innervation is much denser for inner hair cells than for outer hair cells. A single inner hair cell is innervated ... without functioning outer hair cells, the sensitivity decreases by approximately 50 dB[citation needed]. Outer hair cells ...
*  Prestin
... is essential in auditory processing. It is specifically expressed in the lateral membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs) of ... It is highly expressed in the outer hair cells, and is not expressed in the nonmotile inner hair cells. Immunolocalization ... Liberman MC, Gao J, He DZ, Wu X, Jia S, Zuo J (2002). "Prestin is required for electromotility of the outer hair cell and for ... Liberman MC, Gao J, He DZ, Wu X, Jia S, Zuo J (September 2002). "Prestin is required for electromotility of the outer hair cell ...
*  Auditory masking
Damage to the cochlea and the outer hair cells in the cochlea can impair the ability to tell sounds apart (Moore 1986). This ... Auditory masking occurs when the perception of one sound is affected by the presence of another sound. Auditory masking in the ... This can be explained by the auditory system having an auditory filter which is centered over the frequency of the tone. The ... which means they can hear the signal more clearly hence causing an improvement of auditory performance. Auditory masking is ...
*  Auditory neuropathy
... (AN) is a variety of hearing loss in which the outer hair cells within the cochlea are present and ... the inner hair cells of the cochlea, the synapse between the inner hair cells and the auditory nerve, or a lesion of the ... Also known as auditory neuropathy/auditory dys-synchrony (AN/AD) or auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). A neuropathy ... Audiologist Auditory brainstem response Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder Auditory processing disorder Cochlear implant ...
*  Peter Dallos
Properties of auditory nerve responses in the absence of outer hair cells, J.Neurophysiol. 41: 365-383 (1978) Dallos, P., J. ... notably 50-60 dB amplification by outer hair cells [2.7] First intracellular recordings from outer hair cells in vivo; first ... Absence of cochlear outer hair cells: Effect on behavioural auditory threshold, Nature 253: 44-46 (1975) Dallos, P. and D. ... Discovery that inner hair cells respond to basilar membrane velocity [2.6] Demonstration that in the absence of outer hair ...
*  Cochlea
... and the short hair cell, lacking afferent auditory-nerve fiber innervation, resembles the outer hair cell. One unavoidable ... Three rows consist of outer hair cells (OHCs) and one row consists of inner hair cells (IHCs). The inner hair cells provide the ... In birds, for instance, instead of outer and inner hair cells, there are tall and short hair cells. There are several ... The organ of Corti vibrates due to outer hair cells further amplifying these vibrations. Inner hair cells are then displaced by ...
*  Basilar membrane
... which are transmitted to the auditory pathway. The outer hair cells feed back energy to amplify the traveling wave, by up to 65 ... the hair cells that are equipped with "Stereocilia". There are approximately 15,000 hair cells in each human ear (see figure). ... lie about 3,500 inner hair cells spaced in a single row. Each cell is attached to a tiny triangular frame. The 'hairs' are ... Due to its location, the basilar membrane places the hair cells in a position where they are adjacent to both the endolymph and ...
*  Audiology and hearing health professionals in developed and developing countries
... and auditory brainstem response (ABR). An OAE is an electrophysiologic measure of the integrity of the outer hair cells in the ... OAEs are an objective tool that can be used to measure the integrity of the outer hair cells in the cochlear; however, test ... Roeser, R. J., & Clark, J. L. (2004). Screening for auditory disorders. Auditory Disorders in School Children, 105. McPherson, ... However, 500 Hz has been found to identify the auditory impact of otitis media with effusion in children and should be included ...
*  Prostaglandin EP4 receptor
... attenuated threshold shifts of auditory brain stem responses and significantly reduced the loss of outer hair cells caused by ... trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, conjunctival stromal cells, and iridal stromal cells of the eye; and gingival fibroblasts ... Its activation also: a) supports the development of Regulatory T cells (i.e. suppressor T cells that modulate the immune system ... cell growth, and cell survival (see NF-κB#Structure). The activation of these pathways lead to variety of different types of ...
*  Computational auditory scene analysis
Additional models of the hair cells include the Meddis hair cell model which pairs with the gammatone filter bank, by modeling ... Consisting of three areas, the outer, middle and inner ear, the auditory periphery acts as a complex transducer that converts ... Meddis, R., Hewitt, M., Shackleton, T. (1990). "Implementation details of a computational model of the inner hair-cell/auditory ... The axons of these cells make up the auditory nerve, encoding the rectified stimulus. The auditory nerve responses select ...
*  Cochlear amplifier
... waves between rows of outer hair cells{?} Braun 1994 : Tuned hair cells for hearing, but tuned basilar membrane for overload ... The Physical Basis of the Action of the Cochlea Kemp 1978 : Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system ... In the mammalian cochlea, amplification occurs in the outer hair cells of the Organ of Corti. These cells sit directly above a ... This, in turn, influences the deflection of the hair bundles of the inner hair cells. These cells are in contact with afferent ...
*  Organ of Corti
The organ of Corti is also capable of modulating the auditory signal. The outer hair cells (OHCs) can amplify the signal ... and one row of inner hair cells (IHCs). Separating these hair cells are supporting cells: Deiters cells, also called phalangeal ... known as hair cells. Strategically positioned on the basilar membrane of the organ of Corti are three rows of outer hair cells ... "Epithelial supporting cells can differentiate into outer hair cells and Deiters' cells in the cultured organ of Corti". ...
*  Olivocochlear system
The MOCS gives rise to a frequency-specific innervation of the cochlea, in that MOC fibres terminate on the outer hair cells at ... Apr 2000). "Auditory perception in vestibular neurectomy subjects". Hear Res. 142 (1-2): 102-12. doi:10.1016/S0378-5955(00) ... This enhancement may be caused by the activity of the MOCS on the outer hair cells resulting in antimasking. Although Scharf et ... Electrophysiological responses recorded from outer hair cells following ACh stimulation therefore show a small inward current ( ...
*  Interaural time difference
Type I fibres innervate the base of one or two inner hair cells and Type II fibres innervate the outer hair cells. Both leave ... The auditory nerve fibres, known as the afferent nerve fibres, carry information from the organ of Corti to the brainstem and ... The AVCN also contain cells with more complex firing patterns than bushy cells called multipolar cells, these cells have ... The type I fibres are thicker than the type II fibres and may also differ in how they innervate the inner hair cells. Neurons ...
*  Sensory neuron
... inner and outer. The inner hair cells are the sensory receptors . Problems with sensory neurons associated with the auditory ... This mechanoelectrical transduction is mediated with hair cells within the ear. Depending on the movement, the hair cell can ... The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, ... which poison hair cells. Through the use of these toxins, the K+ pumping hair cells cease their function. Thus, the energy ...
*  Superior olivary complex
... which innervates cochlear outer hair cells. These cells contain electromotile fibers, and act as mechanical amplifiers/ ... Made up of a heterogeneous population of cells, this nucleus projects to many auditory nuclei, and forms the medial ... Additional projections form the lateral olivocochlear bundle (LOC), which innervates cochlear inner hair cells. These ... The nucleus projects to both IC, with no cells projecting bilaterally. Located ventral to the LSO AVCN spherical bushy cells ...
*  Spiral ganglion
They innervate the outer hair cells, with each Type II neuron sampling many (15-20) outer hair cells. In addition, outer hair ... Their dendrites make synaptic contact with the base of hair cells, and their axons are bundled together to form the auditory ... JB Nadol Jr (1990). "Synaptic morphology of inner and outer hair cells of the human organ of Corti". J Elect Micr Tech. Slide ... and exclusively innervate the inner hair cells. They are myelinated, bipolar neurons. Type II spiral ganglion cells make up the ...
*  Auditory fatigue
The outer hair cells, or OHCs, can be thought of as microamplifiers that provide stimulation to the inner hair cells. The OHCs ... The remainder of this article mainly references the cochlea, outer hair cells, and organ of Corti. In general, structural ... are the most fragile of the hair cells, hence their involvement in auditory fatigue and other hearing impairments. Temporary ... Auditory fatigue is defined as a temporary loss of hearing after exposure to sound. This results in a temporary shift of the ...
*  Neuronal encoding of sound
Cochlear hair cells are organized as inner hair cells and outer hair cells; inner and outer refer to relative position from the ... The auditory hair cells in the cochlea are at the core of the auditory system's special functionality (similar hair cells are ... Outer hair cells primarily provide amplification of traveling waves that are induced by sound energy, while inner hair cells ... Type II neurons can be physiologically manipulated to innervate inner hair cells provided outer hair cells have been destroyed ...
*  Presbycusis
... it contains hair cells with stereocilia, which extend to the tectorial membrane. The organ's outer hair cells play a ... Auditory hair cell loss is permanent damage due to the inability of these cells to regenerate. Therefore, deafness due to this ... Hair cell development is mediated by Notch signaling, which exerts lateral inhibition onto hair cells. Notch signaling in ... If the outer hair cells are damaged, they do not regenerate. This results in a loss of sensitivity of hearing, as well as an ...
*  Critical band
When only the outer hair cells are damaged the filter is broader on the low frequency side. When both the outer and inner hair ... Auditory filters are closely associated with masking in the way they are measured and also the way they work in the auditory ... There are approximately between 15,000 and 16,000 of these hair cells in one ear. Outer hair cells have stereocilia projecting ... This is because the frequency selectivity and the tuning of the basilar membrane is reduced as the outer hair cells are damaged ...
*  Cochlear nerve
Type II neurons make up the remaining 5-10% of the neurons and innervate the outer hair cells. They have relatively small ... The peripheral axons of auditory nerve fibers form synaptic connections with the hair cells of the cochlea via ribbon synapses ... Each type I axon innervates only a single inner hair cell, but each inner hair cell is innervated by up to 30 such nerve fibers ... Type I neurons make up 90-95% of the neurons and innervate the inner hair cells. They have relatively large diameters, are ...
*  Noise-induced hearing loss
Structural damage to hair cells (primarily the outer hair cells) will result in hearing loss that can be characterized by an ... Thinning of the myelin sheath on the auditory nerve significantly slows the transmission of electrical signals from hair cell ... hairs of the hair-cells; damaged hair-cells degeneration. In humans, dead hair-cells are never replaced; the resulting hearing ... The cell death of two supporting hair cells rapidly expands their apical domain, which compresses the hair cell beneath its ...
*  Otoacoustic emission
Several lines of evidence suggest that, in mammals, outer hair cells are the elements that enhance cochlear sensitivity and ... Auditory brainstem response Entoptic phenomenon Maryanne Amacher, a composer who used this phenomenon in her music Pure tone ... It is speculated, however, that colds, medication, trimming one's ear hair, or recording and playing back a signal to the ... Otoacoustic emissions also assist in differential diagnosis of cochlear and higher level hearing losses (e.g., auditory ...