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*  Ribbon synapse
Safieddine, S; El-Amraoui, A; Petit, C (2012). "The auditory hair cell ribbon synapse: from assembly to function". Annual ... Postsynaptic structures differ for cochlear cells and photoreceptor cells. Hair cells is capable of one action potential ... did not affect inner hair cell ribbon synapse exocytosis in mice. Additionally, no neuronal SNAREs were observed in hair cells ... The protein otoferlin is observed phenotypically in human auditory inner hair cells, and abnormal expression has been linked ...
*  Sensory maps
Hair cells in the auditory system display tonotopic organization. This tonotopic arrangement means that cells are laid out to ... No part of the physical system in the eyes actually analyzes for features like simple cells in the brain do. This system is ... The neural system computes this ITD in the Owl Auditory System and the real neural system was found to almost exactly match the ... This sensory map exaggerates certain regions that have many peripheral sense cells like the lips and hands while reduces the ...
*  Sense of balance
"The Kinocilium of Auditory Hair Cells and Evidence for Its Morphogenet." Ic Role during the Regeneration of Stereocilia and ... auditory, proprioceptive, and balance info to act out body and limb movements. Trigeminal and dorsal column (of spinal cord) ...
*  Sensorineural hearing loss
Thus, an increase in firing rate of the auditory neurons connected to the hair cell occurs. On the other hand, the bending of ... Sensory hearing loss often occurs as a consequence of damaged or deficient cochlear hair cells.[disputed - discuss] Hair cells ... Thus, a decrease in firing rate of the auditory neurons connected to the hair cell occurs. OHCs are unique in that they are ... Safieddine, Saaid; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine (2012). "The Auditory Hair Cell Ribbon Synapse: From Assembly to Function ...
*  Hair cell
Through mechanotransduction, hair cells detect movement in their environment. In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located ... The human cochlea contains on the order of 3,500 inner hair cells and 12,000 outer hair cells at birth. The outer hair cells ... Nerve fiber innervation is much denser for inner hair cells than for outer hair cells. A single inner hair cell is innervated ... and inner hair cells. Damage to these hair cells results in decreased hearing sensitivity, and because the inner ear hair cells ...
*  Development of the nervous system
ATP release from supporting cells triggers action potentials in inner hair cells. In the auditory system, spontaneous activity ... In the developing auditory system, developing cochlea generate bursts of activity which spreads across the inner hair cells and ... where the principal neural stem cell is the radial glial cell. The first postmitotic cells must leave the stem cell niche and ... In explant cultures (which allow direct cell-cell interactions) the same cells differentiate into epidermis. This is due to the ...
*  Auditory system
... which is what elicits the hair cells' electrical responses. Inner hair cells, like the photoreceptor cells of the eye, show a ... There are far fewer inner hair cells in the cochlea than afferent nerve fibers - many auditory nerve fibers innervate each hair ... There are two types of hair cells. Inner hair cells are the mechanoreceptors for hearing: they transduce the vibration of sound ... Efferent synapses occur on outer hair cells and on afferent (towards the brain) dendrites under inner hair cells The cochlear ...
*  Special senses
2011). "Integrating the biophysical and molecular mechanisms of auditory hair cell mechanotransduction". Nat Commun. 2: 523. ... Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the ... Sweet, umami, and bitter tastes are triggered by the binding of molecules to G protein-coupled receptors on the cell membranes ... Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds ...
*  Hearing
Basilar membrane motion causes depolarization of the hair cells, specialized auditory receptors located within the organ of ... 2011). "Integrating the biophysical and molecular mechanisms of auditory hair cell mechanotransduction". Nat Commun. 2: 523. ... 2011). "Integrating the biophysical and molecular mechanisms of auditory hair cell mechanotransduction". Nat Commun. 2: 523. ... While the hair cells do not produce action potentials themselves, they release neurotransmitter at synapses with the fibers of ...
*  GJB6
The cochlea contains two cell types, auditory hair cells for mechanotransduction and supporting cells. Gap junction channels ... Cx26 null mice displayed more rapid and widespread cell death than Cx30 null mice. The percent hair cell loss was less ... An experiment with Cx30 null mice found deficits in lesion closure and repair of the organ of Corti following hair cell loss, ... Gap junctions serve the important purpose of recycling potassium ions that pass through hair cells during mechanotransduction ...
*  Taicatoxin
"Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of voltage-gated calcium currents in turtle auditory hair cells". J. Physiol. ... on the outer hair cells of guinea pig prevented the cell shortening induced by high K+ (50 mM) and the cell elongation induced ... TCX is involved in the outer hair cell motility too, by blocking the calcium traffic and preventing the cell shortening and ... "Taicatoxin inhibits the calcium-dependent slow motility of mammalian outer hair cells". Hear. Res. 203 (1-2): 172-9. doi: ...
*  Nasodigitoacoustic syndrome
"Mammalian auditory hair cell regeneration/repair and protection: A review and future directions". Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal. ... Sensorineural hearing loss in humans may be caused by a loss of hair cells (sensory receptors in the inner ear that are ... The auditory, or "acoustic" abnormalities observed with the syndrome include sensorineural hearing loss and hoarseness. Two ...
*  BAPTA
"The endogenous calcium buffer and the time course of transducer adaptation in auditory hair cells". The Journal of Neuroscience ...
*  Computational auditory scene analysis
Additional models of the hair cells include the Meddis hair cell model which pairs with the gammatone filter bank, by modeling ... Meddis, R., Hewitt, M., Shackleton, T. (1990). "Implementation details of a computational model of the inner hair-cell/auditory ... The axons of these cells make up the auditory nerve, encoding the rectified stimulus. The auditory nerve responses select ... Since the hair cells produce spike patterns, each filter of the model should also produce a similar spike in the impulse ...
*  Examples of in vivo transdifferentiation by lineage-instructive approach
"Auditory hair cell replacement and hearing improvement by Atoh1 gene therapy in deaf mammals". Nature Medicine. 11 (3): 271-276 ... B cells (Pdx1, Ngn3, and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein A) nonsensory cells → inner hair cells ( ... Generating Desired Cell Types from Abundant and Accessible Cells". Stem Cells. 29 (12): 1933-1941. doi:10.1002/stem.760. PMID ... granulosa and thecal cells → functional Sertoli-like and Leydig-like cells (-Foxl1) Transdifferentiation Induced stem cells ...
*  MCOLN3
Mutations of the MCOLN3 gene in mice result in auditory hair cell death and deafness. transient receptor potential cation ... Grimm C, Jörs S, Heller S (2009). "Life and Death of Sensory Hair Cells Expressing Constitutively Active TRPML3". J. Biol. Chem ... inward rectifying currents and causes cell degeneration". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (1): 353-8. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
*  Volley theory
Later, Friedrich Voltolini added on by proposing that every auditory hair cell is stimulated by any sound. Correspondingly, ... This allowed strobe imaging to capture the movement of the membrane as sounds stimulated the hair cells. This led to the ... In 1886, Rutherford also proposed that the brain interpreted the vibrations of the hair cells and that the cochlea did no ... Attempts to electrically record from the auditory nerve began as early as 1896. Electrodes were placed into the auditory nerve ...
*  Neuronal encoding of sound
The auditory hair cells in the cochlea are at the core of the auditory system's special functionality (similar hair cells are ... Cochlear hair cells are organized as inner hair cells and outer hair cells; inner and outer refer to relative position from the ... The relatively small number of the auditory hair cells is surprising when compared to other sensory cells such as the rods and ... Outer hair cells primarily provide amplification of traveling waves that are induced by sound energy, while inner hair cells ...
*  Evolution of the cochlea
Koeppl, C; Forge, A; Manley, GM (2004). "Low density of membrane particles in auditory hair cells of lizards and birds suggests ... on the inner side of which there are inner hair cells and outer hair cells on the outer side. The definitive mammalian middle ... This high concentration is not found in inner hair cells, and is also lacking in all hair cell types of non-mammals. Prestin ... mammals the number of inner hair-cell rows is one, and there are generally only three rows of outer hair cells. Amphibians have ...
*  Usher syndrome
"Auditory cortex interneuron development requires cadherins operating hair-cell mechanoelectrical transduction". Proceedings of ... The hearing impairment associated with Usher syndrome is better understood: damaged hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear ... These genes function in the development and maintenance of inner ear structures such as hair cells (stereocilia), which ... a degeneration of the retinal cells. Usually, the rod cells of the retina are affected first, leading to early night blindness ...
*  Neural adaptation
Peng, A. W.; Gnanasambandam, R; Sachs, F; Ricci, A. J. (2016). "Adaptation Independent Modulation of Auditory Hair Cell ... The mechanoreception of sound requires a specific set of receptor cells called Hair Cells that allow for gradient signals to ... Auditory adaptation, as perceptual adaptation with other senses, is the process by which individuals adapt to sounds and noises ... Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms ...
*  Sound localization in owls
The axons of the auditory nerve originate from the hair cells of the cochlea in the inner ear. Different sound frequencies are ... Both parameters are carried by each fiber of the auditory nerve. The fibers of the auditory nerve innervate both cochlear ... These space-specific neurons can thus form a map of auditory space in which the positions of receptive fields in space are ... A Neural Map of Auditory Space in the Owl. Science. Vol. 200, 19 May 1978: 795-797 Konishi, Masakazu and Susan F. Volman, 1994 ...
*  Hearing range
Information gathered from the hair cells is sent via the auditory nerve for processing in the brain. The commonly stated range ... The differences in auditory systems have led to extensive research on aquatic mammals, specifically on dolphins. The auditory ... and the hairs within it, called stereocilia. These hairs line the cochlea from base to apex, and the part stimulated and the ... Comparative auditory sensitivity of man and dog. Amer J Psychol 55:84-89. HE Heffner. 1983. Hearing in large and small dogs: ...
*  Stimulus modality
... auditory hair cells at the base of the basilar membrane while medium frequency sounds cause vibrations of auditory hair cells ... The human ear is able to detect differences in pitch through the movement of auditory hair cells found on the basilar membrane ... The number of hair cells that are stimulated is thought to communicate loudness in low pitch frequencies. Aside from pitch and ... When a louder sound is heard, more hair cells are stimulated and the intensity of firing of axons in the cochlear nerve is ...
*  Allyl cyanide
Studies performed on rats showed that allyl cyanide cause loss of hair cells in the auditory system and troubling of the cornea ... These mice were furthermore shown to suffer from neuronal contractions, possibly leading to cell death. Sheep are far more ... Allyl Isothiocyanate and Allyl Cyanide Production in Cell-Free Cabbage Leaf Extracts, Shredded Cabbage, and Cole Slaw / J. ...
*  Hemoencephalography
The PFC is an ideal target for HEG due to both its location on the scalp (behind the forehead, where there is no hair to ... Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected ... red/infrared light refraction is displayed as a visual signal on a computer monitor and may also be translated into an auditory ... Due to interference from hair, only the forehead or bald regions of the scalp can be trained using current technology, whereas ...