###### Metopon
... (5-methyldihydromorphone) is an opioid analogue that is a methylated derivative of hydromorphone which was invented in 1929 as an analgesic. Metopon is sometimes used in medicine, although longer acting than hydromorphone, Metopon is less potent and its oral bioavailability is fairly low. Generally, Metopon has few advantages to distinguish it from other, more commonly used opioid analgesics, although it does have a slightly lower tendency to produce nausea and respiratory depression compared to morphine. In Canada, as of 1948, the hydrochloride of metopon (free base conversion ratio 0.891, molecular weight 335.8) was available only for oral administration for malignant pain and for maintenance of those habituated to morphine; the only dosage form available was singly scored 8 mg tablets. It was manufactured by Parke, Davis, & Co., and was only for sale to doctors and hospitals. Parke, Davis & Co. did not sell metopon to pharmacies. It is unknown whether metopon tablets are still ...
###### Split-octonion
In mathematics, the split-octonions are an 8-dimensional nonassociative algebra over the real numbers. Unlike the standard octonions, they contain non-zero elements which are non-invertible. Also the signatures of their quadratic forms differ: the split-octonions have a split-signature (4,4) whereas the octonions have a positive-definite signature (8,0). Up to isomorphism, the octonions and the split-octonions are the only two octonion algebras over the real numbers. There are corresponding split octonion algebras over any field F. The octonions and the split-octonions can be obtained from the Cayley-Dickson construction by defining a multiplication on pairs of quaternions. We introduce a new imaginary unit ℓ and write a pair of quaternions (a, b) in the form a + ℓb. The product is defined by the rule: ( a + ℓ b ) ( c + ℓ d ) = ( a c + λ d ¯ b ) + ℓ ( d a + b c ¯ ) {\displaystyle (a+\ell b)(c+\ell d)=(ac+\lambda {\bar {d}}b)+\ell (da+b{\bar {c}})} where λ = ℓ 2 . {\displaystyle ...
###### Brain and Cognition
... is an American scientific journal founded in 1982. It covers the fields of cognitive neuroscience and psychophysiology. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 2.432, ranking it 160th out of 253 journals in the category "Neurosciences", and 31st out of 84 journals in the category "Psychology, experimental". "Journals Ranked by Impact: Neurosciences and Psychology, experimental". 2015 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Social Sciences ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2016 ...
... (Arabic الدكتور محمد علي الرفاعي) is a Syrian American internist and psychiatrist and a clinician researcher known for describing the association between psychiatric disorders and hepatitis C. He co-authored a clinical report detailing the association between hepatitis C infection and psychiatric disorders. Rifai is the Director of the Older Adults Behavioral Health Unit at Easton Hospital in Easton, Pennsylvania. He is the President and CEO of Blue Mountain Psychiatry which has locations in Pennsylvania. In May 2000, Rifai was awarded the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education's Janssen Scholars Fellowship for research on severe mental illness. In 2006, he became the recipient of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine's William Webb Fellowship. As of 2007, he is a fellow of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. He is also a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American Psychiatric Association. He is a clinical professor ...
###### Mind-body dualism
... , or mind-body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct and separable. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and between subject and object, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism and enactivism, in the mind-body problem. Aristotle shared Plato's view of multiple souls and further elaborated a hierarchical arrangement, corresponding to the distinctive functions of plants, animals, and people: a nutritive soul of growth and metabolism that all three share; a perceptive soul of pain, pleasure, and desire that only people and other animals share; and the faculty of reason that is unique to people only. In this view, a soul is the hylomorphic form of a viable organism, wherein each level of the hierarchy formally supervenes upon the substance of the preceding level. Thus, for Aristotle, all three souls perish when ...
###### Hunger (motivational state)
Psychological states appear to play a role in short-term food intake. Merely repeatedly imagining the consumption of a food, for example, can reduce the subsequent actual consumption of that food by reducing the motivation to consume it.[10] Two psychological processes appear to be involved in regulating short-term food intake: liking and wanting. Liking refers to the palatability or taste of the food, which is reduced by repeated consumption. Wanting is the motivation to consume the food, which is also reduced by repeated consumption of a food[11] and may be due to change in memory-related processes.[12] Wanting can be triggered by a variety of psychological processes. Thoughts of a food may intrude on consciousness and be elaborated on, for instance, as when one sees a commercial or smells a desirable food.[13] Eating one food can induce a craving for its complements, foods that are perceived to add pleasure to the consumption of that food, by priming a goal to consume those foods.[14] ...
###### Solipsism syndrome
... refers to a psychological state in which a person feels that the world is not external to his or her mind. Periods of extended isolation may predispose people to this condition. In particular, the syndrome has been identified as a potential concern for individuals living in outer space for extended periods of time. Individuals experiencing solipsism syndrome feel that the world is not 'real' in the sense of being external to their own minds. The syndrome is characterized by feelings of loneliness, detachment and indifference to the outside world. Solipsism syndrome is not currently recognized as a psychiatric disorder by the American Psychiatric Association, though it shares similarities with depersonalization disorder, which is recognized. Solipsism syndrome is distinct from solipsism, which is not a psychological state but rather a philosophical position, namely that nothing exists or can be known to exist outside of one's own mind; advocates of this philosophy do not ...
###### Fantasy prone personality
... (FPP) is a disposition or personality trait in which a person experiences a lifelong extensive and deep involvement in fantasy. This disposition is an attempt, at least in part, to better describe "overactive imagination" or "living in a dream world". An individual with this trait (termed a fantasizer) may have difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality and may experience hallucinations, as well as self-suggested psychosomatic symptoms. Closely related psychological constructs include daydreaming, absorption and eidetic memory. American psychologists Sheryl C. Wilson and Theodore X. Barber first identified FPP in 1981, said to apply to about 4% of the population. Besides identifying this trait, Wilson and Barber reported a number of childhood antecedents that likely laid the foundation for fantasy proneness in later life, such as, "a parent, grandparent, teacher, or friend who encouraged the reading of fairy tales, reinforced the child's ... fantasies, and ...
###### Le Roy, New York
Beginning in August 2011, 14 students (13 girls and one boy) from the LeRoy Junior-Senior High School began reporting myriad perplexing medical symptoms including verbal outbursts, tics, seizure activity and speech difficulty.[8] In mid-January, five days after a community meeting in which the New York State Department of Health stated their diagnosis could not be revealed publicly due to privacy concerns, two of the girls appeared on NBC's Today Show to discuss their frustration with not getting adequate answers.[9] The next day, Dr. Laszlo Mechtler, a neurologist treating most of the girls, was given permission to share the diagnosis of conversion disorder and mass psychogenic illness. Unsatisfied with the investigation's results, the girls and their parents spoke out publicly against their diagnosis, stating they believed the situation warranted further scrutiny from outside sources. Alternative medical theories for condition were suggested, including Tourette syndrome and PANDAS, which Dr. ...
###### Pied Piper of Hamelin
A number of theories suggest that children died of some natural causes such as disease or starvation[6] and that the Piper was a symbolic figure of Death. Analogous themes which are associated with this theory include the Dance of Death, Totentanz or Danse Macabre, a common medieval trope. Some of the scenarios that have been suggested as fitting this theory include that the children drowned in the river Weser, were killed in a landslide or contracted some disease during an epidemic. Another modern interpretation reads the story as alluding to an event where Hamelin children were lured away by a pagan or heretic sect to forests near Coppenbrügge (the mysterious Koppen "hills" of the poem) for ritual dancing where they all perished during a sudden landslide or collapsing sinkhole.[7]. Some theories have linked the disappearance of the children to Mass Psychogenic Illness in the form of Dancing mania. Dancing mania outbreaks occurred during the 13th century, including one in 1237 in which a large ...
###### Da Costa's syndrome
... , which was colloquially known as soldier's heart, is a syndrome with a set of symptoms that are similar to those of heart disease, though a physical examination does not reveal any physiological abnormalities. In modern times, Da Costa's syndrome is considered the manifestation of an anxiety disorder, and treatment is primarily behavioral, involving modifications to lifestyle and exercise. The condition was named after Jacob Mendes Da Costa, who investigated and described the disorder during the American Civil War. It is also variously known as cardiac neurosis, chronic asthenia, effort syndrome, functional cardiovascular disease, neurocirculatory asthenia, primary neurasthenia, subacute asthenia and irritable heart. The World Health Organization classifies this condition as a somatoform autonomic dysfunction (a type of psychosomatic disorder) in their ICD-10 coding system. In their ICD-9 system, it was classified under non-psychotic mental disorders. The syndrome is also ...
###### Hysteria (2011 film)
Set at the end of 1880, the film depicts the invention of the vibrator. Dr. Mortimer Granville (Hugh Dancy) is a young physician who has difficulty with his occupation due to constant arguments over modern medicine. He gets a job assisting Dr. Dalrymple (Jonathan Pryce), whose practice specializes in the treatment of "hysteria", a popular diagnosis for women of that time. Medical practitioners like Dr. Dalrymple tried to manage hysteria by massaging the genital area, decently covered under a curtain, to elicit "paroxysmal convulsions", without recognizing that they were inducing orgasms. Granville meets Dr. Dalrymple's daughters, Emily (Felicity Jones), and her older sister Charlotte (Maggie Gyllenhaal), a premodern feminist who runs a settlement house in a poor section of London.. Granville seems to be good at massaging, getting a sizeable following, while at the same time Dr. Dalrymple suggests he might eventually take over the business and marry Emily. One night after work, Charlotte comes in ...
###### Cuéllar
... (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkweʎar]) is a small Town and Municipality in the Province of Segovia, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, in Spain. It had a population of 9,725 in 2011. The town is settled on a hill, and it is 60 km north-east of the capital city of Segovia, and 50 km south of Valladolid. It has an extension of 272 km² and it is 857 m above sea level. Flowing though the town are the rivers Cerquilla and Cega. To the north, the town borders the municipality of Bahabón (province of Valladolid); to the south it borders Sanchonuño; to the east is Frumales; and to the west are the municipalities of San Cristóbal de Cuéllar and Vallelado. Cuéllar has a long-standing agriculture tradition. Specific crops are cereals, vegetables, chicory, legumes, and beet. Specific livestock raised are pigs, sheep and cows. Many years ago, forestry and resin production were important economic resources too. There is some evidence of scattered Iron Age settlements in the upper ...