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*  Sepsis
PMC 3488423 . Ramachandran, G (January 2014). "Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial toxins in sepsis: A brief review". ... Infections leading to sepsis usually are bacterial, but may be fungal or viral. Gram positive bacteria was the cause of sepsis ... These mice were also found to be hypersusceptible to infection by gram-negative bacteria. These observations were finally ... Sepsis is caused by an immune response triggered by an infection. Most commonly, the infection is bacterial, but it may also be ...
*  Gram-negative bacterial infection
... refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E. coli. It is important ... Gardnerella is often considered gram-negative, but it is classified in MeSH as both gram-positive and gram-negative. It has ... August 2005). "Risk factors for Gram-negative bacterial infections in febrile neutropenia". Haematologica. 90 (8): 1102-9. PMID ... The gram status of some organisms is complex or disputed: Mycoplasma are sometimes considered gram-negative, but because of its ...
*  Hospital-acquired pneumonia
It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus. HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection (after ... Although gram-negative bacilli are a common cause they are rarely found in the respiratory tract of people without pneumonia, ... However, not all studies have found high rates of S. aureus and gram-negative bacteria. One factor responsible for these ... The majority of cases related to various rod shaped gram-negative organisms (52%) and Staphylococcus aureus (19%), usually of ...
*  Bacterial pneumonia
Other important Gram-positive causes of pneumonia are Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2) and Bacillus anthracis. Gram-negative ... Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection. Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either ... have atypical or absent cell wall structures and do not take up Gram stain in the same manner as gram-negative and gram- ... "bacterial pneumonia" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary "Bacterial Pneumonia". Lung Disease & Respiratory Health Center. WebMD. p ...
*  Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals
Active against a range of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, these agents are being developed as anti-infective medical ... Ceragenix's second platform technology addresses multidrug resistant bacterial and viral infections. The anti-infective ... occurring antimicrobial peptides which form part of the human immune system and early line of defense against bacterial, ...
*  Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria
Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (2008-02-01). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the emerging ... Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple ... "Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections in the Hospital Setting: Overview, Implications for Clinical Practice, ... there are a few antibiotics currently being studied and tested for the treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections ...
*  Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae
... which catalyzes one of the early steps of bacterial cell wall synthesis, and is effective against Gram-negative and -positive ... "Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Bloodstream Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacteria According to Carbapenem ... "Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens". Int J Med Microbiol. 300 (6): 371-9. doi: ... Gram-negative bacteria can develop and transfer β-lactam resistance (including carbapenem resistance) in many ways. They can ...
*  Colistin
The Revival of Polymyxins for the Management of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections". Rev Anti Infect Agen. ... the re-emerging antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections". Lancet Infect Dis. 6 (9): 589-601. doi: ... Colistin is effective against most Gram-negative bacilli. Colistin is a decades-old drug that fell out of favor in human ... Gram-negative cocci Helicobacter pylori Moraxella catarrhalis Morganella spp. Neisseria gonorrheae and Neisseria meningitidis ...
*  AOAH
"Host inactivation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide prevents prolonged tolerance following gram-negative bacterial infection". ... 2005). "Lipopolysaccharide deacylation by an endogenous lipase controls innate antibody responses to Gram-negative bacteria". ... 2011). "Prolonged hepatomegaly in mice that cannot inactivate bacterial endotoxin". Hepatology. 54: 1051-1062. doi:10.1002/hep. ... that gives them slow and inadequate responses to bacterial challenge. AOAH has been highly conserved through evolution; the ...
*  Lipopolysaccharide binding protein
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. ... 1997). "Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is required to combat a murine gram-negative bacterial infection". Nature. 389 (6652 ... "Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein and Phospholipid Transfer Protein Release Lipopolysaccharides from Gram-Negative Bacterial ... Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. Together with bactericidal ...
*  Garenoxacin
... (INN) is a quinolone antibiotic for the treatment of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. ...
*  Brilacidin
"ECCMID Presentation: Synthetic Novel Host Defense Protein Mimetics for the Treatment of Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections" ( ... "Synthetic novel host defense protein mimetics for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections". European Society of ... Brilacidin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has potent Gram positive activity and Gram negative coverage, and is highly effective ... Pre-clinical research has been shown select brilacidin analogs effective in killing a variety of important Gram-negative ...
*  Vaborbactam
When combined with an appropriate antibiotic it can be used for the treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. In the ... which are frequently used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections. Carbapenemases can be broadly ... is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. Carbapenemases are ...
*  Polymyxin
... are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. They work mostly by breaking up the bacterial cell membrane. ... Gram-negative bacteria can develop resistance to polymyxins through various modifications of the LPS structure that inhibit the ... After binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, polymyxins disrupt both the outer ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ...
*  Thrombocytopenia
... some research indicates that the most severe cases are related to fungal or gram-negative bacterial infection. The pathogen may ... systemic viral or bacterial infection Leptospirosis Hereditary syndromes Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia ... Other causes, such as alloimmunity, genetics, autoimmunity, and infection, are less frequent. Thrombocytopenia that starts ... In the case of infection, PCR tests may be useful for rapid pathogen identification and detection of antibiotic resistance ...
*  Cubist Pharmaceuticals
... its product pipeline focused on gram-negative bacterial infections, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and respiratory ... Donnelly, Julie M. (13 December 2011). "Cubist advances antibiotic for Gram-negative bacteria". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved ...
*  Ceftazidime/avibactam
... an evidence-based review of its pharmacology and potential use in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections". Core ... an evidence-based review of its pharmacology and potential use in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections". Core ... Increasing resistance to cephalosporins among Gram-(−) bacterial pathogens, especially among hospital-acquired infections, ... Ceftazidime/avibactam was developed for the treatment of certain multidrug-resistant Gram-(−) infections. Ceftazidime/avibactam ...
*  Cefacetrile
... is a broad-spectrum first generation cephalosporin antibiotic effective in gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections ... for respiratory infections (author's transl)". The Japanese journal of antibiotics. 33 (10): 1145-1155. PMID 7206219. ... and as Vetimast for the treatment of mammary infections in lactating cows. It was made by reacting 7-ACA (7- ...
*  Cefadroxil
... effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. It is a bactericidal antibiotic. Cefadroxil is a first- ... urinary tract infection, reproductive tract infection, and skin infections. Cefadroxil has a broad spectrum of activity and has ... and is used similarly in the treatment of mild to moderate susceptible infections such as the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes ... Given orally to animals, the amount is dependent on their weight and severity of infection. http://www.toku-e.com/Assets/MIC/ ...
*  Edobacomab
... mouse monoclonal antibody that was investigated as a possible treatment for sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterial infections ... August 1991). "A controlled clinical trial of E5 murine monoclonal IgM antibody to endotoxin in the treatment of gram-negative ... April 2000). "E5 murine monoclonal antiendotoxin antibody in gram-negative sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. E5 Study ...
*  Poultry farming
When a gram-negative bacterial infection is suspected in a patient, one of the first-line options for treatment is in the ... If bacterial levels in the poultry drinking water reach high levels, it can result in bacterial diarrhoea which can lead to ... However, for every gram of protein consumed, chickens yield only 0.33 g of edible protein. Changes in commodity prices for ... calves arriving at a feedlot in bad weather after a lengthy transport are at risk to develop bacterial respiratory infection. ...
*  Lipid A
When present in the body at high concentrations during a gram-negative bacterial infection, it may cause shock and death by an ... were in clinical trials for the prevention of harmful effects caused by gram-negative bacterial infections. However, trials ... They are being developed as drugs for the treatment of excessive inflammatory responses to infections with gram-negative ... sensing of lipid A by the human immune system may also be critical for the onset of immune responses to gram-negative infection ...
*  Arbekacin
... also holds promise as a treatment for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections such as multidrug- ... novel agent for treating infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative ... Energy is needed for aminoglycoside uptake into the bacterial cell. Anaerobes have less energy available for this uptake, so ... Aminoglycosides such as Arbekacin work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of tRNA which ...
*  Elizabethkingia meningoseptica
This bacterium is usually multiresistant to antibiotics typically prescribed for treating gram-negative bacterial infections, ... Automated bacterial identification system results should be observed with caution, especially when a patient with gram-negative ... Most of these are classic drugs for gram positive bacteria and not routinely tested on gram negative bacteria. Hypoalbuminemia ... Under a microscope, E. meningoseptica appear as slender, slightly-curved rods which are non-motile and are negative by Gram ...
*  Β-Lactamase inhibitor
The main classes of β-lactam antibiotics used to treat gram-negative bacterial infections include (in approximate order of ... Curello J, MacDougall C (2014). "Beyond Susceptible and Resistant, Part II: Treatment of Infections Due to Gram-Negative ... important use of beta-lactamase inhibitors is in the treatment of infections known or believed to be caused by gram-negative ... is undergoing Phase III clinical trials as a treatment for pneumonia and bacterial infections (as of March 1, 2016). Bacteria ...
*  New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
February 2010). "Acquired carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens: detection and surveillance issues". Clin. ... in December 2009 in a Swedish national who fell ill with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection that he acquired in India ... The most common bacteria that make this enzyme are gram-negative such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but the ... which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The gene for NDM-1 is one member of a ...
*  TLR4
... have been identified and for some of them an association with increased susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial infections or ... a component present in many Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. Neisseria spp.) and select Gram-positive bacteria. Its ligands also ... found in most gram-negative bacteria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with differences in LPS responsiveness. TLR4 ... "Relevance of mutations in the TLR4 receptor in patients with gram-negative septic shock". Archives of Internal Medicine. 162 (9 ...