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*  Protein metabolism
Positively charged side chains....... Arginine Histidine Lysine Negatively charged side chains Aspartic acid Glutamic acid ... and production of glucose or fat or other amino acids. This break-down of amino acids to α-keto acids occurs in the liver by a ... These amino acids are further broken down to α-keto acids which can be recycled in the body for generation of energy, ... Dietary proteins are first broken down to individual amino acids by various enzymes and hydrochloric acid present in the gastro ...
*  Excitotoxicity
Glutamatergic system Glutamic acid (flavor) NMDA receptor antagonist Jaiswal MK, Zech WD, Goos M, Leutbecher C, Ferri A, ... Dunlop, R.A., Cox, P.A., Banack, S.A., Rodgers, J.K. (2013). "The Non-Protein Amino Acid BMAA Is Misincorporated into Human ... Excitotoxins like NMDA and kainic acid which bind to these receptors, as well as pathologically high levels of glutamate, can ...
*  Stiff person syndrome
Patients with SPS generally have high amounts of high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody titers. About 80 percent of SPS ... causing a functional blockade with gamma-aminobutyric acid. This leads to GABA impairment, which probably causes the stiffness ...
*  Glutamic acid
He then patented a method of mass-producing a crystalline salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate. Glutamic acid is ... Glutamic acid is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. It is usually abbreviated as Glu or E in biochemistry. Its molecular ... Disodium glutamate Kainic acid Monosodium glutamate "L-Glutamic acid CAS#: 56-86-0". www.chemicalbook.com. Belitz, H.-D; Grosch ... Although they occur naturally in many foods, the flavor contributions made by glutamic acid and other amino acids were only ...
*  N-Methyl-L-glutamic acid
... (methylglutamate) is a chemical derivative of glutamic acid in which a methyl group has been added to ... It can also be demethylated by methylglutamate dehydrogenase to regenerate glutamic acid. Shaw, WV; Tsai, L; Stadtman, ER (1966 ... Biosynthetically, it is produced from methylamine and glutamic acid by the enzyme methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase. ... "The enzymatic synthesis of N-methylglutamic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 241 (4): 935-45. PMID 5905132. Hersh, ...
*  Metalloproteinase
... glutamic acid; M, metallo; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the ... The metal ion is held in place by amino acid ligands, usually three in number. The known metal ligands are His, Glu, Asp or Lys ... In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In many instances the ... amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. ...
*  Peptide synthesis
Glutamic Acid (Glun); (LysGlu)n) that is incorporated at the C-terminus of the peptide to induce an alpha-helix-like structure ... The Boc group is removed with acid, such as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). This forms a positively charged amino group in the ... A typical coupling reaction with these amino acids are performed at lower temperatures than the other 18 natural amino acids. A ... Each amino acid to be coupled to the peptide chain N-terminus must be protected on its N-terminus and side chain using ...
*  5-aminovalerate transaminase
delta-Aminovaleric acid-glutamic acid transaminase". J. Biochem. Tokyo. 48 (3): 412-420. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal ...
*  1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase
Strecker HJ (1960). "The interconversion of glutamic acid proline. III Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J. ... pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase, L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase, and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ ...
*  Glutamate 5-kinase
A proline-inhibitable glutamic acid kinase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 192 (3): 462-7. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(69)90395-x. PMID ...
*  Glutamate racemase
Glaser L (1960). "Glutamic acid racemase from Lactobacillus arabinosus". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2095-8. PMID 13828348. Molecular ... or 4-substituted D-glutamic acid analogs bearing aryl-, heteroaryl-, cinnamyl-, or biaryl-methyl substituents that would also ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on amino acids and ... Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (19): 5567-76. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl704. PMC 1635304 . PMID 17020913. Sengupta S, Nagaraja V (February 2008 ...
*  Calcium caseinate
... glutamic acid. Its main food uses are for powders requiring rapid dispersion into water, such as coffee creamers & instant ... At neutral or acid pH, casein is relatively insoluble in water, and is easily separated from other milk proteins, sugars and ... thus supplying the body with a sustained amino acid release. Mead Johnson introduced a product in the early 1920s named Casec ...
*  Lactase
LPH contains two catalytic glutamic acid sites. In the human enzyme, the lactase activity has been connected to Glu-1749, while ... It can be divided into five domains: (i) a 19-amino-acid cleaved signal sequence; (ii) a large prosequence domain that is not ... The removal of the D-glucose leaving group may be facilitated by Mg-dependent acid catalysis. The enzyme is liberated from the ... "Re: GRAS Notification for Acid Lactase from Aspergillus oryzae Expressed in Aspergillus niger". United States Food and Drug ...
*  Satoyoshi syndrome
"Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in Satoyoshi syndrome". Ann. Neurol. 55 (3): 450-1. doi:10.1002/ana.20007. PMID 14991831 ...
*  Acrylonitrile
... or glutamic acid (which can itself be produced from renewable feedstocks). The lignocellulosic route involves fermentation of ... "Biobased synthesis of acrylonitrile from glutamic acid". Green Chemistry. 13 (4): 807. doi:10.1039/c0gc00805b. ISSN 1463-9262 ... The glutamic route employs oxidative decarboxylation to 3-cyanopropanoic, followed by a decarbonylation-elimination to ... The reactants pass through the reactor only once, before being quenched in aqueous sulfuric acid. Excess propylene, carbon ...
*  Corynebacterium
Species of Corynebacterium have been used in the mass production of various amino acids including glutamic acid, a food ... One of the most studied species is C. glutamicum, whose name refers to its capacity to produce glutamic acid in aerobic ... Abe, Shigeo; Takayama, KEN-Ichiro; Kinoshita, Shukuo (1967). "Taxonomical Studies on Glutamic Acid-Producing Bacteria". The ... Cooper, D. G.; Zajic, J. E.; Gracey, D. E. (1979). "Analysis of corynomycolic acids and other fatty acids produced by ...
*  B vitamins
Vitamin B11: pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid (PHGA; chick growth factor). Vitamin Bc-conjugate was also found to be identical to ... 457.100 Pangamic Acid and Pangamic Acid Products Unsafe for Food and Drug Use". Compliance Policy Guidance Manual. US Food and ... Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. University of Bristol (2002). "Pantothenic Acid ... Vitamin B15: pangamic acid, also known as pangamate. Promoted in various forms as a dietary supplement and drug; considered ...
*  Glutamate (neurotransmitter)
Glutamic acid has been implicated in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous ... In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells ... leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization.[citation needed] Glutamate functions as a neurotransmitter in ... because it can be synthesized from alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, which is produced as part of the citric acid cycle by a series of ...
*  Autoimmune encephalitis
Solimena, M (1988). "Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in a patient with stiff-man syndrome, epilepsy, and type I ... "Non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies". Journal of Neuroimmunology ... "Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies". JAMA Neurology. 72 (8): 874-881. doi:10.1001 ... Marked recovery in 50%. Anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)are a subgroup of ionotropic ...
*  Wernicke's encephalopathy
Production of neurotransmitters including glutamic acid and GABA. Lipid metabolism, necessary for myelin production. Amino acid ... Other supplements may also be needed, including: cobalamin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, nicotinamide, zinc, phosphorus ( ... Lourenço R, Camilo ME (2002). "Taurine: a conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease" (PDF ...
*  Industrial fermentation
Kinoshita, S; Udaka, S; Shimono, M (Dec 2004). "Studies on the amino acid fermentation. Part 1. Production of L-glutamic acid ... Some examples of primary metabolites are ethanol, citric acid, glutamic acid, lysine, vitamins and polysaccharides. Some ... Citric acid is produced by some strains of Aspergillus niger as part of the citric acid cycle to acidify their environment and ... Some commodity chemicals, such as acetic acid, citric acid, and ethanol are made by fermentation. The rate of fermentation ...
*  ICA1
"Entrez Gene: ICA1 islet cell autoantigen 1, 69kDa". Nepom GT (1996). "Glutamic acid decarboxylase and other autoantigens in ...
*  Food microbiology
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) produced by various strains of Bacillus has potential applications as a thickener in the food ... ISBN 978-1-904455-36-3. Shih & Wu (2009). "Biosynthesis and Application of Poly(gamma-glutamic acid)". Microbial Production of ... Certain bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are used to make yogurt, cheese, hot sauce, pickles, fermented sausages and ... Various kits are commercially available to help in food pathogen nucleic acids extraction, PCR detection, and differentiation. ...
*  GAD1
The enzyme encoded is responsible for catalyzing the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamic acid. A pathogenic ... Giorda R, Peakman M, Tan KC, Vergani D, Trucco M (1991). "Glutamic acid decarboxylase expression in islets and brain". Lancet. ... Chessler SD, Lernmark A (2000). "Alternative splicing of GAD67 results in the synthesis of a third form of glutamic-acid ... Flace P, Benagiano V, Lorusso L, Girolamo F, Rizzi A, Virgintino D, Roncali L, Ambrosi G (2004). "Glutamic acid decarboxylase ...
*  Promethazine
... with glutamic acid as Psico-Soma, and Psicosoma; with noscapine as Tussisedal; and with chlorpromazine as Vegetamin. In 2009, ...
*  List of food additives
Glutamic acid - flavor enhancer Gluten - Glycerin - humectant, sweetener Glycerol - Glycerol ester of wood rosin - emulsifier ... Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. Acidity regulators ... Citranaxanthin - color Citric acid - food acid Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Citrus ... Phosphated distarch phosphate - thickener, vegetable gum Phosphoric acid - food acid Phytic acid - preservative Pigment Rubine ...
*  Disodium guanylate
As it is a fairly expensive additive, it is not used independently of glutamic acid; if disodium guanylate is present in a list ... It is commonly used in conjunction with glutamic acid. ... it is likely that glutamic acid is provided as part of another ...