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*  Glutamate dehydrogenase
Mutations alter the allosteric binding site of GTP cause permanent activation of glutamate dehydrogenase lead to disorder known ... In humans the relevant genes are called GLUD1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) and GLUD2 (glutamate dehydrogenase 2), and there are ... Typically, the α-ketoglutarate to glutamate reaction does not occur in mammals, as glutamate dehydrogenase equilibrium favours ... α-ketoglutarate to glutamate). In bacteria, the ammonia is assimilated to amino acids via glutamate and aminotransferases. In ...
*  Glutamate receptor
... may be partially due to glutamate binding NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors. In vitro spinal cord cultures with glutamate ... Glutamate binding to the extracellular region of an mGluR causes G proteins bound to the intracellular region to be ... Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) form the ion channel pore that activates when glutamate binds to the receptor. ... By regulating the drugs which interact with those glutamate receptors, regulating glutamate binding may be possible, and ...
*  Excitotoxicity
Excitotoxins like NMDA and kainic acid which bind to these receptors, as well as pathologically high levels of glutamate, can ... The Na+-glutamate transporters on neurons and astrocytes can reverse their glutamate transport and start secreting glutamate at ... Common excitotoxins include glutamate analogs that mimic the action of glutamate at glutamate receptors, including AMPA and ... that glutamate agonists were as neurotoxic as their efficiency to activate glutamate receptors, and that glutamate antagonists ...
*  Glutamine synthetase
ATP binds first to the top of the active site near a cation binding site, while glutamate binds near the second cation binding ... and serine bind to the glutamate substrate site. GDP, AMP, ADP bind to the ATP site. L-serine, L-alanine, and glycine bind to ... ATP binds to the top of the bifunnel that opens to the external surface of GS. Glutamate binds at the bottom of the active site ... Inhibitors: Methionine Sulfoximine (MSO): MSO is an inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Bound to GS, MSO is ...
*  Metaplasticity
... but they both bind glutamate. When a glutamatergic synapse releases glutamate it binds to any AMPA and the NMDA receptors ... Glutamate binds two main receptor types: AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs). These are named after drugs that ... Gliotransmitters include glutamate, ATP, and, more recently, the amino acid D-serine. Once thought to be glycine itself, D- ... In a nutshell the NMDA receptors evoke a response in the cell only when sufficient glutamate has been transmitted to cause that ...
*  GRINA
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate-associated protein 1 (glutamate binding) is a protein in humans that is ... Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate-associated protein 1 (glutamate binding)". Retrieved 2013-07-08. ...
*  Lactoylglutathione lyase
... binds two waters, two opposite glutamates, a histidine and one other sidechain, usually another histidine or glutamates. When ... This is believed to result from the two glutamates bound oppositely on the metal ion; either one is able to carry out the first ... Most enzymes prefer to bind one particular type of metal, and their catalytic activity depends on having bound that metal. For ... The two opposing glutamates add and subtract protons from C1 and C2 and their respective oxygens, O1 and O2. The first half of ...
*  Glutamate flavoring
Free glutamate is metabolized differently from glutamate bound in protein, so they are listed separately. Hydrolyzed proteins, ... glutamate (E620) Monopotassium glutamate (E622) Calcium glutamate (E623) Monoammonium glutamate (E624) Magnesium glutamate ( ... of the naturally-predominant L-glutamate form, which is a higher proportion of L-glutamate than found in the free glutamate ... Glutamate flavoring is a generic name for flavor-enhancing compounds based on glutamic acid and its salts (glutamates). These ...
*  Long-term depression
When glutamate binds to the AMPA receptor, the membrane depolarizes. Glutamate binding to the metabotropic receptor activates ... Activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors, which belong to a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), is required ... In one pathway, parallel fiber terminals release glutamate to activate AMPA and metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ... the most common neurotransmitter involved in LTD is L-glutamate. L-glutamate acts on the N-methyl-D- asparate receptors (NMDARs ...
*  TFAP4
1996). "Localization of a gene for a glutamate binding subunit of a NMDA receptor (GRINA) to 8q24". Genomics. 32 (1): 131-3. ... King-Jones K, Korge G, Lehmann M (1999). "The helix-loop-helix proteins dAP-4 and daughterless bind both in vitro and in vivo ... Transcription factor AP4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which bind to the E-box ... Mermod N, Williams TJ, Tjian R (1988). "Enhancer binding factors AP-4 and AP-1 act in concert to activate SV40 late ...
*  AMPA receptor
Glutamate binds to postsynaptic AMPARs and another glutamate receptor, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Ligand binding causes the ... Each AMPAR has four sites to which an agonist (such as glutamate) can bind, one for each subunit. The binding site is believed ... All AMPARs contain PDZ-binding domains, but which PDZ domain they bind to differs. For example, GluA1 binds to SAP97 through ... The first key step in the process following glutamate binding to NMDARs is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and ...
*  NMDA receptor
NR1 subunits bind the co-agonist glycine and NR2 subunits bind the neurotransmitter glutamate. The agonist-binding module links ... Activation of the receptor depends on glutamate binding, D-serine or glycine binding at its NR1-linked binding site and AMPA ... The glycine-binding modules of the NR1 and NR3 subunits and the glutamate-binding module of the NR2A subunit have been ... The NMDA receptor is a glutamate and ion channel protein receptor that is activated when glycine and glutamate bind to it. The ...
*  Taste
Glutamate binds to a variant of G protein coupled glutamate receptors. It is thought that the amino acid L-glutamate bonds to a ... Glutamic acid binds to a variant of the G protein-coupled receptor, producing a savory taste. The tongue can also feel other ... Monosodium Glutamate: The molecule that enhances taste in food Pio Monti. chm.bris.ac.uk Ikeda K (November 2002). "New ... The main form of fat that is commonly ingested is triglycerides, which are composed of three fatty acids bound together. In ...
*  NMDA receptor antagonist
To remain open, glutamate and glycine must bind to the NMDA receptor. An NMDA receptor that has glycine and glutamate bound to ... which bind to and block the binding site of the neurotransmitter glutamate; glycine antagonists, which bind to and block the ... Aptiganel (Cerestat, CNS-1102): binds the Mg2+ binding site within the channel of the NMDA receptor. HU-211: an enantiomer of ... Khan MJ, Seidman MD, Quirk WS, Shivapuja BG (2000). "Effects of kynurenic acid as a glutamate receptor antagonist in the guinea ...
*  4-Chlorokynurenine
... analysis of the glutamate binding site on the NR2B subunit". Neuron. 18 (3): 493-503. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81249-0. PMID ... Gerhard, DM; Wohleb, ES; Duman, RS (March 2016). "Emerging treatment mechanisms for depression: focus on glutamate and synaptic ... Flight, Monica Hoyos (29 November 2013). "Trial watch: Phase II boost for glutamate-targeted antidepressants". Nature Reviews ...
*  AP5
Analysis of the glutamate binding site on the NR2B subunit". Neuron 18 (3): 493-503. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81249-0. PMID ... glutamate) binding site of NMDA receptors. AP5 blocks NMDA receptors in micromolar concentrations (~50 µM). AP5 blocks the ... It is useful to isolate the action of other glutamate receptors in the brain, i.e., AMPA and kainate receptors. AP5 can block ...
*  Kainic acid
Kainate receptors likely control a sodium channel that produces excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) when glutamate binds ... Glutamate is produced by the cell's metabolic processes and there are four major classifications of glutamate receptors: NMDA ... Kainic acid is a potent neuroexcitatory amino acid agonist that acts by activating receptors for glutamate, the principal ... Kainic acid is an agonist for kainate receptors, a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor. ...
*  Lithium aspartate
"Structural features of the glutamate binding site in recombinant NR1/NR2A N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors determined by site- ...
*  Testis-enhanced gene transfer family
These proteins are distantly related to the ionotropic glutamate-binding protein of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor of ... the putative glutamate/aspartate binding proteins of plants and animals, the YccA protein of Escherichia coli and the YetJ ... and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glutamate binding chain, respectively. Two others are the rat neural membrane protein 35 ...
*  AP-7 (drug)
AP-7 is a selective NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist that competitively inhibits the glutamate binding site and thus activation ... These excitatory glutamate receptors work with the inhibitory GABA receptors to achieve equilibrium in the DPAG of the brain. ...
*  LTP induction
Following the presynaptic release of the glutamate that binds to and opens the AMPAR, the NMDAR also binds this glutamate and ... Magnesium has access to this binding site only when the NMDAR channel is opened by glutamate binding, a so-called open channel ... The AMPAR, upon binding two glutamate molecules, undergoes a conformational change that resembles the opening of a clam shell. ... The lifetime of the glutamate in the synaptic cleft is too short to allow more than a brief opening of the AMPAR channel, thus ...
*  Silent synapse
When glutamate binds to a strongly-depolarized postsynaptic cell (e.g., during Hebbian LTP), Ca2+ quickly enters and binds to ... binding to glutamate receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. There are four subtypes of glutamate receptors: AMPA receptors ( ... When glutamate binds to AMPARs located on the postsynaptic membrane, they permit a mixed flow of Na+ and K+ to cross the cells ... Normally, current will not flow through the NMDAR channel, even when it has bound glutamate. This is because the ion channel ...
*  Ligand-gated ion channel
In addition to the binding of glutamate at the conventional agonist-binding site, the binding of glycine appears to be required ... The ionotropic glutamate receptors bind the neurotransmitter glutamate. They form tetramers with each subunit consisting of an ... Each subunit of the tetramer has a binding site for glutamate formed by the two LBD sections forming a clamshell like shape. ... At resting potentials, the binding of Mg2+ or Zn2+ at their extracellular binding sites on the receptor blocks ion flux through ...
*  Phenylalanine
L-phenylalanine is a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site of NMDA receptor and at the glutamate binding site of ... At the glycine binding site of NMDA receptor L-phenylalanine has an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (KB) of 573 µM ... Christianson DW, Mangani S, Shoham G, Lipscomb WN (August 1989). "Binding of D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine to carboxypeptidase ...
*  Cadherin-catenin complex in learning and memory
When the glutamate receptor binding protein ABP and p120ctn are co-expressed, anti-p120ctn serum pulls out a complex containing ... For example, the cadherin-α-catenin complex binds the actin cytoskeleton, though whether it binds via binding proteins or ... Glutamate binding to NMDA upregulates the production of N-cadherin's intracellular domain peptide, N-cad/CTF2, an effect ... In homodimeric form, α-catenins do not bind β- catenins, but preferentially bind F-actin and other proteins promoting F-actin ...
*  5-Methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase
... the N-terminal barrel binds 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltri-L-glutamic acid and the C-terminal barrel binds homocysteine. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltri-L-glutamate:L-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. Other ... tetrahydropteroyltri-L-glutamate + L-methionine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltri-L- ... glutamate and L-homocysteine, whereas its two products are tetrahydropteroyltri-L-glutamate and L-methionine. This enzyme ...
*  Median preoptic nucleus
Thus, glutamate bound to receptors is necessary for the activation of these neurons in the median preoptic nucleus and the ... Prostaglandin E2 binds to E3 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus to inhibit their activity and cause fever. This means ... This was confirmed by the use of a glutamate receptor antagonist in the PVN, which inhibited this response as a result of the ... Kolaj, M., & Renaud, L. P. (2010). Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Median Preoptic Neurons modulate Neuronal Excitability ...