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*  ATP-binding cassette transporter
... different types of drugs can be used or the ABC transporters themselves must be inhibited. For other types of drugs to work ... "Crystal structures of the ATPase subunit of the glucose ABC transporter from Sulfolobus solfataricus: nucleotide-free and ... ABC-type uptake permeases 3.A.1.1 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1 (CUT1) 3.A.1.2 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-2 (CUT2) 3.A ... Methionine Uptake Transporter (MUT) 2.A.52 Nickel/Cobalt Uptake Transporter (NiCoT) 3.A.1.106 Lipid Exporter (LipidE) ABC-type ...
*  Glucose transporter
GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they ... Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. ... Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, ... Thorens B (1996). "Glucose transporters in the regulation of intestinal, renal, and liver glucose fluxes". Am. J. Physiol. 270 ...
*  Epigenetics of physical exercise
Additionally, exercise also increases expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), which will also help with diabetes ... Type I fibers are slow twitch, endurance fibers. This data agrees with human data that says the amount of type I fibers is ... Individuals with type II diabetes have hypermethylation of several genes within the muscle, like peroxisome proliferator- ... It also suggested that the amount of type 1 fibers is correlated with a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that is involved in ...
*  STX10
... has been implicated in endosome to Golgi trafficking of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor and glucose transporter type 4. ... 22 (4): 313-25. doi:10.1080/09687860500143829. PMID 16154903. Mallard F, Tang BL, Galli T, Tenza D, Saint-Pol A, Yue X, Antony ...
*  GLUT4
Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a ... GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. The ... GLUT4, however, is still believed to be the primary transporter for glucose. Much like in other tissues, GLUT4 also responds to ... In order to increase glucose levels in the cell, GLUT4 is the primary transporter used in this facilitated diffusion. Although ...
*  Major facilitator superfamily
These include a fungal phosphate transporter PiPT, plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1, and the human glucose transporter GLUT1. ... Atypical MFS Transporter Families), suggesting there are at least 64 different families including SLC proteins of MFS type. Pao ... Deng D, Xu C, Sun P, Wu J, Yan C, Hu M, Yan N (June 2014). "Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1". Nature. ... Pascual JM, Wang D, Lecumberri B, Yang H, Mao X, Yang R, De Vivo DC (May 2004). "GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter ...
*  Glucose uptake
There are two types of secondary active transporter found within the kidney tubule; close to the glomerulus, where glucose ... There are over 10 different types of glucose transporters; however, the most significant for study are GLUT1-4. GLUT1 and GLUT3 ... rate of glucose entry is proportional to blood glucose levels. GLUT4 transporters are insulin sensitive, and are found in ... glucose reenters the bloodstream through facilitated diffusion through GLUT2 transporters. Hence reabsorption of glucose is ...
*  Insulin resistance
Glucose transporter type 4) on the membrane of the cell decreases somewhat. In the presence of a higher than usual level of ... Commonly used tracers are 3-3H glucose (radioactive), 6,6 2H-glucose (stable) and 1-13C Glucose (stable). Prior to beginning ... glucose concentrations increase. Eventually, type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes occurs when glucose levels become ... absorb glucose, and thereby lower the blood glucose level. The beta cells reduce insulin output as the blood glucose level ...
*  Nutriepigenomics
... glucose transporter (GLUT)-4, POMC, 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and corticotrophin releasing hormone. Epigenetic ... Type I diabetes mellitus. A chronic autoimmune disease. N Engl J Med. 1986 May 22;314(21):1360-8 doi:10.1056/ ... Altered glucose utilization was detected in the grand-offspring of maternal rats fed a PR-diet during pregnancy and lactation, ... Offspring that were exposed to a high-fat or high-caloric maternal diet had increased levels of insulin, glucose and leptin. It ...
*  GLUT1
GeneReviews/NIH/UW entry on Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome Glucose Transporter Type 1 at the US National ... The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is ... Glucose transporter 1 (or GLUT1), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1), is ... Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate about 50,000 times ...
*  Human T-lymphotropic virus 2
HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1. HTLV-II has not been clearly linked to any disease ... Roucoux DF, Murphy EL (2004). "The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II". AIDS Rev. 6 (3): ... Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ... November 2008). "Long-term increases in lymphocytes and platelets in human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection". Blood. 112 ...
*  SLC37A4
1999). "Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) gene in patients with glycogen storage diseases type 1b and 1c ... 1999). "Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (9): ... 1999). "Glycogen storage disease type Ib: structural and mutational analysis of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter ... 1999). "The putative glucose 6-phosphate translocase gene is mutated in essentially all cases of glycogen storage disease type ...
*  Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase A
"Dietary and genetic control of glucose transporter 2 glycosylation promotes insulin secretion in suppressing diabetes". Cell. ... It has been proposed that the MGAT4A isoenzyme acts as a toggle for developing of type 2 diabetes. Mice that lack MGAT4A are ... If this mechanism also operates in human islets, MGAT4A may represent a link between type 2 diabetes and high-fat diet. GRCh38 ... Thorens B (Apr 2006). "A toggle for type 2 diabetes?". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (15): 1636-8. doi:10.1056/ ...
*  Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a ... The most widespread genotype is type A. Types B, D, E, F and G have only been isolated from Central Africa. Type C is only ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma ... a glucose transporter, on target cells. HTLV-1 is also associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and has been quite well ...
*  Metabolism
Bouché C, Serdy S, Kahn C, Goldfine A (2004). "The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes". Endocr Rev. ... Metal micronutrients are taken up into organisms by specific transporters and bind to storage proteins such as ferritin or ... Reaction centers are classed into two types depending on the type of photosynthetic pigment present, with most photosynthetic ... Three types of photosynthesis occur in plants, C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation and CAM photosynthesis. These differ by ...
*  Blood-brain barrier
"Facilitated glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome: impaired glucose transport into brain-a review". ... Genetic defects in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) appears to be the primary cause of De Vivo disease. Some evidence ... including carrier-mediated transporters such as glucose and amino acid carriers; receptor-mediated transcytosis for insulin or ... "GLUT1 deficiency and other glucose transporter diseases". European Journal of Endocrinology. 150 (5): 627-33. doi:10.1530/eje. ...
*  SLC2A10
2001). "Sequence and functional analysis of GLUT10: a glucose transporter in the Type 2 diabetes-linked region of chromosome ... 2003). "Genetic variation of the GLUT10 glucose transporter (SLC2A10) and relationships to type 2 diabetes and intermediary ... SLC2A10 is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family, which plays a significant role in maintaining glucose ... Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A10 gene. ...
*  HK3
"Expression of hexokinases and glucose transporters in treated and untreated oesophageal adenocarcinoma". Histology and ... lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase, and granulin precursor with the N-terminal half of type III hexokinase". Archives of ... By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy ... Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. ...
*  SLC2A14
... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A14 gene. Members of the glucose ... GLUTs show tissue and cell-type specific expression. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173262 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ... facilitated glucose transporter), member 14". Retrieved 2011-10-23. Wu X, Freeze HH (December 2002). "GLUT14, a duplicon of ... are highly conserved integral membrane proteins that transport hexoses such as glucose and fructose into all mammalian cells. ...
*  Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase
Presumably, it is due to PMCA proximity to glucose transporters in the plasma membrane. The structure of the PMCA is similar to ... PMCA types 2 and 3 are activated more quickly and are, therefore, better suited to excitable cell types such as those in ... Thus the activities of the two types of pump complement each other. The PMCA functions in a similar manner to other p-type ion ... PMCA types 1, 2, and 4 have been found in glial cells called astrocytes in mammals, though it was previously thought that only ...
*  GalP (protein)
GLUT-1 acts as a facilitative transporter of glucose, transporter glucose along its concentration gradient. When glucose binds ... certain tissue types express this transporter more so than others. GLUT-1 is expressed in high levels on erythrocytes, ... Olson, A.L., and Pessin, J.E. (1996). Structure, function, and regulation of the mammalian facilitative glucose transporter ... GalP is homologous to GLUT-1 found in mammalian cells (12). Both transporters are MFS transporters and possess 29% sequence ...
*  Microcephaly
... errors of metabolism Congenital disorder of glycosylation Mitochondrial disorders Peroxisomal disorder Glucose transporter ... Microcephaly is a type of cephalic disorder. It has been classified in two types based on the onset: Isolated Familial ( ... gene defects Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome Seckel syndrome Cornelia de Lange syndrome Holoprosencephaly Primary microcephaly 4 ...
*  Glycogen storage disease type XI
January 2002). "The mutation spectrum of the facilitative glucose transporter gene SLC2A2 (GLUT2) in patients with Fanconi- ... It is associated with GLUT2, a glucose transport protein which, when functioning normally, allows glucose to exit several ... Glycogen storage disease type XI is a form of glycogen storage disease. It is also known as "Fanconi-Bickel syndrome", for ... Santer R, Steinmann B, Schaub J (March 2002). "Fanconi-Bickel syndrome--a congenital defect of facilitative glucose transport ...
*  Symporter
... a type of cotransporter. The transporter is called a symporter, because the molecules will travel in the same direction in ... If this symporter did not exist, individual sodium channels and glucose uniporters would not be able to transfer glucose ... A symporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the ... This is in contrast to the antiport transporter. Typically, the ion(s) will move down the electrochemical gradient, allowing ...
*  MAPK8IP1
This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription ... This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 ... 2000). "The gene MAPK8IP1, encoding islet-brain-1, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes". Nat. Genet. 24 (3): 291-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 7 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146 . PMID 9110174. Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, Tournier C, et al. (1998). "A ...
*  Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Legan M (August 2010). "Cyclooxygenase-2, p53 and glucose transporter-1 as predictors of malignancy in the development of ... Consequently, inhibiting PTGS2 (COX-2) may have benefit in the prevention and treatment of these types of cancer. COX-2 ... 73 (3-4): 141-62. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2005.05.002. PMID 16005201. Wang Q1, He Y, Shen Y, Zhang Q, Chen D, Zuo C, Qin J, Wang H ... 20 (4): 1267-74. PMID 16136507. Brueggemeier RW, Díaz-Cruz ES (March 2006). "Relationship between aromatase and cyclooxygenases ...
*  Ataxia
... glucose transporter type 1 deficiency, episodic ataxia type 2, gluten ataxia, glutamic acid decarboxylase ataxia. The movement ... Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis) will cause the type of ... The three types of ataxia have overlapping causes, and therefore can either coexist or occur in isolation. ... Spinal disorders of various types may cause sensory ataxia from the lesioned level below, when they involve the dorsal columns ...